Wiki EarlyChristian writings Missing from our Forum'sWebsite

Discussion about the New Testament, apocrypha, gnostics, church fathers, Christian origins, historical Jesus or otherwise, etc.
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Wiki EarlyChristian writings Missing from our Forum'sWebsite

Post by rakovsky » Wed Dec 07, 2016 9:45 am

See my posts below for works in the list in Wikipedia of Christian apocryphal books (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testament_apocrypha) that are not on the Early Writings website (http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/index.html)

Checklist of First Century works:

Canonical
30-160 New Testament


Extra-canonical, Deuterocanonical

50-120 Didache
80-120 Epistle of Barnabas
(Clement Alexandrine & Origen used it, Jerome considered its authorship genuine & Eusebius didn't, Vulgate used it as apocryphal)
80-140 1 Clement
90-218 4 Esdras (Vulgate) / 2 Esdras (Protestant) / 3 Esdras (Slavic) including Chp 7 w/ NSRV verses 35-105
95-160 2 Clement (Part of Alexandrian Codex; Eusebius doubted its authorial authenticity)
100-150 Apocalypse of Peter (Most of it extant. Muratorian canon has it but says some ban it from reading in church, Accepted by Clement Alexandrine, not counted genuine by Eusebius)
100-160 Shepherd of Hermas (included in Codex Sinaiticus; Muratorian fragment says it "ought indeed to be read; but it cannot be read publicly"; Clement Alexandrine uses it but notes "many people despise it")

Fragmentary, Status Unknown, or Acceptance Varied
50-140 Oxyrhynchus 1224 Gospel (maybe part of the Gospel of Peter)
50-140 Gospel of Thomas (Hippolytus and Cyril of Jerusalem rejected it as gnostic; scholars debate if it was)
1st-4th c. Epistle to the Laodiceans (Maybe multiple versions eg. Paul's vs. Marcion's; Vulgate version: Apocryphal in Vulgate Bibles, St. Gregory the Great accepted it, Jerome said "All reject it")
70-120 Egerton Gospel (could be fragments from a rejected gospel that we only have in fragments like g.Peter)
70-200 Fayyum Fragment (too short to tell what writing it belongs to)
c. 79 Sator Arepa Tenet Opera Rotas Puzzle (used in medieval Christianity; Scholars propose Mithraic, Christian, Saturnalian, or Jewish origins)
80-150 Gospel of the Hebrews (Fragments. Used by Origen, Jerome, Didymus Blind, Papias, Hegesippus; rejected by Pseudo-Cyril Jerusalemite & Philip Sidetes as heretical)
93 Flavius Josephus (Likely a Christian sympathizer; Origen labeled Josephus nonChristian; Some Greek Orthodox Bibles included Josephus' writings; Eisenman and W. Whiston considered him Christian, most scholars don't)(Researched & read church fathers' mentions of Josephus: http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/josephus/josephus.htm)
------ Wars of the Jews
------ Antiquities of the Jews (contains passages on John the Baptist, James, Jesus) (Completed Bks 1-3; Bk 4:Chp 1)
------ Autobiography
------ Against Apion
100-150 Preaching of Peter (Fragmentary. Accepted by Clement Alexandrine, not counted as genuine by Eusebius)
100-160 Gospel/Traditions of Matthias (EW dates it to 110-160 ntcanon.org/Traditions_of_Matthias.shtml dates it to 100-150)(Clement Alexandrine respects it & Codex Baroccianus lists it as canonical; Eusebius & Gelasian Decree consider it heretical)
100-400 Gospel of Bartholomew / The Questions of Bartholomew (maybe the same work. Rejected by Gelasian Decree. Not sure what heresy, if any, it falls under)

