Did Paul know Jesus?

Discussion about the New Testament, apocrypha, gnostics, church fathers, Christian origins, historical Jesus or otherwise, etc.
John2
Posts: 2533
Joined: Fri May 16, 2014 4:42 pm

Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by John2 » Thu Mar 07, 2019 4:37 pm

I've always heard (and assumed) that Paul never met Jesus, but as I think about his timeline and what he says in his letters, I can't think of anything that precludes that he did, and I don't mean in the sense that they were pals or Paul learned anything from him, but in the sense that he knew of Jesus and his followers while Jesus was alive, like other Pharisees of the time did (according to the gospels).

As I think about Paul's timeline, I gather it is uncertain but that Paul more or less began to persecute Christians and then converted a few years after Jesus' death. But what I'm wondering now is why couldn't Paul have persecuted Christians (including even Jesus) while Jesus was alive?

I look at it this way. The gospels present the Pharisees and Herodians as plotting to kill Jesus (which seems plausible to me just for Jesus teaching against them and the oral Torah alone), and Paul was a Pharisee and in my view possibly also a Herodian (which I don't need to argue for here but which I do factor into my thinking). So if there is anything to the gospel presentation, and depending on where he lived at the time, perhaps Paul would have found Jesus as objectionable as other Pharisees (and Herodians) did.

If Paul is already thought to have persecuted Christians shortly after Jesus died, what difference would it really make if he had persecuted them while Jesus was alive like other Pharisees (and Herodians) did?

Jesus' rejection of the oral Torah could be relevant given what Paul says in Gal. 1:13-14:
For you have heard of my former way of life in Judaism, how severely I persecuted the church of God and tried to destroy it. I was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my contemporaries and was extremely zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
Cf. Ant. 13.10.6 and Mk. 7:3-5:
... the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses ... [and] have the multitude on their side.
The Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing, holding to the tradition of the elders. When they come from the marketplace they do not eat unless they wash. And they observe many other traditions, such as the washing of cups, pitchers and kettles. And the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat with defiled hands?”
So why would Paul, as a zealous Pharisee, not have similarly objected to Jesus and his followers while Jesus was alive? Is the idea precluded by what he says in Gal. 1:22-23?
I was personally unknown, however, to the churches of Judea that are in Christ. They only heard the account: “The man who formerly persecuted us is now preaching the faith he once tried to destroy.”
For what it may be worth, I see that Paul says he had persecuted one church ("the church of God") and then was unknown to the (plural) "churches of Judea" after his conversion. Could this mean that Paul was unknown to the latter because they didn't exist as churches at the time of his persecution (when he says there was one church, "the church of God")? Could Paul have persecuted Christians ("us") when Jesus was alive, before the multiple churches in Judea had been established?
Last edited by John2 on Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:45 pm, edited 5 times in total.
May the four winds blow you safely home.

John2
Posts: 2533
Joined: Fri May 16, 2014 4:42 pm

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by John2 » Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:02 pm

My first thought is that we would have to jettison Acts (which I've come to appreciate more over the last few years). But as I poke around the internet, I see that some people use Acts to make the argument that Paul could have known Jesus while he was alive, such as here:
But had Paul ever met Jesus during Christ’s three-and-a-half year public ministry? Had the future apostle ever personally seen or heard Jesus in person? While we lack any direct evidence, there are several considerations that may favor the idea that Paul had possibly seen Jesus prior to the crucifixion. First, Paul had been a resident of Jerusalem as a child (Acts 22:3) and was also there years later to approve of Stephen’s stoning (Acts 8:1). The presence of Paul’s nephew in Jerusalem after Paul’s conversion (Acts 23:16) suggests that Paul and his family had resided there for some time. Jesus was known to have visited Jerusalem (Mark 11:11; John 2:13; 5:1). It is quite possible that Paul could have seen Jesus or heard Him speak during one of Jesus’ several trips there.

