Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

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Ben C. Smith
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Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Sun Oct 22, 2017 4:54 pm

On the thread about the reception history of the NT books the question came up of whether or not Justin Martyr knew the epistles of Paul. I had a text file with a few notes on this topic already drawn up, so I thought I might go ahead and complete the thought and put it on the forum.

On the one hand, if our information about Justin, Marcion, and Paul is even slightly correct, it seems impossible for Justin not to have at least known about the Pauline epistles, since Justin writes about Marcion (and is said by Irenaeus to have written a takedown piece on him) and Marcion is said by various fathers to have published a version of the Pauline corpus with 10 letters:

Justin Martyr, 1 Apology 26.1-7: 1 And, thirdly, because after Christ's ascension into heaven the devils put forward certain men who said that they themselves were gods; and they were not only not persecuted by you, but even deemed worthy of honors. 2 There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitto, who in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him. He was considered a god, and as a god was honored by you with a statue, which statue was erected on the river Tiber, between the two bridges, and bore this inscription, in the language of Rome:-- "Simoni Deo Sancto," "To Simon the holy God." 3 And almost all the Samaritans, and a few even of other nations, worship him, and acknowledge him as the first god; and a woman, Helena, who went about with him at that time, and had formerly been a prostitute, they say is the first idea generated by him. 4 And a man, Meander, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparetaea, a disciple of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he was in Antioch by his magical art. He persuaded those who adhered to him that they should never die, and even now there are some living who hold this opinion of his. 5 And there is Marcion, a man of Pontus, who is even at this day alive, and teaching his disciples to believe in some other god greater than the Creator. And he, by the aid of the devils, has caused many of every nation to speak blasphemies, and to deny that God is the maker of this universe, and to assert that some other being, greater than He, has done greater works. 6 All who take their opinions from these men, are, as we before said, called Christians; just as also those who do not agree with the philosophers in their doctrines, have yet in common with them the name of philosophers given to them. 7 And whether they perpetrate those fabulous and shameful deeds--the upsetting of the lamp, and promiscuous intercourse, and eating human flesh--we know not; but we do know that they are neither persecuted nor put to death by you, at least on account of their opinions. But I have a treatise against all the heresies that have existed already composed, which, if you wish to read it, I will give you.

Justin Martyr, 1 Apology 58.1-2: 1 And, as we said before, the devils put forward Marcion of Pontus, who is even now teaching men to deny that God is the maker of all things in heaven and on earth, and that the Christ predicted by the prophets is His Son, and preaches another god besides the Creator of all, and likewise another son. 2 And this man many have believed, as if he alone knew the truth, and laugh at us, though they have no proof of what they say, but are carried away irrationally as lambs by a wolf, and become the prey of atheistical doctrines, and of devils.

Irenaeus, Against Heresies 4.6.2: 2 .... In his book against Marcion, Justin does well say: "I would not have believed the Lord Himself, if He had announced any other than He who is our framer, maker, and nourisher. But because the only-begotten Son came to us from the one God, who both made this world and formed us, and contains and administers all things, summing up His own handiwork in Himself, my faith towards Him is steadfast, and my love to the Father immovable, God bestowing both upon us."

But, of course, just because Justin virtually had to have known (of) the Pauline epistles does not necessarily mean that he thought of them as authoritative. Perhaps they were considered a purely Marcionite property, or at least tainted by Marcion too much to touch. Whatever the case, in his extant writings Justin never explicitly mentions the apostle Paul. (It must be remembered, though, that we do not have his book against Marcion, referenced by Irenaeus.)

Justin does, however, quote the Hebrew scriptures (in Greek) in ways reminiscent of what we find in the Pauline epistles, especially Romans and Galatians. Quite a few times they quote the same exact verses. Various scholars have used this overlap to demonstrate that Justin at various junctures was really quoting from the Pauline epistles rather than directly from the scriptures (presumably the LXX). One such scholar is Seth Ehorn in his dissertation, The Citation of Psalm 68[67].19 in Ephesians 4.8 Within the Context of Early Christian Uses of the Psalms. I take the following examples from pages 80-104.

