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Beverly Devry-Smith
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Joined: Wed Jul 11, 2018 6:54 pm


Post by Beverly Devry-Smith » Mon Oct 15, 2018 8:51 pm

Luke uses verbal/aural allusions to Genesis 19 for his 'Cleopas and friend' episode at the end of his gospel. Again, I present all this side by side to make the references obvious, or 'show my work' if you will, as in a long equation. I am unaware of other exegetes who have noticed these parallels but am unable to peruse as much secondary literature as I would like to be thorough. I truly apologize for my clumsy presentation and any hindrance it might have on this information being utilized by other exegetes! But for the edification of others who might find this of interest, we present the following=
[This will all be more straightforwardly explained in my forthcoming book]

-Luke 24:13 = Two [δυο] disciples are walking along when a disguised Jesus asks why they are dejected. At verse 18 Cleopas remarks to the interlocutor that he "must be a sojourner/out-of-towner" [παροικεις] if he isn't aware of the recent events in Judea's capitol.
-Genesis 19:1= Two [δυο] angels stay with Lot.
-Luke 24:20= Cleopas explain that "our rulers gave Jesus the death-sentence/judgement" [εις κριμα θανατου]
-Genesis 19:9a= the Sodomites tell Lot: "You came here as a visitor/sojourner [παροικεις], not to sentence us like a judge [μη και κρισιν κρινειν]."
-Gen 19:15b= angel tells Lot: "Be not destroyed along with the lawless [ανομιαις]!"
-Luke 24:7= Jesus was crucified by "sinful [αμαρτωλων] men"
-Luke 24:8= "They remembered [εμνησθησαν] his sayings."
-Gen 19:29= "...God remembered [εμνησθη] Abraham and sent Lot out from the catastrophe's midst..."
-Gen 19:19= Lot asks the angel a favor: "Since I've found [ευρεν] grace with you, (in order) that I might live [ζην]..."
-Luke 24:23-24= there are "ones who say he (=Jesus) is still living [ζην]" while some others—going to check it out—"found [ευρον] it as they'd said [ουτως καθως]"
-Luke 24:29a= journeying a while with Jesus, Cleopas and his unnamed companion "pressured him [παρεβιασαντο αυτον], saying, 'Remain with us [μεινον μεθ' πμων], for it's near evening [οτι προς εσπεραν εστι] and the day has declined.' [και κεκλικεν η ημερα]'"
-Gen 19:3 Lot ""constrained them [κατεβιαζετω αυτους]... and they entered [και εισηλθον] into his house [εις τον οικον αυτου]." (=cf. Luke 24:29b= "He entered [και εισηλθε] to stay with them.")
-Gen 19:1= "Two angels entered Sodom at evening [εσπερας]."
===we'll save the discussion for a later time, but Luke is making clear that he as a sacred scribe is aware of how Biblical stories borrow form eath other= The Sodom story of Bereshith 19 was rewritten as Judges 19, the bizarre tale about the murder of the Levite's whore. Luke, by mentioned how "the day declined" is referencing Judges 19:9= For behold, the day has declined, being evening." [ιδου, δη κεκλικεν η ημερα εις εσπεραν] (see also= -Luke 24:32= "Wasn't our heart [καρδια] on fire as he was speaking [ως ελαλει ημιν] to us on the road?" = compare Judges 19:3= "The husband rose up and went after her to speak [λαλησαι] unto her heart [επι την καρδιαν αυτης].")
-Luke 24:31= at the exact instant the disciples recognize Jesus, he becomes invisible!
-Gen 19:2 = "And (Lot) said: 'Behold [ιδου] lords [κυριοι], turn aside here... to wash your feet [νιψασθε τους ποδας υμων]—that rising early tomorrow you may go forth on your way [εις την οδον υμων]."
-Luke 24:35= "They described the things (that happened) in the way [εν τη οδω]..."
Luke 24:38-39= Jesus invites his followers to: "Behold [ιδετε] ... these feet of mine [τους ποδας μου]!" (= cf. how verse 39b he exhorts them to "Handle/grab me!" [=like the impertinent Sodomites?] and in verse 40 he "displays [επεδειξεν] his (crucified) hands...")
===Luke takes the theme of disbelieving from Lot's story and transforms it into that of the women-witnesses, not using exact words this time, though===
-Gen 19:14b= Lot tries to warn his daughters' fiancees, but: "He seemed to his sons-in-law to be kidding/joking around before them" [εδοξε δε γελοιαζειν εναντιον των γαμβρων]
-Luke 24:11a= the rest of the disciples doubt tales of resurrection: "it apeared before them to be as if a wives' tale (literally= 'vain/trifling reports')" [εϕανησαν ενωπιον αυτων ωσει ληρος τα ρηματα]
-Luke 24:12= Peter: "rising up [αναστας], (quickly?) ran [εδραμεν] to the tomb... (then) went forth [απηλθε] to his own (house) wondering [θαυμαζων] about what had taken place [το γεγονος]."
