Hagarism

Discussion about the Quran, hadith, the history of Islam, etc.
ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 12:14 pm

The Arab calendar starts with the year 622 AD, so that year must be of significance to the Arabs. That's probably the year they started to become independent from the Byzantines and Sassanids. In 622 Byzantine emperor Herakleios/Heraclius won a battle against the Sassanids. I think the Byzantines were weakened because of their wars against the Sassanids. Maybe the Byzantines and Arabs had negotiations that made the Arabs more autonomous/independent.

It's possible there were other factors, such as the ones you mentioned.

There was probably no one defending North Africa, so the Ummayads just took advantage of the opportunity.

I think it has to do with the wars between Byzantines and Sassanids:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine ... anian_wars

Clive
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Re: Hagarism

Post by Clive » Mon Aug 25, 2014 12:49 pm

Maybe the equivalent of 622 is very important.

Holland discuses a receipt that looks like it has an arabic date on it.

But does it?

A monk worked out 1 AD centuries later. Might something similar have happened?

Has anyone actually looked carefully at the dating system? Maybe it does not track back, and was started years later at 101 or something?
"We cannot slaughter each other out of the human impasse"

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 1:48 pm

I don't know what document Holland talks about. Please give more details if you can.

I see there's a Wikipedia page about Heraclius's 622 battle:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclius ... ign_of_622

That battle seems to be important to the Arabs' independence.

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 2:13 pm

http://www.roman-empire.net/articles/article-012.html
The Persian Wars of Heraclius
II. The Dragon shows his teeth

The first Campaign (622)

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 2:18 pm

http://www.neobyzantine.org/byzantium/e ... heraclius/
Heraclius
In 622, clad as a penitent and bearing a sacred image of the Virgin, he left Constantinople, as prayers rose from its many sanctuaries for victory over the Persian Zoroastrians, the recovery of the Cross, and the reconquest of Jerusalem. He was, in effect, leading the first crusade. Indeed, in the ensuing hostilities, a pious poet contrasted the dancing girls in the Persian general's tent with the psalm singers in the Emperor's. In a brilliant campaign, he manoeuvred the Persians out of Anatolia and suggested a truce to the Persian monarch. This offer Khosrow II contemptuously rejected, referring to himself as beloved by the gods and master of the world, to Heraclius as his abject and imbecilic slave, and to Christ as incapable of saving the empire. Mindful of the propagandistic value of Khosrow's response, Heraclius made it public.

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 2:22 pm

http://www.luc.edu/roman-emperors/heraclis.htm
Heraclius
In the spring of 622, Heraclius left Constantinople for Asia Minor and began training his troops over the summer, focusing on a more involved role for the Byantine cavalry.

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 3:38 pm


ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 3:48 pm

http://www.sasanika.org/sasanika-resour ... i-591-628/
Xusro II (591-628)
After the sack and later execution of the Roman Emperor, Maurice, in 602 by the new emperor Phokas, Xusrō II found the excuse he was looking for to attack Roman territories. First he took Roman Armenia, and later Syria was taken by his generals, Šīhīn and Šahrwarīz, in 604 CE. Palestine was taken in 614 and Egypt in 619 CE. The Sasanian army went as far as Libya and finally Anatolia was taken between 619 and 622. The Iranian success came to an end in 624 when the new Roman Emperor Heraclius attacked by the way of the Black Sea and Armenia, scoring important victories in Anatolia and Armenia. The Sasanian sacred temple of Adur Gušnasp was burned as a response to Xusrō II removing the true cross from Jerusalem. The humiliated king was eventually deposed in 628 by the nobility including his son Šērōe, Kawīd II, and was later executed after a trial.

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 4:48 pm

http://historiarex.com/e/en/245-the-byz ... ar-602-628
The Byzantine-Sassanid War (602-628)
By 622, he was ready and marched from the city, leaving his son, Heraclius Constantine in charge as regent. Heraclius was considered a very able military leader and demonstrated it by moving his army to Cappadocia, in between the Sāssānid army and its capital of Ctesiphon; thereby cutting off Shahrbaraz's supply lines and communications with the empire. Shahrbaraz had no choice but to turn back and attack Heraclius.

ghost
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Re: Hagarism

Post by ghost » Mon Aug 25, 2014 4:59 pm

This has to do with how the Byzantines withdrew:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monothelitism

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