1.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 27.3: 3 καὶ γὰρ αἱ θυγατέρες Σιὼν ἐπορεύθησαν ἐν ὑψηλῷ τραχήλῳ, καὶ ἐν νεύμασιν ὀφθαλμῶν ἅμα παίζουσαι καὶ σύρουσαι τοὺς χιτῶνας. καὶ πάντες γὰρ ἐξέκλιναν, βοᾷ, πάντες ἄρα ἠχρειώθησαν· οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ συνίων, οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός. ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν, τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν, σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν, καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν. / 3 'For the daughters of Zion have walked with a high neck, both sporting by winking with their eyes, and sweeping along their dresses. For they are all gone aside,' He exclaims, 'they are all become useless. There is none that understands, there is not so much as one. With their tongues they have practised deceit, their throat is an open sepulchre, the poison of asps is under their lips, destruction and misery are in their paths, and the way of peace they have not known.'

Romans 3.10-18: 10 As it is written,
"There is none righteous, not even one;
11 There is none who understands,
There is none who seeks for God;
12 All have turned aside, together they have become useless;
There is none who does good,
There is not even one.
13 Their throat is an open grave,
With their tongues they keep deceiving,
The poison of asps is under their lips;
14 Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness;
15 Their feet are swift to shed blood,
16 Destruction and misery are in their paths,
17 And the path of peace they have not known.
18 There is no fear of God before their eyes."

The catena in Romans draws from quite a few scriptures, and so does Justin.

Only Justin quotes the following:

Isaiah 3.16-17:

16 Moreover, the Lord said, "Because the daughters of Zion are proud
And walk with heads held high and seductive eyes,
And go along with mincing steps
And tinkle the bangles on their feet,
17 Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs,
And the Lord will make their foreheads bare."

However, both Paul and Justin quote from the following:

Psalm 14.1-3 (LXX 13.1-3):

1 The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God."
They are corrupt, they have committed abominable deeds;
There is no one who does good.
2 The Lord has looked down from heaven upon the sons of men
To see if there are any who understand,
Who seek after God.
3 They have all turned aside, together they have become corrupt;
There is no one who does good, not even one.

The LXX Version! This obviously incorporates Romans 3.10-18: 1 The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God." They have corrupted themselves, and become abominable in their devices; there is none that does goodness, there is not even so much as one. 2 The Lord looked down from heaven upon the sons of men, to see if there were any that understood, or sought after god. 3 They are all gone out of the way, they are together become good for nothing, there is none that does good, no not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet are swift to shed blood: destruction and misery are in their ways; and the way of peace they have not known: there is no fear of God before their eyes.

Psalm 53.1-3 (LXX 52.1-3):

1 The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God,"
They are corrupt, and have committed abominable injustice;
There is no one who does good.
2 God has looked down from heaven upon the sons of men
To see if there is anyone who understands,
Who seeks after God.
3 Every one of them has turned aside; together they have become corrupt;
There is no one who does good, not even one.

Psalm 5.9 (LXX 5.10):

9 There is nothing reliable in what they say;
Their inward part is destruction itself.
Their throat is an open grave;
They flatter with their tongue.

Psalm 140.3 (LXX 139.4):

3 They sharpen their tongues as a serpent;
Poison of a viper is under their lips.

Psalm 10.7 (LXX 9.28):

7 His mouth is full of curses and deceit and oppression;
Under his tongue is mischief and wickedness.

Isaiah 59.7-8:

7 Their feet run to evil,
And they hasten to shed innocent blood;
Their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity,
Devastation and destruction are in their highways.
8 They do not know the way of peace,
And there is no justice in their tracks;
They have made their paths crooked,
Whoever treads on them does not know peace.

Only Paul quotes from the following:

Psalm 36.1 (LXX 35.1):

1 Transgression speaks to the ungodly within his heart;
There is no fear of God before his eyes.

Romans 3.10-18 is unattested as either present or absent in the Marcionite version of the epistle. But the selection of scriptural texts here seems too great to chalk up to coincidence.

