Is Mark 15:1-16 based on Josephus's Ant. 18:3 ?

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Giuseppe
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Is Mark 15:1-16 based on Josephus's Ant. 18:3 ?

Post by Giuseppe » Sat Feb 02, 2019 9:43 am


Mark 15:1-16The Narrative Theme Josephus's Ant. 18:3

Very early in the morning, the chief priests, with the elders, the teachers of the law and the whole Sanhedrin, made their plans. So they bound Jesus, led him away and handed him over to Pilate.

an intruder in a place that is not the his own.
But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Cesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar's effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images;


Very early in the morning,

a slight difference in time, between Mark and Josephus, about the introduction of the intruder in a foreign place. In both the cases, a secret operation.
which was done without the knowledge of the people, because it was done in the night time;


The chief priests accused him of many things.

First opposition of a group against the intruder.
but as soon as they knew it, they came in multitudes to Cesarea, and interceded with Pilate many days that he would remove the images;


“Do you want me to release to you the king of the Jews?” asked Pilate, 10 knowing it was out of self-interest that the chief priests had handed Jesus over to him.

first resistance by Pilate in both the cases. First reference to crime of sediction.
and when he would not grant their requests, because it would tend to the injury of Caesar,


6 Now it was the custom at the festival to release a prisoner whom the people requested. 7 A man called Barabbas was in prison with the insurrectionists who had committed murder in the uprising. 8 The crowd came up and asked Pilate to do for them what he usually did.

In both the cases, the description of an expedient to make it more easy the conclusion of the affair (in a pro-Pilate way). The expedient is a threat of coming release of violence (a free Barabbas is a public danger more than a free Jesus).
while yet they persevered in their request, on the sixth day he ordered his soldiers to have their weapons privately, while he came and sat upon his judgment-seat, which seat was so prepared in the open place of the city, that it concealed the army that lay ready to oppress them; and when the Jews petitioned him again, he gave a signal to the soldiers to encompass them routed, and threatened that their punishment should be no less than immediate death, unless they would leave off disturbing him, and go their ways home.


But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to have Pilate release Barabbas instead.
12 “What shall I do, then, with the one you call the king of the Jews?” Pilate asked them.
13 “Crucify him!” they shouted.
14 “Why? What crime has he committed?” asked Pilate.
But they shouted all the louder, “Crucify him!”

Strong resistance by the Jews in both the cases. Even to the cost of a possible release of violence (a free Barabbas is a threat as well as the massacre by Pilate)
But they threw themselves upon the ground, and laid their necks bare, and said they would take their death very willingly, rather than the wisdom of their laws should be transgressed;


Wanting to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas to them.

Pilate yields.
upon which Pilate was deeply affected with their firm resolution to keep their laws inviolable,


He had Jesus flogged, and handed him over to be crucified. The soldiers led Jesus away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium) and called together the whole company of soldiers.

the intruder has to go to another place, where the pious Jews can't go (respectively the Praetorium in Mark and the pagan Caesarea in Josephus). This different place is full of Roman soldiers.
and presently commanded the images to be carried back from Jerusalem to Cesarea.


So, this is further evidence, in addition to this, that Mark is based on Josephus.
Nihil enim in speciem fallacius est quam prava religio. -Liv. xxxix. 16.

Giuseppe
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Re: Is Mark 15:1-16 based on Josephus's Ant. 18:3 ?

Post by Giuseppe » Sat Feb 02, 2019 9:56 am

If John the Baptist was introduced in Mark only because “Mark” found him in Josephus's Antiquities (see future article of Gregory Doudna about this case), then, in virtue of the same reason, it is more probable than not that “Mark” introduced Pilate in the narrative only because he found Pilate in Josephus.

And not because he knew about a historical crucifixion of Jesus by Pilate.
Nihil enim in speciem fallacius est quam prava religio. -Liv. xxxix. 16.

Ken Olson
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Joined: Fri May 09, 2014 9:26 am

Re: Is Mark 15:1-16 based on Josephus's Ant. 18:3 ?

Post by Ken Olson » Sun Feb 03, 2019 3:18 pm

Perhaps Giuseppe and Rakovsky could engage each other's theses on the topic of Antiquities 18.3:

viewtopic.php?f=3&t=3915&p=83263&hilit= ... ium#p83228

Each could explain the methodology he is employing in analyzing the evidence of Ant. 18.3 and why readers ought to find the parallels he adduces more persuasive evidence in favor of his thesis than the other has given, or, conversely, why the other's parallels are weaker than his own and the other's thesis ought not to be accepted.

Such an exchange might be enlightening or at least entertaining.

Giuseppe
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Re: Is Mark 15:1-16 based on Josephus's Ant. 18:3 ?

Post by Giuseppe » Mon Feb 04, 2019 5:07 am

I would understand better the Rakovsky's case if he had put it in clear by a table as I have made above.

Primissima facie, it seems that his case is more weak than my case for a good reason: he seems to oscillate between presumed parallelisms between the Testimonium and what precedes the Testimonium, and presumed parallelisms between the Testimonium and what follows the Testimonium. Too much complicated.

Whereas I have to compare only two passages between them, and I have the same order by which they assume both the same items.

In addition to this, I would note that the insignia episode and the Gospel episode are the only two cases where the sadic, cruel, mad, crazy, etc, etc Pilate is defeated by a Jewish crowd. Isn't this another coincidence in the coincidence ?
Nihil enim in speciem fallacius est quam prava religio. -Liv. xxxix. 16.

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