Second, Paul’s devotion to the Law would have provided him motivation to be present in Jerusalem during Passover—a time where both he and Jesus would have been in close proximity. Third, as a Pharisee, Paul would have been keenly interested in the teaching of a popular, if unconventional, rabbi. As Paul told Herod Agrippa, the things Jesus did were “not done in a corner” (Acts 26:26).

https://www.quora.com/Did-the-Apostle-P ... meet-Jesus


So while Acts doesn't say that Paul knew (of) Jesus while he was alive, perhaps it also doesn't preclude the possibility that he did.
May the four winds blow you safely home.

Edward M.
Posts: 9
Joined: Tue Mar 21, 2017 5:05 pm

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by Edward M. » Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:14 pm

In 1 Corinthians 2:2 Paul says he knew nothing except Jesus and him crucified. I might be taking this verse completely out of context but perhaps Paul is alluding to the fact that he witnessed the trial and crucifixion but never met or heard of Jesus prior to his final week in Jerusalem. And one of the narratives of Jesus that Paul cites is the last supper when he’s in Jerusalem.

John2
Posts: 2533
Joined: Fri May 16, 2014 4:42 pm

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by John2 » Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:34 pm

Edward M. wrote:
Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:14 pm
In 1 Corinthians 2:2 Paul says he knew nothing except Jesus and him crucified. I might be taking this verse completely out of context but perhaps Paul is alluding to the fact that he witnessed the trial and crucifixion but never met or heard of Jesus prior to his final week in Jerusalem. And one of the narratives of Jesus that Paul cites is the last supper when he’s in Jerusalem.
I took another look at those verses while bearing in mind what you said about them and I'm not getting the impression that they indicate that Paul knew Jesus while he was alive. Regarding the Eucharist, Paul says in 1 Cor. 11:23, "For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you," which makes me think he is referring to a post-conversion revelation of Jesus. And I get the sense from 1 Cor. 2:2 that Paul means that he is only interested in "Jesus Christ and him crucified" and not that he saw the crucifixion.
May the four winds blow you safely home.

Edward M.
Posts: 9
Joined: Tue Mar 21, 2017 5:05 pm

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by Edward M. » Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:55 pm

John2,

Yeah, I think you are problably right regarding both verses. Do you think there’s any connection between Paul quoting Jesus about divorce in 1 Cor 7 and it was some Pharisees, maybe including Paul, who asked Jesus this question in Matthew 19 or could this be another instance of a saying that was passed on to the church?

John2
Posts: 2533
Joined: Fri May 16, 2014 4:42 pm

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by John2 » Thu Mar 07, 2019 7:14 pm

Edward M. wrote:
Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:55 pm
John2,

Yeah, I think you are problably right regarding both verses. Do you think there’s any connection between Paul quoting Jesus about divorce in 1 Cor 7 and it was some Pharisees, maybe including Paul, who asked Jesus this question in Matthew 19 or could this be another instance of a saying that was passed on to the church?
Hm. That one seems possible. While I've assumed it means that Paul learned about it from Jewish Christians or by a revelation, maybe he could have learned about it from Jesus like the other Pharisees did (or from those Pharisees). Hm.

1 Cor. 7:10-11:
To the married I give this command (not I, but the Lord): A wife must not separate from her husband. But if she does, she must remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband. And a husband must not divorce his wife.


Cf. Mk. 10:2-12:
Some Pharisees came to test Him. “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?” they inquired. “What did Moses command you?” he replied. They answered, “Moses permitted a man to write his wife a certificate of divorce and send her away.”

But Jesus told them, “Moses wrote this commandment for you because your hearts were hard. However, from the beginning of creation, ‘God made them male and female.’ ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separate.”

When they were back inside the house, the disciples asked Jesus about this matter. So he told them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another woman commits adultery against her. And if a woman divorces her husband and marries another man, she commits adultery.”
The version in Matthew makes more sense to me though, since it adds, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason” and "whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another woman, commits adultery.” This is in keeping with the Pharisaic/Rabbinic position, which allows a man to divorce his wife for more or less "any reason." Either way though, Jesus bases his opinion on the Torah (Gen. 1:27 and 2:24).
May the four winds blow you safely home.