2.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 42.1-2: 1 Ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ δώδεκα κώδωνας ἐξῆφθαι τοῦ ποδήρους τοῦ ἀρχιερέως παραδεδόσθαι τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τῶν ἐξαφθέντων ἀπὸ τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ αἰωνίου ἱερέως Χριστοῦ, δι' ὧν τῆς φωνῆς ἡ πᾶσα γῆ τῆς δόξης καὶ χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ ἐπληρώθη, σύμβολον ἦν. διὸ καὶ ὁ Δαυεὶδ λέγει· Εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος αὐτῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης τὰ ῥήματα αὐτῶν. 2 καὶ ὁ Ἠσαίας ὡς ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν ἀποστόλων, λεγόντων τῷ Χριστῷ ὅτι οὐχὶ τῇ ἀκοῇ αὐτῶν πιστεύουσιν ἀλλὰ τῇ αὐτοῦ τοῦ πέμψαντος αὐτοὺς δυνάμει, διὸ λέγει οὕτως· Κύριε, τίς ἐπίστευσε τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν; καὶ ὁ βραχίων κυρίου τίνι ἀπεκαλύφθη; ἀνηγγείλαμεν ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ ὡς παιδίον, ὡς ῥίζα ἐν γῇ διψώσῃ, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς τῆς προφητείας προλελεγμένα. / 1 "Moreover, the prescription that twelve bells be attached to the [robe] of the high priest, which hung down to the feet, was a symbol of the twelve apostles, who depend on the power of Christ, the eternal Priest; and through their voice it is that all the earth has been filled with the glory and grace of God and of His Christ. Wherefore David also says: 'Their sound has gone forth into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.' 2 And Isaiah speaks as if he were personating the apostles, when they say to Christ that they believe not in their own report, but in the power of Him who sent them. And so he says: 'Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? We have preached before Him as if [He were] a child, as if a root in a dry ground.' (And what follows in order of the prophecy already quoted.)

Romans 10.16-18: 16 However, they did not all heed the good news; for Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report?" 17 So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ. 18 But I say, surely they have never heard, have they? Indeed they have; "Their voice has gone out into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world."

Both Justin and Paul combine texts from Isaiah and from the Psalms in a similar manner:

Isaiah 53.1:

1 Who has believed our message?
And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?

Psalm 19.4:

4 Their line has gone out through all the earth,
And their utterances to the end of the world.
In them He has placed a tent for the sun....

Romans 10.16-18 is attested as absent from the Marcionite version.

3.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 39.1: 1 Καὶ οὐδὲν θαυμαστόν, ἐπεῖπον, εἰ καὶ ἡμᾶς μισεῖτε, τοὺς ταῦτα νοοῦντας καὶ ἐλέγχοντας ὑμῶν τὴν ἀεὶ σκληροκάρδιον γνώμην. καὶ γὰρ Ἠλίας περὶ ὑμῶν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἐντυγχάνων οὕτως λέγει· Κύριε, τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν καὶ τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν· κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην μόνος, καὶ ζητοῦσι τὴν ψυχήν μου. καὶ ἀποκρίνεται αὐτῷ· Ἔτι εἰσί μοι ἑπτακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες, οἳ οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ. / 1 "Now it is not surprising," I continued, "that you hate us who hold these opinions, and convict you of a continual hardness of heart. For indeed Elijah, conversing with God concerning you, speaks thus: 'Lord, they have slain Thy prophets, and digged down Thine altars: and I am left alone, and they seek my life.' And He answers him: 'I have still seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.'"

Romans 11.3-4: 3 "Lord, they have killed Your prophets, they have torn down Your altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my life." 4 But what is the divine response to him? "I have kept for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal." / 3 κύριε, τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν, τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν, κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην μόνος καὶ ζητοῦσιν τὴν ψυχήν μου. 4 ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός; κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ.

