The possibility that Luke is drawing subtly from many sections of Genesis altogether is a real possibility, but one must follow carefully. This method by the evangelist is quite similar to Paul's haphazard mixing of dozens of LXX Isaiah quotes to create his letters.
Luke 24:31 certainly is directly alluding to Genesis 3:7—
I am not the first to suggest such things, but others have noticed only partial references, missing perhaps how pervasive such literary play is in the gospels texts.
Note how Luke Timothy Johnson's 'Sacra Pagina' commentary on Luke opines: "The phrase echoes the biblical language used of Adam and Eve in Gen 3:7, 'the eyes of the two were opened and they recognized that they were naked.'"
See also Dane Ortlund's article '"And Their Eyes Were Opened, and They Knew": An Inter-canonical Note on Luke 24:31.' in the 'Journal of the Evangelical Society Volume 53'.
We will present the possible references to the first Torah scroll here in numerical order by chapter. ((((I am aware how my presentation of what I perceive as parallels can be difficult to follow, but I match the sentence side by side only the show the Greek vocabulary in a way hopefully expository to those unable to read it in the original)))))
-Gen 1:1 = "In the Beginning [εν αρχη]..."
-Gen 1:2 = "darkness upon the face of the Deep [αβμσσου] and God's spirit bore upon [επεϕερετο] the water [επανω του υδατος]"
-Gen 1:5 = "There was evening then morning—the first [μια] day."
=It would seem this might have colored the start and end of Luke 24, as have several of the references we will examine here=
=the commonalities here are '1st', 'deep', 'bearing' and 'starting'=
-Luke 24:1= "day one [μια] of the week, at deep dawn [ορθρου βαθεως]..."
-Luke 24:1= "bearing/bringing/carrying [ϕερουσαι] the spices/perfumes..."
-Luke 24:27= "then, beginnning [αρξαμενος] with Moses..."
=Next we have the chapter climax, where 'parting', 'blessing,' 'heaven,' and the phrase 'it was thus/so'=
-Luke 24:50b = "He blessed them" [ευλογησεν αυτους]
-Luke 24:51= "And it was (so) [και εγενετο] while blessing them that [εν τω ευλογειν αυτον αυτους] he was parted from them [διεστη απ' αυτον] and was carried aloft into heaven [και ανεϕερετο εις τον ουρανον]."
-Gen 1:6= "Let there be a parting/division [διεχωρισεν] between water and water..."
-Gen 1:15b= "God said: 'Let... (such and such be) ....' And it was (so) [και εγενετο ουτως]!" (=cf. ibid at vv. 9, 11b, 24b, 30b)
-Gen 1:28a = "And he blessed them [ευλογησεν αυτους]" (cf v. 22)
=if this borrowing is occurring, it might explain the odd snack choice offered by the disciples to the Risen Christ=
-Luke 24:41b = Jesus asks: "Have you anything edible here [εχετε τι βρωσιμον ενθαδε]?"
-Luke 24:42 = "They gave over to him a portion of roasted fish [ιχθυος] and some honeycomb from bees." (=winged creatures?)
=compare the following to the above=
-Gen 1:29b = "(Here) there is to you foods/edibles!" [εσται εις βρωσιν]
-Gen 1:26 = "Let mankind ... have control over [αρχετωσαν] the fishes [των ιχθυων] ... and the winged creatures [των πετεινων]..."
= from Gen 2 we might have fleeting language borrowed to color various conversations in Luke 24, i.e. the 'women' who are 'from out of' the group who 'startled' the men and also Jesus' pointing out he is not a common ghost=
-Gen 2:21-22= the Lord God put Adam "into a change of state [εκστασιν επι τον αδαμ]... and made a rib he took from [απο του] Adam into a woman [γυναικα]." (cf verse 23b= "She'll be called 'Woman' [γυνη] since she came from [οτι εκ] man.")
-Luke 24:22= "Some women [γυναικες] from among [εξ υμων] us amazed us [εξεστησαν] ..." (=by claiming angels told them etc)
-Gen 2:23= "Now this is [τουτο νυν] bone of my bone [οστουν εκ των οστεων μου] and flesh of my flesh [σαρξ εκ της σαρκος]."