Likely Christian influenced works about the OT period but not in Biblical apocryphas.
Early 1st to late 5th c. Lives of the Prophets (Was widespread in mainstream Church)
1st to 2nd c. Testament of Abraham (once widespread among Christians)
1st to early 3rd c. Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah (Apostolic Constitutions consider it apocryphal, Numerous translations suggest widespread use; some scholars find it Docetic)
1st c. - 300 3 Baruch (Origen could have cited it)
1st c. -300 4 Baruch
(part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible)
70-200 Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Has Qumranite themes; St.Athanasius lists it among Apocrypha; 17th c. Armenian Bible apocrypha)
100-200 Odes of Solomon (quoted by Lactantius, 6th c. Synopsis Sacrae Scripture says it's read to catechumens)
2nd-3rd c. Testament of Jacob (Egyptian Jewish or Coptic; once widespread among Christians)
100-400 Testament of Isaac (Egyptian Jewish or Coptic; once widespread among Christians)
100-400 Testament of Adam (maybe gnostic or Encratitic. Differs from canonical story, making Cain's jealousy to be over his sister)
100-400 Hellenistic Synagogal Prayers (from J. Charlesworth, "The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha"; From Books 7-8 of Apostolic Constitutions)
100-500 Apocalypse of Sedrach (EJW synopsis dates it to 150 AD or later)
100-900 Greek Apocalypse of Ezra
(referred to in the Canon of Nicephorus c. 850 AD; Many writers date it as 150 or later)

Messianic Jewish/Judaizers

100-160 Gospel of the Nazarenes/Nazoreans (Torah-observant, theologically orthodox Christian Nazarene sect; Jerome used it; 7th c. Trullo council banned Christians from praying in synagogues)
100-160 Gospel of the Ebionites / ?-250 Gospel of the Twelve (Origen calls Gosp.Twelve heretical, Jerome calls it the same as the Ebionites' gospel)

Celibate / Encratitic?
80-150 Gospel of the Egyptians (Clement Alexandrine quoted it as having real Jesus sayings, Origen called it heretical)

Docetic (eg. Jesus only appeared to suffer)
70-160 Gospel of Peter (Including P.Oxy 4009 and P.Oxy. 2949. Rejected by Serapion Antiochene, Eusebius, & Philip Sidetes)

Gnostic
50-150 Apocalypse of Adam (IMO it's Sethian Christian gnostic)
50-150 Eugnostos the Blessed (Nag Hammadi)
50-200 Sophia of Jesus Christ (Nag Hammadi)
100-150 Apocryphon(Secret Book) of James (Nag Hammadi. Work supports James & Peter but dissents from other disciples. Cerinthian? Cerinthus the gnost required Torah observance & conflicted w St.John who was 1 of 3 church pillars)
100-200 Gospel of Eve (used by Borborite sect)
100-230 Thunder, Perfect Mind
100-300 Coptic Apocalypse of Peter / "Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter"(Wikipedia dates it to 100-200 AD. What dating is best?)

NonChristian Jews writing on Christianity
70-100 Birkat Ha Minim by Shmuel ha-Katan (A story on its background is in Talmud Bab. B'rakhot 28b-29a & Talmud Jer. Ber. 4:3, 8a)

Pagans writing on Christianity
23-79 Pliny the Elder (remarks about the tetrarchy of the Nazareans)
Phlegon (on the eclipse http://www.textexcavation.com/testimonia.html)
Thallus (on the eclipse http://www.textexcavation.com/thallustestimonium.html)

Seneca
------ On Anger http://www.textexcavation.com/seneca.html (maybe not about Jesus?)
------ Correspondence with Paul (scholars commonly consider it fictional)

73-200 Mara Bar Serapion
80-135 Epictetus on the Galileans (Discourses of Epictetus, https://books.google.com/books?id=aKsLA ... ns&f=false; Pagan Rome and the Early Christians by Stephen Benko https://books.google.com/books?id=LHHxk ... ns&f=false ; Peter Oakes, “Epictetus (and the New Testament),” https://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/vox/ ... _oakes.pdf )
80-250 Christian Sibyllines (May include Christians writing texts in the pagan oracle genre)

Likely modern forgeries
70-1973 Secret Mark

Entries in bold I researched and read in connection with this thread
Entries in red I would add to the Early Christian Writings list (Most of them are already in the Jewish writings section)
(For Christian writings about the OT period, consider 1. Ascertain dating. 2. Christian authorship vs. interpolations)

*Eusebius on Preaching of Peter, https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf20 ... i.iii.html ; on his classification of books, http://www.ntcanon.org/Eusebius.shtml