Both Justin and Paul draw from the same verses about Elijah:

1 Kings 19.10, 14: 10 He said, "I have been very zealous for the Lord, the God of hosts; for the sons of Israel have forsaken Your covenant, torn down Your altars and killed Your prophets with the sword. And I alone am left; and they seek my life, to take it away." .... 14 Then he said, "I have been very zealous for the Lord, the God of hosts; for the sons of Israel have forsaken Your covenant, torn down Your altars and killed Your prophets with the sword. And I alone am left; and they seek my life, to take it away."

1 Kings 19.18: 18 "Yet I will leave 7,000 in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal and every mouth that has not kissed him." / καὶ καταλείψεις ἐν Ισραηλ ἑπτὰ χιλιάδας ἀνδρῶν πάντα γόνατα ἃ οὐκ ὤκλασαν γόνυ τῷ Βααλ καὶ πᾶν στόμα ὃ οὐ προσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ.

Granted, both verses are from the same chapter and context of 1 Kings, but still, Justin and Paul coincide against the LXX in wording.

1 Kings: οὐκ ὤκλασαν γόνυ τῷ Βααλ....
Paul: οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ....
Justin: οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ....

Romans 11.3-4 is attested as absent from the Marcionite version.

4.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 95.1-96.1: XCV 1 Καὶ γὰρ πᾶν γένος ἀνθρώπων εὑρεθήσεται ὑπὸ κατάραν ὂν κατὰ τὸν νόμον Μωυσέως· Ἐπικατάρατος γὰρ εἴρηται πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει ἐν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά. καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀκριβῶς πάντα ἐποίησεν, οὐδ' ὑμεῖς τολμήσετε ἀντειπεῖν· ἀλλ' εἰσὶν οἳ μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον ἀλλήλων τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ἐφύλαξαν. εἰ δὲ οἱ ὑπὸ τὸν νόμον τοῦτον ὑπὸ κατάραν φαίνονται εἶναι, διὰ τὸ μὴ πάντα φυλάξαι, οὐχὶ πολὺ μᾶλλον πάντα τὰ ἔθνη φανήσονται ὑπὸ κατάραν ὄντα, καὶ εἰδωλολατροῦντα καὶ παιδοφθοροῦντα καὶ τὰ ἄλλα κακὰ ἐργαζόμενα; 2 εἰ οὖν καὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ Χριστὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐκ παντὸς γένους ἀνθρώπων ὁ πατὴρ τῶν ὅλων τὰς πάντων κατάρας ἀναδέξασθαι ἐβουλήθη, εἰδὼς ὅτι ἀναστήσει αὐτὸν σταυρωθέντα καὶ ἀποθανόντα, διὰ τί ὡς κεκατηραμένου τοῦ ὑπομείναντος κατὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς βουλὴν ταῦτα παθεῖν τὸν λόγον ποιεῖτε, καὶ οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἑαυτοὺς θρηνεῖτε; εἰ γὰρ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς παθεῖν ταῦτα αὐτὸν ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀνθρωπείου γένους ἐνήργησεν, ὑμεῖς οὐχ ὡς γνώμῃ θεοῦ ὑπηρετοῦντες τοῦτο ἐπράξατε· οὐδὲ γὰρ τοὺς προφήτας ἀναιροῦντες εὐσέβειαν εἰργάσασθε. 3 καὶ μή τις ὑμῶν λεγέτω· Εἰ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτὸν ἠθέλησε ταῦτα παθεῖν, ἵνα τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ ἴασις γένηται τῷ γένει τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἡμεῖς οὐδὲν ἠδικήσαμεν. εἰ μὲν οὖν μετανοοῦντες ἐπὶ τοῖς ἡμαρτημένοις καὶ ἐπιγνόντες τοῦτον εἶναι τὸν Χριστὸν καὶ φυλάσσοντες αὐτοῦ τὰς ἐντολὰς ταῦτα φήσετε, ἄφεσις ὑμῖν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὅτι ἔσται προεῖπον. 4 εἰ δὲ αὐτοῦ τε ἐκείνου καὶ τῶν εἰς ἐκεῖνον πιστευόντων καταρᾶσθε καί, ὁπόταν ἐξουσίαν ἔχητε, ἀναιρεῖτε, πῶς οὐχὶ καὶ τὸ ἐκείνῳ ἐπιβεβληκέναι τὰς χεῖρας ὑμῶν, ὡς παρὰ ἀδίκων καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ μέχρις ὅλου σκληροκαρδίων καὶ ἀσυνέτων, ἐκζητηθήσεται; XCVI 1 Καὶ γὰρ τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τῷ νόμῳ, ὅτι Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου, οὐχ ὡς τοῦ θεοῦ καταρωμένου τούτου τοῦ ἐσταυρωμένου ἡμῶν τονοῖ τὴν ἐλπίδα ἐκκρεμαμένην ἀπὸ τοῦ σταυρωθέντος Χριστοῦ, ἀλλ' ὡς προειπόντος τοῦ θεοῦ τὰ ὑφ' ὑμῶν πάντων καὶ τῶν ὁμοίων ὑμῖν, μὴ ἐπισταμένων τοῦτον εἶναι τὸν πρὸ πάντων ὄντα καὶ αἰώνιον τοῦ θεοῦ ἱερέα καὶ βασιλέα καὶ Χριστὸν μέλλοντα γίνεσθαι. / 95.1 "For the whole human race will be found to be under a curse. For it is written in the law of Moses, 'Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things that are written in the book of the law to do them.' And no one has accurately done all, nor will you venture to deny this; but some more and some less than others have observed the ordinances enjoined. But if those who are under this law appear to be under a curse for not having observed all the requirements, how much more shall all the nations appear to be under a curse who practise idolatry, who seduce youths, and commit other crimes? 2 If, then, the Father of all wished His Christ for the whole human family to take upon Him the curses of all, knowing that, after He had been crucified and was dead, He would raise Him up, why do you argue about Him, who submitted to suffer these things according to the Father's will, as if He were accursed, and do not rather bewail yourselves? For although His Father caused Him to suffer these things in behalf of the human family, yet you did not commit the deed as in obedience to the will of God. For you did not practise piety when you slew the prophets. 3 And let none of you say: If His Father wished Him to suffer this, in order that by His stripes the human race might be healed, we have done no wrong. If, indeed, you repent of your sins, and recognise Him to be Christ, and observe His commandments, then you may assert this; for, as I have said before, remission of sins shall be yours. 4 But if you curse Him and them that believe on Him, and, when you have the power, put them to death, how is it possible that requisition shall not be made of you, as of unrighteous and sinful men, altogether hard-hearted and without understanding, because you laid your hands on Him? 96.1 For the statement in the law, 'Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree,' confirms our hope which depends on the crucified Christ, not because He who has been crucified is cursed by God, but because God foretold that which would be done by you all, and by those like to your, who do not know that this is He who existed before all, who is the eternal Priest of God, and King, and Christ.

