Kunigunde Kreuzerin wrote: ↑
Tue May 28, 2019 9:23 am
Ben C. Smith wrote: ↑
Tue May 28, 2019 7:58 am
I think Paul speaks quite a lot about what "has been written" in scripture. If that is correct, then Mark is not completely alone in early Christianity.
Agreed und Paul clearly attached authority to the scriptures. But my point is here a specific way of quotation of the prophet Isaiah (or the prophets) and the word choice
to introduce it. In this regard Paul agreed with Matthew and John, although he used the verb "says" or "is so bold to say" in present. There are 5 occurrences of Isaiah in Paul's letters, all in Romans.
|Romans 9:27 ||And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will be saved, |
|Romans 9:29|| And as Isaiah predicted, “If the Lord of hosts had not left us offspring, we would have been like Sodom and become like Gomorrah.” |
|Romans 10:16 ||But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed what he has heard from us?” |
|Romans 10:20 ||Then Isaiah is so bold as to say, “I have been found by those who did not seek me; I have shown myself to those who did not ask for me.” |
|Romans 15:12 ||And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.” |
It should be a good case that Mark is unique in this regard.
Okay, good point(s).
How does Mark compare with slightly later generations of Christians?
Kunigunde Kreuzerin wrote: ↑
Tue May 28, 2019 6:58 am
The only other time GMark mentioned Isaiah is Mark 7:6 and Mark stressed there again the authority of scripture (in contrast to Matthew 15:7).
|Mark 1:2 ||As it is written in Isaiah the prophet, “Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way,|
|Mark 7:6 ||And he said to them, “Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, “‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me; 7 in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’|
Barnabas 6.14: 14 ...even as he says again in another prophet [καθὼς πάλιν ἐν ἑτέρῳ προφήτῃ λέγει]....
Barnabas 9.1: 1 .... The Lord says in the prophet [λέγει κύριος ἐν τῷ προφήτῃ]....
Barnabas 11.6: 6 And again in another prophet he says [καὶ πάλιν ἐν ἀλλῳ προφήτῃ λέγει]....
Barnabas 12.1: 1 In like manner again he signifies concerning the cross in another prophet [ὁμοίως πάλιν περὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ ὁρίζει ἐν ἄλλῳ προφήτῃ λέγοντι]....
Barnabas 12.4: 4 And again in another prophet he says [καὶ πάλιν ἐν ἑτέρῳ προφήτῃ λέγει]....
Shepherd of Hermas, Vision 2.3.4: ...as it is written in Eldad and Modat, who prophesied to the people in the wilderness [ὡς γέγραπται ἐν τῷ Ἐλδὰδ καὶ Μωδάτ, τοῖς προφητεύσασιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τῷ λαῷ].
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 11.3: 3 Or have you not read these things which Isaiah says [ἢ σὺ ταῦτα οὐκ ἀνέγνως ἅ φησιν Ἠσαίας]...?
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 44.2: 2 ....and that this is so God makes known in Ezekiel when He said concerning it [καὶ ὅτι τοῦτό ἐστιν ἐν τῷ Ἰεζεκιὴλ περὶ τούτου ἀποφαινόμενος ὁ θεὸς εἶπεν]....
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 44.3: 3 And in Isaiah in the very same matter He spoke thus [καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἠσαίᾳ εἰς τοῦτο αὐτὸ ἔφη οὕτως]....
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 46.6: 6 ...and in Isaiah He rebukes you for having sacrificed your children to idols [καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἠσαίᾳ καὶ τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν θυσίαν πεποιηκέναι τοῖς εἰδώλοις ἐλέγχει ὑμᾶς].
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 78.1: 1 ...it has been thus written in the prophet [γέγραπται ἐν τῷ προφήτῃ οὕτως]....
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 79.4: 4 .... And again it is written in Job [καὶ πάλιν ἐν τῷ Ἰὼβ γέγραπται]....
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 91.1: 1 ...and in Isaiah he tells us that he shall be put to death as an enemy by the mighty sword, which is Christ [καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἠσαίᾳ ἀναιρεθήσεσθαι ὡς πολέμιον διὰ τῆς μεγάλης μαχαίρας, ἥτις ἐστὶν ὁ Χριστός, σημαίνει].
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 123.8: 8 ...in Isaiah, if you have ears to hear it, God, speaking of Christ in parable, calls Him Jacob and Israel [ἐν τῷ Ἠσαίᾳ, ὠσὶν ἀκούοντες εἰ ἄρα ἀκούετε, περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ λέγων ὁ θεὸς ἐν παραβολῇ Ἰακὼβ αὐτὸν καλεῖ καὶ Ἰσραήλ].
Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 138.1: 1 ...in Isaiah it has been said to Jerusalem by God [ἐν τῷ Ἠσαίᾳ λέλεκται ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πρὸς τὴν Ἰερουσαλήμ]....
A quick scan reveals that Barnabas both (A) refers to the scriptures several times as what "is written" and (B) typically (though not always) writes of the prophets in the present tense (for example, "concerning which it is written, as Enoch says..."). The Shepherd has precious little of this kind of material to begin with. And Justin Martyr has many different ways of referencing the prophets, of which "in the prophet" is only one and "it is written" another; he also frequently writes of the scriptures, and specifically of reading the scriptures.
1 Clement has a number of instances of "it is written" and frequently quotes scripture with a present tense "he says," but rarely mentions prophets, whether individually or collectively. 2 Clement 3.5 begins, "For He says in Isaiah" (λέγει δὲ καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἡσαΐα), and 2 Clement 6.8 begins, "For thus also the scripture says in Ezekiel" (λέγει δὲ καὶ ἡ γραφὴ ἐν τῷ Ἰεζεκιήλ).