Miscellaneous: Scholars consider the Christian version of the Apocalypse of Elijah to be a 3rd-4th c. AD work that is a revision of an earlier nonChristian work. I couldn't find any scholars proposing that the 1st-2nd c. AD document was Christian.
Church figures, besides the Bible's ascribed authors, who reached adulthood in the 1st c. AD:
Thomas
Nicodemus
P.Clement of Rome (d. 99 AD)
Barnabas
Hermas
Bp. Ignatius Antiochene (35-108)
Polycarp (69-155)
Papias (70-163)
Bp. Dionysius the Areopagite, 1st. Bp of Athens (some pseudographical writings were ascribed to him some centuries later)
Quadratus of Athens (-129), wrote an "Apologia" to Hadrian c.124-125
Aristides of Athens ( -134)

Sectarians outside the mainstream Church
Cerinthus (gnostic opponent of St. John active in c. 100)
Simon Magus
Menander
Am I missing any?

The bishops of Antioch after Peter were Evodius (d.66 AD) and Ignatius(lived 35-108). Not much seems written of Evodius. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evodius

Rome's popes after Peter were Linus (d.76 AD), Anacletus/Cletus (d.92), Clement (d.99), Evaristus/Aristus (d. 107)
Clement was author of 1 Clement. Not much seems written of the authors. (See eg. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Linus)

Alexandria's Patriarchs were: Mark the Evangelist (d.68), Ananius (d.83), Avilius (d.95), Kedron (d. 106)
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Ania ... Alexandria , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Avil ... Alexandria)

Jerusalem's Patriarch after James' death in c.62-70 AD was Simeon I (.d 107 or 117). There is confusion over which and how many bishops Jerusalem had between then and the Bar Kokhba revolt of 135 AD, since the bishops listed could have been serving concurrently in that church. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simeon_of_Jerusalem)

The first bishop of Athens is sometimes listed as Hierotheos the Thesmothete, after whom came Dionysius the Areopagite (d. c.96), after which there was no bp until 117.

The bishop of Gaul before Ireneus was Pothinus (~87 AD - ~177 AD) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Pothinus)

I can't find a list of bishops for Damascus, except that maybe Ananius was one. He met Paul in Acts, and I wonder if he is the person who with his wife died later after Peter denounced them (although that would seem unlikely considering the place of honor Acts otherwise gives him). (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananias_of_Damascus)

For Corinth, Saint Apollo of Ephesus AKA Apollos (mentioned in the NT) is considered the first bishop. Others sometimes considered to be 1st c. bishops are Silas, Onesiphorus, Sosthenes.

For Ephesus, St. Timothy, Onesimus (.d c. AD 68), Gaius (d.97) are considered the first c. bishops.

In Libya, Lucius of Cyrene is considered the first bishop. This could be St. Luke. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_of_Cyrene

For Crete, Titus is considered the first bishop (died 96 or 107)

For Caesarea, Zaccheus (the publican in the NT) is considered the first bishop.

In Pannonia (northern Yugoslavia, west Hungary), Andronicus preached, but there are not many records.
The bishop of Malta was Publius, who was transferred to Athens in 90 and d. 125.
For Edessa, there are apocryphal stories about Thaddeus, King Abgar, and the Mandylion (maybe Turin shroud).
For Britain, the apostle Aristobulus was the first bishop, while stories about Joseph of Arimathea are apocryphal.
For India, there are stories about Thomas, which have some credibility, as Christianity seems planted there already in the 2nd-3rd c.
For Cyprus and Provence (France) there are stories that Lazarus (from the NT) became a 1st c. bishop. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazarus_of_Bethany). Another is that Barnabas founded the church there.
For Galatia, Crescens is considered a 1st c. bishop in the 4th c. Apostolic Constitutions.
For Carthage, Crescens or Epenetus of Carthage could the first c. bishop.

There is so little written by or about these 1st c. figures that comes from the 1st to 2nd c. AD. But we know that they played a big role in establishing a serious religious community across the Mediterranean.

Apostolic communities divided by Rite:

West Syriac
Syriac OO
India - Knanaya & Nasrani (They copy Syriac OO's rite)
Lebanon - Maronites

Byzantine Rite
Antiochian EO
Jerusalem
Greece
Bulgaria
Romania.
Georgia
Serbia/Illyria.