Galatians 3.10-13: 10 For as many as are of the works of the Law are under a curse; for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who does not abide by all things written in the book of the law, to perform them." 11 Now that no one is justified by the Law before God is evident; for, "The righteous man shall live by faith." 12 However, the Law is not of faith; on the contrary, "He who practices them shall live by them." 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us — for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree" — 14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

Both Justin and Paul draw upon two principal scriptural passages:

Deuteronomy 27.26: 26 "Cursed is he who does not confirm the words of this law by doing them." And all the people shall say, "Amen."

Deuteronomy 21.22-23: 22 "If a man has committed a sin worthy of death and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree, 23 his corpse shall not hang all night on the tree, but you shall surely bury him on the same day (for he who is hanged is accursed of God), so that you do not defile your land which the Lord your God gives you as an inheritance."

Paul adds the following:

Habakkuk 2.4:

4 "Behold, as for the proud one,
His soul is not right within him;
But the righteous will live by his faith."

Leviticus 18.5: 5 So you shall keep My statutes and My judgments, by which a man may live if he does them; I am the Lord.

But again Paul and Justin agree with one another in their wording against the LXX:

Deuteronomy: Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ὃς οὐκ ἐμμενεῖ ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς λόγοις τοῦ νόμου τούτου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτούς.
Paul: Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά.
Justin: Ἐπικατάρατος... πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά.

