The etymology of Caesarian section; modified from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesarean ... #Etymology -
The Roman Lex Regia (royal law), later the Lex Caesarea (imperial law), of Numa Pompilius (715–673 BC), required the child of a mother dead in childbirth to be cut from her womb. There was a cultural taboo that mothers not be buried pregnant, that may have reflected a way of saving some fetuses [I presume that means potentially viable fetuses, immediately after a pregnant woman's death].
Roman practice required a living mother to be in her tenth month of pregnancy before resorting to the 'Caesarean section' procedure, reflecting the knowledge that she could not survive the delivery: no classical source records a mother surviving such a delivery.
The term is said to derive from the verb caedere, "to cut", with children delivered this way referred to as caesones.
Speculation that the Roman dictator Julius Caesar was born by the method now known as C-section is apparently false [his mother Aurelia is reputed to have lived to hear of her son's invasion of Britain]. Pliny the Elder refers to a certain Julius Caesar (an ancestor of the famous Roman statesman) as ab utero caeso, "cut from the womb" giving this as an explanation for the cognomen "Caesar" which was then carried by his descendants. Nonetheless, even if the etymological hypothesis linking the caesarean section to [either] Julius Caesar is a false etymology, it has been widely believed.
then -The 'Passio' (story of martyrdom) of St. Caesarius is set in Terracina (a harbor town near Rome and Naples) under the pagan emperor Trajan (r. 98-117).
Caesarius, a deacon from Carthage (belonging to the ancient and illustrious gens Julia), after a shipwreck, arrived in Terracina to preach the Gospel to poor people. In this Roman city, each year on the first day of January, a ceremony of self-immolation took place to assure the health and salvation of the Empire. A young man was pampered with material delights and fulfilled in all his wishes for eight months; then he was obliged to mount on a richly harnessed horse, climb up to the summit of city's cliff and throw himself into the void, with the recalcitrant horse, to crash against the rocks and perish in the waves in honour of the god Apollo, as an expiatory offering for the prosperity of the state and the emperors.
The deacon Caesarius denounced this pagan custom and protested: "Alas for a state and emperors who persuade by tortures and are fattened on the outpouring of blood".
The priest of Apollo, named Firminus, had him arrested and taken before Leontius, Roman consul of Campania. During the interrogation, he refused to sacrifice to the pagan god of the sun and light, and his prayers caused the temple of Apollo to collapse (located in the Forum), killing the pagan Firminus. Caesarius was then locked up in jail and, after twenty-two months, he was taken to the Forum to be judged: he asked permission to pray: a radiant light blazed down on him, and the pagan consul Leontius was thereupon converted and sought baptism; he died shortly after (October 30th).
The 1st of November of the year 107 A.D., Luxurius, governor of the city, tied Caesarius and Julian (a local presbyter) up together in a sack, and flung them into the sea, from a cliff called "Pisco Montano".
[Thus] the deacon Caesarius was martyred, although not before prophesying the death of Luxurius, bitten by a poisonous viper.
Caesarius and Julian, on that same day, were thrown back onto the shore, and were buried by Eusebius, a servant of God, near the town of Terracina.
Caesarius as an Imperial Saint
In the 4th century, after his daughter was healed at Caesarius's shrine, the Emperor Valentinian I [Flavius Valentinianus Augustus, r. 364 to 375] decided to move his relics from Terracina to Romeas as a mark of royal favour. They were first taken to a church on the Palatine Hill, then later moved to a new church near the Appian Way, which got the name 'San Cesareo in Palatio'.
Caesarius of Terracina is the saint chosen to replace and Christianize the pagan figure of Julius Caesar ...
The imperial chapel was named after him by Valentinian III [estern Roman Emperor from 425 to 455], increasing his prominence ... Caesarius was the obvious patron for the chapel of the Caesars. ... His legend fitted impeccably into the symbolism of the Palatine, offering a forceful Christian commentary on the meaning of the empire.
In Caesarius the Byzantine administration found a saint capable of Christianizing Rome's imperial core. Caesarius's passio, a Latin text, revolves around the good health or prosperity (salus) of the Roman Empire. The legend presents Caesarius's martyrdom as proof that the well-being of the state rests more solidly on Christian foundations than on its pagan past. His passio presents an elaborate and gruesome panorama of the pagan ritual that, so its audience is led to believe, once underpinned the imperial administration.
In contrast to this senseless and impious bloodshed, Caesarius's martyrdom truly works for the imperial 'salus' by bearing witness to God's truth; commemoration of him offers a means to perpetuate that prosperity.
Saint Caesarius is invoked against the floods of the rivers, the drownings (in memory of his martyrdom) ...
modified from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesarius ... rial_Saint