-Luke 24:39= Jesus says: "A ghost doesn't have [ουκ εχει] flesh [σαρκα] and bone [οστεα] like you view me as having."
Chapter 3 of Genesis is so much on Luke's mind I feel it best to present all of it at once=
-Luke 24:31 directly quotes Genesis 3:7, concerning the 'fruit' from the Life Tree= "and their eyes were opened and they knew..."
-Luke 24:31= αυτων δε διηνοιχθησαν οι οϕθαλμοι και επεγνωσαν αυτον
-Gen 3:7= και διηνοιχθησαν οι οϕθαλμοι των δυο και εγνωσαν
-Gen 3:21= "God made for Adam and his wife shirts of skin, and he clothed [ενεδυσεν] them."
-Luke 24:49= Jesus commands his followers to remain in the capitol city "until such time as you will be clothed [ενδυσησθε] with power from on high."
-Gen 3:20= "Adam called the name [το ονομα] of his wife, Zoey, because she was mother to all [παντων] the living."
-Luke 24:47= "His name [τω ονοματι] shall be proclaimed ... unto all [παντα] the nations... for forgiveness of sins [αϕεσιν αμαρτιων]."
-Gen 3:3= Even tells the snake she isn't even supposed to "touch/handle" [αψησθε] the fruit of a certain tree.
-Luke 24:39 = Jesus invites onlookers: "Touch/handle me!" [ψηλαϕησατε με]
-Gen 3:6b= Eve: "having taken [λαβουσα] the fruit ... she gave some [εδωκε] also to her husband, and they ate [και εϕαγον]."
-Luke 24:30b= "having taken [λαβων] the bread ... he gave some [επεδιδου] to them."
-Gen 3:8= "They heard the voice of the Lord God, who was walking [περιπατουντος] ... at dusk [δειλινον]." (=is this why Jesus is 'walking' apparently close to 'sunset' in Luke 24?)
-Gen 3:17= "This alone [τουτου μονου] I told you [σου] not to eat."
-Luke 24:18 = "Are you alone [συ μονος]?"
-Gen 3:8b = the humans hid from God "In the midst [εν μεσω] of the paradise tree"
-Luke 24:3b= "Jesus (magically materialized? and) stood in their midst [εστη εν μεσω αυτων]
-Gen 3:24= a flaming sword is posted to "guard the way" [την οδον] to the tree of Life.
-Luke 24:32= "Wasn't our heart burning within us on the way [εν τη οδω]?"
-Gen 3:19= "By the sweat of your brow you shall eat your bread, until returning [αποστρεψαι] from the ground you came from!"
-Luke 24:33= "They returned [υπεστρεψαν] to Jerusalem."
-Gen 4:26b= It is explained of Seth's son Enosh: 'This one [ουτος] hoped [ηλπισεν] to call upon YHWH's name (as God)."
-Luke 24:21= "We we hoping [ημεις δε ηλπιζομεν] that this one (Jesus) was [οτι αυτος εστιν] the one about to ransom Israel."
-Luke 24:23= "And did not [μη] find [ευρουσαι] his body [το σωμα αυτου]."
-Gen 4:14b-15 = Cain declares: "All who find me [ο πας ευρισκων με] will kill me [αποκοτενει με]!" But God puts on him "a mark/sign to not [μη] do away him, for those who discover [ευρισκοντα] him."
-Luke 24:3= "They didn't find the body [ουχ ευρον το σωμα]." = Gen 4:15 God shall say to those "finding" Cain: "Not so [ουχ ουτω]!" (=i.e. don't kill/harm him] = a partial thematic parallel? Difficult to say. compare also Gen 5:24's "Enoch was well-pleasing to God—and he was not found [ουχ ευρισκετο], for God transposed [μετεθηκεν] him."