Similar phrases in Deuteronomy (LXX): τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτω (28.58); τὴν μὴ γεγραμμένην ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τούτου (28.61); αἱ γεγραμμέναι ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τούτου (29.19); τὰς γεγραμμένας ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τούτου (29.20); τὰς γεγραμμένας ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τούτου (29.26); τὰς γεγραμμένας ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τούτου (30.10).

Deuteronomy: κεκατηραμένος ὑπὸ θεοῦ πᾶς κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου.
Paul: Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου.
Justin: Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου.

Galatians 3.10-13 seems to be attested as present in the Marcionite version.

5.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 39.4: 4 Κἀγὼ πρὸς αὐτόν· Ἄκουσον, ὦ οὗτος, ἔλεγον, ὅτι οὐ μέμηνα οὐδὲ παραφρονῶ· ἀλλὰ μετὰ τὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνέλευσιν προεφητεύθη αἰχμαλωτεῦσαι αὐτὸν ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τῆς πλάνης καὶ δοῦναι ἡμῖν δόματα. εἰσὶ δὲ οἱ λόγοι οὗτοι· Ἀνέβη εἰς ὕψος, ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκε δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. / 4 And I said to him, "Listen, O friend, for I am not mad or beside myself; but it was prophesied that, after the ascent of Christ to heaven, He would deliver us from error and give us gifts. The words are these: 'He ascended up on high; He led captivity captive; He gave gifts to men.'"

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 87.6: I have already said, and do again say, that it had been prophesied that this would be done by Him after His ascension to heaven. It is accordingly said, "He ascended on high, He led captivity captive, He gave gifts unto the sons of men." And again, in another prophecy it is said: "And it shall come to pass after this, I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh, and on My servants, and on My handmaids, and they shall prophesy."

Ephesians 4.8: 8 Therefore it is said, "When he ascended on high he led a host of captives, and he gave gifts to men." / 8 διὸ λέγει· Ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.

Both Justin and Paul draw upon one of the Psalms here:

Psalm 68.18 (LXX 67.19): 18 You have ascended on high; You have led captive Your captives; You have received gifts among men, even among the rebellious also, that the Lord God may dwell there. / 18 Ἀνέβης εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσας αἰχμαλωσίαν ἔλαβες δόματα ἐν ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ γὰρ ἀπειθοῦντες τοῦ κατασκηνῶσαι κύριος ὁ θεὸς εὐλογητός.

But once again Justin and Paul agree against the LXX in wording:

Psalms: Ἀνέβης εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσας αἰχμαλωσίαν ἔλαβες δόματα ἐν ἀνθρώπ....
Paul: Ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.
Justin: Ἀνέβη εἰς ὕψος, ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκε δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.

Ephesians 4.8 is possibly attested as present in Marcion.

Ehorn takes these overlaps between Justin and Paul, over and against the LXX, as evidence that Justin knew and used the Pauline epistles. He is specifically arguing against the notion that both Justin and Paul accessed scriptural catenae; his main point against this possibility is that many of the changes made to the LXX text seem to support Paul's argument in his epistle(s). If the changes, then, are definitively Pauline, Justin's use of Paul's form of the quotation would point to his dependence upon Paul, not upon an independent catena of scriptural passages.

I personally think his argument is pretty decent in this connection. However, he does not consider a third alternative. Of the five passages above, one is unattested in the Marcionite version of Paul, while two others are attested as absent. What if, for those passages (at least), something resembling Justin's argument from the scriptures at hand was interpolated into the Marcionite version of the Pauline epistles? Granted that the changes to the LXX text are unlikely to be coincidental, what if some of them actually derive from Justin and only later made it into Paul? I am by no means committed to this solution, and would be interested in arguments against it; and it of course fails to account for the passages attested as present in the Marcionite version, presumably before Justin came along. But perhaps not all of the connections between Justin and Paul have to go in the same direction; maybe some of them Justin got from a sparser (Marcionite) edition of the epistles, while others actually flowed from Justin's text(s) into the Pauline epistles. It is something to think about, anyway. I doubt Justin himself was responsible for the interpolations, since sometimes the focus or thrust is not quite the same between Paul and Justin. But perhaps someone else, in an attempt to round out the Pauline epistles and bring them into line with the emerging Catholic orthodoxy, used Justin in order to do so.