User avatar
arnoldo
Posts: 761
Joined: Sat Oct 12, 2013 6:10 pm
Location: Latin America

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by arnoldo » Sat Mar 09, 2019 6:48 am

Edward M. wrote:
Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:14 pm
In 1 Corinthians 2:2 Paul says he knew nothing except Jesus and him crucified. . .
Perhaps 2 Corinthians 5:16 relates to this verse.
2 Corinthians 5:16 (Young's Literal Translation)
So that we henceforth have known no one according to the flesh, and even if we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know him no more;


John2
Posts: 2533
Joined: Fri May 16, 2014 4:42 pm

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by John2 » Sat Mar 09, 2019 1:31 pm

arnoldo wrote:
Sat Mar 09, 2019 6:48 am
Edward M. wrote:
Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:14 pm
In 1 Corinthians 2:2 Paul says he knew nothing except Jesus and him crucified. . .
Perhaps 2 Corinthians 5:16 relates to this verse.
2 Corinthians 5:16 (Young's Literal Translation)
So that we henceforth have known no one according to the flesh, and even if we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know him no more;

That's another one I've come across but I'm resistant to it for some reason. I suppose I tend to take it as meaning that Paul is no longer interested in the human Jesus (beyond, let's say, his crucifixion) like he had previously been during his time as a Christian (or that he had at least been aware of the human Jesus from Jewish Christians during his time as a Christian). But could it mean more than that?

I'm thinking now that since we don't necessarily need to jettison Acts (as per the argument above), and since I'm gaining more appreciation for Acts in other respects, then let's take another look at what it says about Paul's timeline. And right off the bat I see that not only is Paul (when he was Saul) present at and involved with the stoning of Stephen (presumably because of his zealous Pharisaic and I would also say Herodian background), I didn't realize this is thought to have taken place (even if it's only fictional) in the early 30's CE.

So I'm thinking that if a Christian like Stephen had made Paul so mad, how much more so would have Jesus only a year or so earlier (according to the timeline of the NT anyway)? In other words, did Paul's persecution of Christians begin with the stoning of Stephen, or could he have also been opposed to Jesus prior to this like other Pharisees (and Herodians) had been (according to the NT)? It at least seems plausible to me that as a zealous Pharisee (and in my view also a Herodian and possibly the one named Saulus in Josephus) with ties to Jerusalem, if Paul wasn't personally aware of Jesus prior to the stoning of Stephen, he could have at least heard about him from other Jerusalem Pharisees (and Herodians).

In other words, was witnessing the stoning of Stephen what really triggered Paul's awareness of and rage against Christians, or was he involved with the stoning of Stephen because of his awareness of and rage against Christians? I don't think we can prove that he knew (or knew of) Jesus, but I don't think we can rule it out either. And the presentation in Acts at least fits what Paul says in Galatians, since he says he had persecuted the church of God but was unknown to the churches in Judea, and Acts (if I'm reading it right) appears to present Paul (as Saul) as persecuting Christians only in Jerusalem and not outside of it (since he did not get the chance to persecute anyone in Damascus because of his revelation of Jesus, whether the account is fictional or not). So whether it was dependent on Galatians or not, Acts appears to line up with Paul in this respect.
May the four winds blow you safely home.

User avatar
DCHindley
Posts: 2622
Joined: Mon Oct 07, 2013 9:53 am
Location: Ohio, USA

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by DCHindley » Sun Mar 10, 2019 8:03 am

arnoldo wrote:
Sat Mar 09, 2019 6:48 am
Edward M. wrote:
Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:14 pm
In 1 Corinthians 2:2 Paul says he knew nothing except Jesus and him crucified. . .
Perhaps 2 Corinthians 5:16 relates to this verse.
2 Corinthians 5:16 (Young's Literal Translation)
So that we henceforth have known no one according to the flesh, and even if we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know him no more;

arnoldo,

One of the advantages of my hypothesis that the Christ theology was interpolated into authentic letters of Paul (who knew nothing of Jesus). is that it allows the Christ theology to speak for itself.