East Syriac
Edessa/The East Syrians/Church of the East

Coptic
Egypt - Semitic language, rite is influenced by Byzantines and Syriacs
Ethiopia

Armenia

Latin
Rome - Tridentine
Spain
Gallican (has a mix of Eastern and Roman features)
England
Last edited by rakovsky on Tue Oct 17, 2017 5:24 pm, edited 411 times in total.

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Re: Does our forum's website have these earlyChristian writi

Post by iskander » Wed Dec 07, 2016 9:54 am

rakovsky wrote:Has anyone ever looked at the list in Wikipedia of Christian apocryphal books:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testament_apocrypha

And tried to compare the list with those on the Early Writings website:
http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/index.html
What do you think is missing in our list?

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Re: Does our forum's website have these earlyChristian writi

Post by rakovsky » Wed Dec 07, 2016 12:06 pm

The Early Writings website lists the Coptic Apocalypse of Peter (200-300 A.D.)
I think that this is the "Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter" from the Nag Hammadi library that Wikipedia dates to 100-200 AD.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnostic_A ... e_of_Peter)
Which date do you think is right?

Others I didn't see on the list:

Gospel of Cerinthus (c.100 AD or earlier)

This can be a shorter version of the lost "Gospel of the Hebrews"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_of_Cerinthus

The Apocalypse of Stephen was upheld by the Manicheans and written against by Serapion of Thmuis (c. 335 AD)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocalypse_of_Stephen
http://www.gnosis.org/library/revstev.htm

The Gospel of Bartholomew was known by Jerome (c. 4th cent. AD)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_of_Bartholomew
The Questions of Bartholomew could be the same work.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Questions_of_Bartholomew
www.brepolsonline.net/doi/abs/10.1484/J.APOCRA.5.103628
S. Pelle, 2014

The Questions of Bartholomew, originally composed in Greek probably between the second and fourth centuries
The Resurrection of Jesus Christ could be the same work too.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrect ... rtholomew)
I wonder what the date was for that work?

I haven't looked at the Acts section on Wikipedia's Apocrypha list.
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Re: Does our forum's website have these earlyChristian writi

Post by Peter Kirby » Wed Dec 07, 2016 1:41 pm

To be remembered is that Early Christian Writings is deliberately chronological. The upper bound is AD 325.
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Re: Does our forum's website have these earlyChristian writi

Post by rakovsky » Wed Dec 07, 2016 2:07 pm

Peter Kirby wrote:To be remembered is that Early Christian Writings is deliberately chronological. The upper bound is AD 325.
Yes. Please note in what I listed above:
rakovsky wrote: "Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter" from the Nag Hammadi library that Wikipedia dates to 100-200 AD.

Gospel of Cerinthus (c.100 AD or earlier)

The Apocalypse of Stephen was upheld by the Manicheans and written against by Serapion of Thmuis (c. 335 AD) (So it must have been written earlier, eg. 100-300 AD)

The Gospel of Bartholomew was commented by St. Jerome ( so it must have been written earlier, eg. 100-300 AD)
The Questions of Bartholomew could be the same work.
composed in Greek probably between the second and fourth centuries
The Resurrection of Jesus Christ could be the same work. (so it could be 100 AD)
May I ask if you have ascertained more concrete dates?

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Re: Does our forum's website have these earlyChristian writi

Post by rakovsky » Wed Dec 07, 2016 3:05 pm

As for the Epistles that aren't in the Early Christian Writing list, the Wikipedia apocryphal list also includes:

The Apocryphon of James, which it dates to 100 - 313 AD.[/size]
It shows no dependence on canonical texts, and was probably written in the first half of the 2nd century.[1] It has Gnostic affinities but cannot be attributed to any Gnostic sect, and some scholars rule that it is not Gnostic at all. ... Because of references to persecution and martyrdom, it is unlikely that the text was written after 313, when Constantine I ended Christian persecution. Other clues in the text point to a composition in the 2nd century, and perhaps in the first half.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocryphon_of_James


Epistle of Pseudo-Titus (c. 5th c.?)
The epistle is classified under the Apocryphal New Testament and survives only in the Codex Burchardi, an eighth-century Latin manuscript, discovered in 1896 among the homilies of Caesarius of Arles.[2][3] The Latin epistle contains many solecisms which originated with an author who lacked proficiency with Latin and Greek.[4] The origins of the epistle remain unclear, however, it contains strong features of encratism[5](which was condemned by Paul in his writings to Saint Timothy)[6] and may have connections with the Priscillianist movement in fifth century Spain.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle_of_Pseudo-Titus

This sounds like it was probably written in Aramaic or Coptic.