The passages above, by the way, are not intended to exhaust the possible connections between Paul and Justin. They are merely a start, albeit probably one which hits some of the more striking correspondences.

Ben.
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Secret Alias » Sun Oct 22, 2017 7:25 pm

But it's worth noting that IF the Marcionites were correct and the Pauline epistles received a massive influx of scriptural material from Judaism that there is such a correlation with Justin implies to me at least that the connection with Justin is secondary - viz. Justin and (the) Marcion(ite) canon were falsified together.
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Secret Alias » Sun Oct 22, 2017 10:18 pm

And you should always go back to Justin's Samaritan roots. Was he really a Gentile born in the new polis of Shechem or was he a Samaritan by blood. The fact he cites from beyond the Pentateuch suggests the former but his disdain for Solomon is typically Samaritan. Other arguments too.

https://books.google.com/books?id=mrUeA ... kQ6AEIMzAC
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Secret Alias » Sun Oct 22, 2017 10:22 pm

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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by MrMacSon » Sun Oct 22, 2017 11:05 pm

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Sun Oct 22, 2017 4:54 pm

Ehorn takes these overlaps between Justin and Paul, over and against the LXX, as evidence that Justin knew and used the Pauline epistles. He is specifically arguing against the notion that both Justin and Paul accessed scriptural catenae; his main point against this possibility is that many of the changes made to the LXX text1 seem to support Paul's argument in his epistle(s)2. If the changes, then, are definitively Pauline, Justin's use of Paul's form of the quotation would point to his dependence upon Paul, not upon an independent catena of scriptural passages.
.

1 What changes were being made to the LXX? When? Are they well documented?

2 What arguments of Paul? (theological arguments? that aligns with those of the LXX?)


Ben, you said previously -
Ben C. Smith wrote:
Sun Oct 22, 2017 4:54 pm

Justin does, however, quote the Hebrew scriptures (in Greek)3 in ways reminiscent of what we find in the Pauline epistles, especially Romans and Galatians. Quite a few times they quote the same exact verses. Various scholars have used this overlap to demonstrate that Justin at various junctures was really quoting from the Pauline epistles rather than directly from the scriptures (presumably the LXX3).
.

3 How sure can we be that the version of the scriptures Justin was using were the LXX?

.

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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Mon Oct 23, 2017 5:42 am

MrMacSon wrote:
Sun Oct 22, 2017 11:05 pm
Ben C. Smith wrote:
Sun Oct 22, 2017 4:54 pm

Ehorn takes these overlaps between Justin and Paul, over and against the LXX, as evidence that Justin knew and used the Pauline epistles. He is specifically arguing against the notion that both Justin and Paul accessed scriptural catenae; his main point against this possibility is that many of the changes made to the LXX text1 seem to support Paul's argument in his epistle(s)2. If the changes, then, are definitively Pauline, Justin's use of Paul's form of the quotation would point to his dependence upon Paul, not upon an independent catena of scriptural passages.
.

1 What changes were being made to the LXX? When? Are they well documented?
I meant only that the quotations by Paul and Justin do not always match the LXX. The changes are not to the LXX text itself, but rather in the implementation of quotes from it. If Paul quotes the LXX, but makes a change to it, and then we find that same change in the same quote in Justin, that probably means something.
2 What arguments of Paul? (theological arguments? that aligns with those of the LXX?)
No. Theological arguments by Paul which may or may not align with the quotation chosen from the LXX. For example, in one verse Paul changes the tense of a verb from the LXX of Deuteronomy because the original tense might suggest that the crucified/hung person was already cursed before having been hung, whereas Paul's point is that Christ became accursed in the process of being crucified/hung for us.
Ben, you said previously -
Ben C. Smith wrote:
Sun Oct 22, 2017 4:54 pm

