to Michael BG,
As with lots of issues we discuss it comes down to probabilities. For me the way to define the word should be in a way which has the best support, which Ben has provided. It seems to me that it is probably best to define ὁρισθέντος as ‘appointed’...
I don't think most support for the meaning of a Greek word has to determine the meaning of that word in Ro 1:4. Furthermore "mark out" for "define" has support in works of Herodotus, Xenophon, Thucydides, others; Numbers 34:6; Joshua 13:27 according to the Thayer's Lexicon and also somewhere in Josephus' works (as per Ben).
One of the definitions from MacMillan dictionary: "mark out or mark off to show that someone or something is different from others"
Definition of "define" from Google"
"state or describe exactly the nature, scope, or meaning of.
"the contract will seek to define the client's obligations"
synonyms: explain, expound, interpret, elucidate, explicate, describe, clarify; More
give the meaning of (a word or phrase), especially in a dictionary.
make up or establish the character of.
"for some, the football team defines their identity"
the boundary or limits of.
"the river defines the park's boundary"
, establish, fix, specify
, designate, decide, stipulate, settle, set out, mark out, mark off; demarcate
, bound, delimit, delineate, circumscribe, set the boundaries/limits of
"the difficulty lay in defining the upper and lower limits of the middle class"
make clear the outline of; delineate.
"she defined her eyes by applying eyeshadow"
synonyms: outline, delineate, silhouette; trace, pencil
"he could see the farm buildings defined against the fields beyond"
I agree the verb is ambiguous is Ro 1:4, but once it is considered that, for Paul, Jesus was the Son of God before his crucifixion, then "ordained" and "appointed" cannot apply.
(For Paul, Christ = Son of God = Lord (Jesus Christ))
And we have
In 1 Corinthians 10:4
"And did all
[Israelites of the Exodus] drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ."
In 1 Corinthians 8:6"... one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things"
1 Corinthians 15:47 "The first man
[Adam] is of the earth, earthy: the second man
[Jesus] is the Lord from heaven"
I do not wish to discuss whether Paul believed Jesus was pre-existent. I think we may have discussed this at length sometime in the past. John Ziesler in ‘Pauline Christianity’ page 43 states “That God sent Christ (Gal. 4:4f; Rom. 8:3) as the Son does not in itself mean his pre-existence, for the prophets are also sent (Isa. 6:8; Jer 1:6; Ezek. 2:3) and so are Moses, Aaron and Miriam (Mic. 6:4). ‘Sending’ language rather underlines the Son’s commissioning, obedience and special relationship to God.”
But Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Moses, Miriam, Aaron are already on earth as youth or adult before they are sent by God to preach or lead others. However Ro 1:4 & Gal 4:4 do not say that, but imply the Son existed before being sent to earth.