That leaves the Acts section
Last edited by rakovsky on Wed Dec 07, 2016 3:29 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Wiki Early Christian writings not on the Forum's Website

Post by rakovsky » Wed Dec 07, 2016 3:21 pm

The Acts missing are:

The Acts of Paul and Thecla (late 1st to 2nd c. AD)
It is attested no later than Tertullian, De baptismo 17:5 (c 190), who tells a presbyter from Asia wrote the History of Paul and Thecla, and was deposed by John the Apostle after confessing the forgery.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Paul_and_Thecla

The Acts of Peter and Andrew (3rd c.)
is a short 3rd-century text from the New Testament apocrypha, not to be confused with either the Acts of Andrew or the Acts of Peter.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Peter_and_Andrew

The Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca (third or fourth century.)

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Re: Wiki Early Christian writings not on the Forum's Website

Post by Ben C. Smith » Wed Dec 07, 2016 3:57 pm

rakovsky wrote:The Acts missing are:

The Acts of Paul and Thecla (late 1st to 2nd c. AD)
It is attested no later than Tertullian, De baptismo 17:5 (c 190), who tells a presbyter from Asia wrote the History of Paul and Thecla, and was deposed by John the Apostle after confessing the forgery.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acts_of_Paul_and_Thecla
The Acts of Paul and Thecla are there; they are included in the Acts of Paul: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/actspaul.html.
rakovsky wrote:Others I didn't see on the list:

Gospel of Cerinthus (c.100 AD or earlier)

This can be a shorter version of the lost "Gospel of the Hebrews"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_of_Cerinthus
The gospel of Cerinthus is, according to the very source (Epiphanius) whence we learn of its existence, the same as the gospel of the Ebionites, which is on the list: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/g ... nites.html.
rakovsky wrote:As for the Epistles that aren't in the Early Christian Writing list, the Wikipedia apocryphal list also includes:

The Apocryphon of James, which it dates to 100 - 313 AD.[/size]
It shows no dependence on canonical texts, and was probably written in the first half of the 2nd century.[1] It has Gnostic affinities but cannot be attributed to any Gnostic sect, and some scholars rule that it is not Gnostic at all. ... Because of references to persecution and martyrdom, it is unlikely that the text was written after 313, when Constantine I ended Christian persecution. Other clues in the text point to a composition in the 2nd century, and perhaps in the first half.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocryphon_of_James
The Apocryphon of James is also known as the Secret Book of James, which is on the list: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/secretjames.html.
Epistle of Pseudo-Titus (c. 5th c.?)
Too late for a list ending in 325.
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Re: Wiki EarlyChristian writings Missing from our Forum'sWeb

Post by rakovsky » Wed Dec 07, 2016 4:39 pm

Thanks. What would say about the others I listed like the gospel of Bartholomew and what date range would you give to the gnostic apocalypse of Peter and the apocalypse of stephen?

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Re: Wiki EarlyChristian writings Missing from our Forum'sWeb

Post by Peter Kirby » Thu Dec 08, 2016 11:32 am

Peter Kirby wrote:To be remembered is that Early Christian Writings is deliberately chronological. The upper bound is AD 325.
Yes. Please note in what I listed above:
I wasn't finding fault with you. The statement was not criticism.

These, at least, seem to be good candidates for inclusion:
  • Apocalypse of Stephen
  • The Acts of Andrew and Matthias
  • The Acts of Peter and Andrew
  • The Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca
These are questionable/uncertain candidates for inclusion (I am willing to be persuaded that one or more of these three should be included on the site):
  • Questions of Bartholomew
  • Gospel of Bartholomew
  • Resurrection of Jesus Christ (by Bartholomew)
These are too late for inclusion, at this time. (When and if the date range is expanded again, it should be done consistently.)
  • Epistle of Pseudo-Titus
These are already included.
  • Gospel of Cerinthus (Gospel of the Ebionites)
  • Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter (Coptic Apocalypse of Peter)
  • Apocryphon of James (Secret James)
  • Acts of Paul and Thecla (Acts of Paul)
Please let me know if anything else comes to your attention.
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