Justin does, however, quote the Hebrew scriptures (in Greek)3 in ways reminiscent of what we find in the Pauline epistles, especially Romans and Galatians. Quite a few times they quote the same exact verses. Various scholars have used this overlap to demonstrate that Justin at various junctures was really quoting from the Pauline epistles rather than directly from the scriptures (presumably the LXX3).
.
3 How sure can we be that the version of the scriptures Justin was using were the LXX?
Well, in many/most of the instances, the wording is that of the LXX and not any other version. The only changes are either of the kind that authors regularly made for their own reasons, or to fit the quote grammatically to the sentence, or of the kind that is under discussion: that is, changes made in common with Paul's changes. In the end, however, it almost does not matter in the present context which translation was the source for the quotation; if Justin has textual stuff in common with Paul that is not found elsewhere, it must mean something, regardless of the exact source of the rest of it. The question under discussion is not whether Justin used the LXX, but rather whether Justin used Paul.
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Secret Alias » Mon Oct 23, 2017 6:01 am

I sometimes over estimate the erudition of my audience. If Justin was a Samaritan who converted to Christianity like Simon Magus's followers then any scriptures beyond the Pentateuch and Joshua would be foreign to the original material.
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Mon Oct 23, 2017 9:05 am

Secret Alias wrote:
Mon Oct 23, 2017 6:01 am
I sometimes over estimate the erudition of my audience. If Justin was a Samaritan who converted to Christianity like Simon Magus's followers then any scriptures beyond the Pentateuch and Joshua would be foreign to the original material.
That is an excellent point. Can it not be, however, that the conversion itself might introduce new scriptures into the equation? I think "ordinary" evangelical Christians adopt the Book of Mormon when they happen to convert to Mormonism.
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Secret Alias » Mon Oct 23, 2017 9:42 am

Yes of course. But that does require us to pause for a moment. It does make the conversion seem less plausible. It's like a conversion to Roman Catholicism among Irish Protestants (members of the Orange Order https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_Order) or vice versa. Catholics and Protestants can certainly convert to each others religion and often do. But not in North Ireland. Are there statistics for inter-faith conversion in Iraq or Lebanon during the periods of conflict in those places? I would imagine it to be extremely low.

To that end, while it is theoretically possible that Justin - as a Samaritan - or Simon Magus (assuming he was a historical person) accepted Jesus I find it problematic for him to have accepted Jesus as well as embracing a whole canon of scripture that was historically rejected by members of his ethnic group. The wild card of course is the Dositheans. Is there any evidence that they accepted some of the other scriptures (for instance my friend I R M Boid has argued that the Book of Joshua - non-canonical as it is for contemporary Samaritans was part of the Dosithean tradition and then the traditions joined near the twilight of Samaritanism after the 10th century in some sort of ecumenical union reflected in the existing prayer book where prayers are explicitly ascribed to the Dustan).

Be that as it may we have to chose between Justin being a Gentile resident of the 'new city' in Samaria (which is what the MSS claim) or a corrupt set of writings where Justin is transformed from being a Samaritan in the manner of Stephen in Acts and possibly the author of Hebrews) where Justin is a Samaritan convert to Christianity and his attack against Solomon and Hezekiah are stock Samaritan rejections of these Jewish figures.

On the other side of the ledger the Marcionites clearly argued that their canon - which was according to them 'original' - was 'Judaized' on some level which is usually understood to mean 'Jewish scriptures' were added to the ur-gospel and their ur-canon of Pauline letters. To that end, if the shared scriptures with Justin were added to Paul at the beginning of the Catholic acceptance of Paul (perhaps making Paul seem Jewish as per Acts 22:3's portrayed of him as a disciple of Gamaliel :confusedsmiley: something that always seemed far fetched to me).
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Re: Justin Martyr and the apostle Paul.

Post by Secret Alias » Mon Oct 23, 2017 9:46 am

There does seem to be a corrupt or barbaric collection of Jewish scripture employed by Justin which Skarsaune elucidated at great length. Could this be a Dosithean MS? The Dositheans are always noted in Samaritan sources as having a distinct set of scriptures. https://books.google.com/books?id=hJQ3A ... re&f=false
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