1 Samuel 19

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1 Samuel 19

Post by Ethan » Tue Oct 15, 2019 4:30 pm

1 Samuel 19:13
Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.

1 Samuel 19:16
When the messengers were come in, behold, there was an image in the bed, with a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster.

The Antiquities of the Jews, 6.217
So she let him down by a cord out of the window, and saved him: and after she had done so, she fitted up a bed for him as if he were sick, and put under the bed-clothes a goat’s liver (ἧπαρ αἰγός) and when her father, as soon as it was day, sent to seize David, she said to those that were there, That he had not been well that night, and showed them the bed covered, and made them believe, by the leaping of the liver, which caused the bed-clothes to move also, that David breathed like one that was asthmatic.

1 Samuel 19:13; כביר העזים (Sept. ἧπαρ τῶν αἰγῶν)
1 Samuel 19:16; כביר העזים (Sept. ἧπαρ τῶν αἰγῶν)

The Greek word for liver is irregular, ἧπαρ, ἥπατος/כביר, כבד, that may explain the translation, Josephus also reads ἧπαρ for כביר,, thus his source was probably the Septuagint and the same source materials used by the authors of the New Testament that also rely on it.

1 Samuel 19:13
ותקח מיכל את־התרפים ותשם אל־המטה ואת כביר העזים שמה מראשתיו ותכס בבגד
καὶ ἔλαβεν ἡ Μελχολ τὰ κενοτάφια καὶ ἔθετο ἐπὶ τὴν κλίνην καὶ ἧπαρ τῶν αἰγῶν ἔθετο πρὸς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐκάλυψεν αὐτὰ ἱματίῳ
Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth

Josephus 6.217
ἔπειτα σκευάσασα τὴν κλίνην ὡς ἐπὶ νοσοῦντι καὶ ὑποθεῖσα τοῖς ἐπιβολαίοις ἧπαρ αἰγός, ἅμ᾽ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ πατρὸς ὡς αὐτὴν πέμψαντος ἐπὶ τὸν Δαυίδην ὠχλῆσθαι διὰ τῆς νυκτὸς εἶπε τοῖς παροῦσιν ἐπιδείξασα τὴν κλίνην κατακεκαλυμμένην καὶ τῷ πηδήματι τοῦ ἥπατος σαλεύοντι τὴν ἐπιβολὴν πιστωσαμένη τὸ κατακείμενον τὸν Δαυίδην ἀσθμαίνειν.

ἐπιβολαίοις; covering, wrapper, garment (מספחה/πτύγμα)

This word appears twice in the Septuagint, in Ezekiel 13:18, 21 translating מספחה (micpachah), this is a verb with the מ־/μα-. Hence the meaning is through πτύγμα (ptúgma) 'anything folded, a folded mantle.

Josephus does not mention the את־התרפים (tĕraphiym), the Septuagint as κενοτάφια 'empty-tomb' but the cognitive reading is τούς τρίποδας 'three-legged' or τᾶς τραπέζᾶς. - Plutarch, Brutus 13:4 ' to share thy bed and board (μεθέξουσα καί τραπέζης μόνον)

אל־המטה is another word in מ־/μα- , from στρῶμα 'anything spread or laid out for lying or sitting upon, mattress, bed, in pl. the bedclothes, the coverings of a dinner-couch'.

אל־המטה = ἐπὶ τό στρῶμα 'upon the bed'
כביר = ὑπηρέσιον 'cushion on a rower's bench, riding-pad or saddle-cloth'
מראשתי = ὑπὸ κράατος 'under his head'
ותכס is the verb form that roots מספחה/πτύγμα, this is ἐπτύξατο 'to fold up garments, Mid. to fold round oneself, wrap round'
בבגד = en togātīs, ἐν ἱματίοις 'Toga, outer garment'
עזים = αἰγίδες 'goatskin, worn as a dress, the skin shield of Zeus

מיכל in written Μελχολ in the Septuagint, מיכל can translate into δύναμις, although name resembles Ἀμφιθέα (Amphithea) and Ἡμιθέα (Hemithea), another is ἀμφιθαλής (amfithalís)

In 2 Samuel 17:20, מיכל is a brook, the Septuagint reads μικρός "small, little" (μικκός, σμικρός), perhaps means ἀμφίαλος (מיכל) 'of two seas, sea-girt, freq. of Ithaca, of Lemnos,of Corinth.

מיכל/μικκύλος (Dim. of μικρός) "Smallness"

In 1 Samuel 14:49, Michal (מיכל) is the youngest daughter.
הקטנה means ἃ ἐλάχιστα, sub of ἐλάχεια, ἐλάσσων (ων-/מ־)

τυτθός; little, small, young
ἠβαιός; small
ὀλίγος; little, small
παῦρος; little, small
μικρός, μικκύλος, σμικρός Small
βραχύς; of Size, short, small
παιδάριον; little boy or girl > Καισαρίων (Caesarion)
παιδαριώδης; childish, puerile > Καισαρ (Caesar)
φαῦλος; small, simple, ordinary, of persons, low in rank, mean, common
ἀίτας; beloved youth, favourite, a lover > Saul

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