When considering the list of twelve disciples in Mark I am not convinced that behind that list are twelve names.
 And he appointed twelve, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach
 and have authority to cast out demons:
 Simon whom he surnamed Peter;
 James the of Zeb'edee and John the brother of James, whom he surnamed Bo-aner'ges, that is, sons of thunder;
 Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean,
 and Judas Iscariot, who delivers him.
Simon, James and John I think are likely to be historical as they go back to Jewish names – Shimon, Jacob and Jonah. Andrew is more problematic as far as I can tell it is a Greek name for “manly” and might therefore be Greek for a Jewish name meaning man such as Gibbar, but it only appearances once in the Old Testament (Ezra 2:20) or Gideon. Apart from the disciple lists Andrew appears in the call of Peter (Mk 1:16), the healing of the mother-in-law of Simon Peter (Mk 1:29), and the introduction to Mark’s Apocalype (13:3).
Philip is another Greek name, which means “horse-loving” or “noble”. He may have been named after Philip the Tetrarch (4 BCE to 34 CE), son of Herod the Great.
Bartholomew is mentioned in Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Luke 6:14, and in Acts 1:13.
According to Catholic Encyclopedia (Bartholomew),
The name (Bartholomaios) means "son of Talmai" (or Tholmai) which was an ancient Hebrew name. It shows, at least, that Bartholomew was of Hebrew descent; it may have been his genuine proper name or simply added to distinguish him as the son of Talmai.
Pantænus Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180. The probable date of his death would be about 200.
Origen (185 - c. 254)
No mention of St. Bartholomew occurs in ecclesiastical literature before Eusebius, who mentions that Pantaenus, the master of Origen, while evangelizing India, was told that the Apostle Bartholomew had preached there before him and had given to his converts the Gospel of St. Matthew written in Hebrew, which was still treasured by the Church. "India" was a name covering a very wide area, including even Arabia Felix. Other traditions represent St. Bartholomew as preaching in Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, Armenia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and on the shores of the Black Sea.
The manner of his death, said to have occurred at Albanopolis in Armenia, is equally uncertain; according to some, he was beheaded, according to others, flayed alive and crucified, head downward, by order of Astyages, for having converted his brother, Polymius, King of Armenia.
As nothing is really know about someone call Bartholomew it should be discounted as a name and seen as “son of Talmai", and this applies to Philip.
Matthew is Greek for Matityahu (also the name of leader of the Maccabee revolt c 167 BCE), but Thomas is Greek for twin, so Matthew could have been called "the twin".
James of Alphaeus can be seen as Jacob the successor from Alphaeus or Alphoeus a Hebrew name meaning successor, which of course leads us back to the Catholic belief that this James is the same one as Paul calls "the brother of the Lord”
Thaddaeus which is said to come from the Aramaic name Taddai meaning “courageous heart”. Simon the Canannaean can be seen as Shimon the Zealot. Judas Iscariot is likely to have been a name created by the early Church. It has been suggested that the earliest traditions about Jesus’ death have him delivered by God and according to God’s plan (Acts 2:23) and later a human was created to deliver Jesus up. Judas comes from Judah the southern Jewish kingdom and the area which includes Jerusalem. Many different possibilities have have advanced for where Iscariot came from – a Hebrew word meaning “liar or false one”, an Aramaic word meaning “to deliver”, a word creation meaning “the congested” or “choked”.
Therefore if we accept that Judas Iscariot is a creation of the early church, instead of twelve disciples there are only nine –
Shimon the Rock
Jacob the thunderous
Jonah the thunderous
Gibbar or Gideon
Philip son of Talmai
Matityahu the twin
Jacob the successor
Shimon the Zealot.