-Gen 19:15= "They quickly [δε εσπουαζον]... 'Rise up!' [αναστας] ... to go forth [εξελθε]..."
-Gen 19:21= the angel: "was in wonder [εθαυμασα] ... over those words of yours [επι τω ρηματι τουτω]... concering which you spoke [περι ης ελαλησας]..."
-Luke 24:10= "the ones who spoke [αι ελεγον] these things [ταυτα]..."
-Luke 24:22= "Some women [γυναικες] from among us [εξ υμων] ... happened upon (the tomb) at dawn [γενομεναι ορθριαι]"
=the above re-works and re-uses the idea of (but not the precise vocabulary as) Gen 19:15= "It happened at dawn [ηνικα δε ορθρος εγενετο] ... (that the angels instructs Lot to:) 'Rise up and take your woman/wife [γυναικα]..." (=note how Luke 24:46b echoes this again by bringing up how Christ being "raised" [αναστηναι])
-Gen 19:12b= concerned angels ask Lot if he has friends/family "in the city" [εν τη πολει] who might also wish to evacuate.
Luke 24:49= in one of those usual New Testament 'reversals of theme,' Jesus admonishes the opposite: "Stay in the city [εν τη πολει], until ... you receive ... power from on high [εξ υψους]!"
-Gen 19:13 explains that Sodom is to be obliterated because the "cries/protestations" of those wronged by its inhabitants "has been raised up on high (or: 'to the heights')" [υψωθη]
====minor, but still likely, allusions to Gen 19 in Luke24====
-Luke 24:12 = the linen bands "alone" [μονα]
-Gen 19:8= Lot tells Sodomites to "leave these men alone [μονον]!"
-cf Luke 24:18= "Are you visiting here alone [μονος]?"
-Luke 24:17= a disguised Jesus approaches two supposed strangers: "And he said to them" [ειπε δε προς αυτους]
-Gen 19:7= Lot: "said to them [ειπε δε προς αυτους], 'By no means, brothers, do (such) wicked (things)!'
-Luke 24:19= Jesus inquires: "What (are the) kind [ποια] of things (occurring recently)?"
-Gen 19:5= Sodomites cat-call: "Where are they [που εισιν], the men [οι ανδρες]...?"
-Luke 24:19= Jesus is called "a man [ανηρ] who did mighty deeds and speeches before all the people [παντος του λαου]" (= compare Gen 19:4b= "all the people, before [απας ο λαος αμα]" Lot's home.)
-Luke 24:30 = Gen 19:3b, just not the same vocabulary in Greek.
-note how much alliteration is occuring in Luke 24:28b= "he pretended to be going further" [προσεποιειτο πορρωτερω πορευεσθαι]
-Luke 24:33= "They returned [υπεστρεψαν] to Jerusalem (=a reversal of Lot's wife looking back to her doom?] and found gathered together [συνηθροισμενους] there..." (=like the Sodomites on Lot's lawn?)
-Gen 19:17= "Don't stand in any adjacent place..." = Luke 24:36= Jesus "stood in their midst..." (=a reversal)
-Gen 19:20 = Lot twice calls Zoar a "small place" = is this the reason Luke 24 calls the place the 2 disciples travel to a "town" [κομων / κωμην]
-note how Peter + the 3 women are basically equivalent to Lot + wife + 2 daughters ('Magdalene' = 'tower' = i.e. pillar of salt perhaps?) — at any rate, the evangelist makes this connection by reversing a sentence from Genesis=
-Gen 19:9= the men "approached [ηγγισαν]" Lot's home and in verse 11 they are "stricken with blindness" [αορασια] (cf. Luke 24:23= women claimed to "have seen" [εωρακεναι] angels—a reversal)
-Luke 24:15b-16= Jesus "approached [εγγισας]" the two but: "they're eyes were kept from recognizing him." (=literally: "they did not know [μη επιγνωναι] him")
=compare also Gen 19:8 Lot has two girls who "have not known [ουκ εγνωσαν] a male"
-Luke 24:16, like Gen 42:8 has "doesn't recognize", while Luke 24:35 echoes Gen 45:1 which describes Joseph as "being made known (to them)"
-Genesis 43:23 = after revealing his identity, Joseph says to his brothers: "Peace be unto you, fear not!", which Luke 24:36-37 rewrites as Jesus materializing out of nowhere to say to his disciples: "Peace be unto you!" but they "were frightened" due to this.
-Gen 45:9 = Joseph tells his brothers to "Ascend unto my father [αναβητε προς τον πατερα μου]!" and in line 13 he asks that his "glory" [την δοξαν μου] be reported.
-Luke 24:26= Jesus mentions his own "glory" [την δοξαν αυτου] in the third person.
((((((( EXCURSUS -the author of the gospel of John uses this reference in his presentation of his version of the Resurrection story= John 20:17= Jesus instructs Mary Magdalene: "Go to my brothers and say: 'I ascend [αναβαινω] unto my father [προς τον πατερα μου].'" Also like Joseph's brothers in Genesis, the disciples at Luke 24:52 "do obeisance" before departing.))))))))
-Gen 19:17= και εγενετο ηνικα εξηγαγον αυτους εξω
-Luke 24:50-51= εξηγαγε δε αυτους εξω ... και εγενετο
(=also Luke 24:50 has "by the hand" [τας χειρας αυτου] like Gen 19:16's three pointed mentions of hands.)

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