-compare Luke 24:18b= "You don't know [ουκ εγνως] the things taking place [το γενομενα] in Jerusalem these days?" to Gen 4 when God asks where Abel is, Cain answers: "I don't know!" [ου γινωσκω]))))))))))
-Gen 4:7= "You sinned?" [ημαρτες]
-Gen 4:13 = Cain says: "My fault [αιτια μου] is too great to (ever) forgive me [αϕενηναι με]!"
-Gen 4:6 = God asks Cain: "Why is your face downcast [συνεπεσε]?"
-Luke 24:17 = Jesus asks bystanders what they converse about while "walking [περιπατουντες] and looking downcast [εστε σκυθροποι]"
=then Luke seems to use some Noah reminisces=
-Luke 24:6b= angels tell the 3 women: "Remember [μνησθητε] as much as [ως] he spoke to you while still being [ετι ων] in the [εν τη] Galilee (district)."
-Gen 8:1= "God remembered [ανεμνησθη] Noah... and as much as [οσα] was [ην] with him [μετ' αυτου] in the [εν τη] Ark."
-Gen 6:15= "The ark was 300 cubits in length, 50 width, 30 height." (=cf. Gen 7:20's "15 cubits")
-Luke 24:13= "And behold [ιδου], two [δυο] of them going on the same day to a town at a distance of 60 stadiums of Jerusalem."
-Gen 6:17= "Behold [ιδου]"
-Gen 6:19-20= "two by two" [δυο δυο]
-Luke 24:43= " And taking (bread) before them, he ate."
-Gen 6:21= God tells Noah: "You take for yourself all the foods... for yourself and the animals to eat."
-Luke 24:38= Jesus inquires: "Why do [διατι] disturbing thoughts [διαλογισμοι] ascend [αναβαινουσιν] into your hearts [εν ταις καρδιαις υμων]?"
-Gen 6:5= God percieves that: "All which man(kind) thought about [διανοειται] in his heart [εν τη καρδια αυτον] was diligently (focused) on wickedness all day."
-Gen 6:6b= God "(re)considered" [διενοηθη] why he'd bothered to create humans in the first place
-Luke 24:47 mentions "repentance" [μετανοιαν], echoing Gen 6:7 where God "repented/regretted" [μετεμεληθην] making all living things.
-Gen 6:9= "Noah was a man [ανθρωπος ... ων] perfect and righteous in his generation..."
-Gen 6:11= "...but the earth was corrupt before God [εναντιον του θεου]."
-Luke 24:19= "Jesus was a man [ος εγενετο ανηρ] mighty and word and deed before God [εναντιον του θεου] and all the people."
==And finally, like Paul in Galatians, Luke wants to spiritualize the "promise" to Abraham as one now more generalized via the benevolence of Christ to all mankind=
-Luke 24:34= "The Lord [ο κυριος] is risen truly [οντως] and has appeared unto [και ωϕθη] Simon!" (= compare Gen 12:7= "And the Lord [κυριος] appeared to [και ωϕθη] Abram."
-Luke 24:49="Behold, I send the promise [επαγγελιαν] of my Father to you [εϕ' υμας]..." = though not echoing any specific sentence, this does bring to mind YHWH's promises to Abram of inheritance and paternity.
-Gen 12:1= God invites Abram to "come into the land which I shall show (=display) to you [ην αν σοι δειξω]."
-Luke 24:40= Jesus: "showed/displayed [επεδειξε] to them his (injured) hands and feet."
-Gen 12:2= "I'll make you (into) a great [μεγα] nation and bless [ευλογησω] you and magnify [μεγαλυνω] your name and you'll be a blessing [εση ευλογημενος]..."
-Luke 24:52-53= "...with great [μεγαλης] joy... they were always... praising and blessing [ευλογουντες] God."
-Gen 12:3= God promises Abram: "I will bless the ones (who are) blessing you [ευλογουντας]."
There is more, but will be a separate post.
Thank you for your patience in examining my method of explaining all this.
I simply am proposing that we have been looking at these texts without being open-minded enough about the ingenuity and obscurantism of the New Testament authors.
Discussion about the New Testament, apocrypha, gnostics, church fathers, Christian origins, historical Jesus or otherwise, etc.
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