1 Cor. 2:1-16

Recovered "original" letter read by the Christ Interpolator:

1 When I came to you, brethren, I did not come proclaiming to you the testimony of God in lofty words or wisdom.

2a For I decided to know nothing among you
2b [...].


3 And I was with you in weakness and in much fear and trembling;

4 and my speech and my message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power,

5 - 7a [...],

7b which God decreed before the ages for our glorification.

8 [...].

9 But, as it is written, "What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him," (Loose quote of Isa 64:4, 52:15; Compare Sir 1:10; Also quoted in 1 Clement 34)

10 God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God.

11 For what person knows a man's thoughts except the spirit of the man which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God.

12 Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is from God, that we might understand the gifts bestowed on us by God.

13 And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who possess the Spirit.

14 The unspiritual man does not receive the gifts of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned.

15 The spiritual man judges all things, but is himself to be judged by no one.

16a "For who has known the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?" (Isa 40:13)
16b [...].

Hypothetical Christ interpolations introducing a Christ myth into the original narrative:

[2a For I decided to know nothing among you ... (this is the original letter's sentence to which the Christ interpolator was reacting)]
2:2b except Jesus Christ and him crucified

5 that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men but in the power of God (anarthrous).

6 Yet among the perfect (ones) we do impart wisdom, although it is not a wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are doomed to pass away.

7a But we impart God’s (anarthrous) wisdom in a mystery which has been hidden

8 None of the rulers of this age understood this; for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory

16b But we have the mind of Christ

2 Cor 5:1-11

Recovered "original" letter read by the Christ Interpolator:

5:1 - 9 [...].

10a For we must all appear before the judgment seat
10b [...],
10c so that each one may receive good or evil, according to what he has done in the body.

11 [...].

12 We are not commending ourselves to you again but giving you cause to be proud of us, so that you may be able to answer those who pride themselves on a man's position and not on his heart.

13 [...].

14a For the love
14b [...]
14c controls us,
14d - 15a [...],
15b that those who live might live no longer for themselves but for the (one) over them (i.e., God)
15c [...].

16a From now on, therefore, we regard no one from a human point of view;
16b [...].

Hypothetical Christ interpolations introducing a Christ myth into the original narrative:

1 For we know that if the earthly tent we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

2 Here indeed we groan, and long to put on our heavenly dwelling,

3 so that by putting it on we may not be found naked.

4 For while we are still in this tent, we sigh with anxiety; not that we would be unclothed, but that we would be further clothed, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.

5 He who has prepared us for this very thing is God, who has given us the Spirit as a guarantee.

6 So we are always of good courage; we know that while we are at home in the body we are away from the Lord,

7 for we walk by faith, not by sight.

8 We are of good courage, and we would rather be away from the body and at home with the Lord.

9 So whether we are at home or away, we make it our aim to please him

10b of Christ

11 Therefore, knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade men; but what we are is known to God, and I hope it is known also to your conscience

13 For if we are beside ourselves, it is for God; if we are in our right mind, it is for you

14b of Christ
14d because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died.

15a And he died for all
15c the (one) having died and the (one) having been raised up

16b even though we once regarded Christ from a human point of view, we regard him thus no longer

What this has-to-be-wrong hypothesis does is bracket off material that relate to Christ myth theology. The verses under scrutiny in this thread (1 Cor. 2:2; 2 Cor. 5:16) have been underlined (for whatever reason I cannot select a color). What this demonstrates is that the Christ myth interpolator had his own POV quite different from the POV of the writer of the original letters as read by the interpolator. The dynamics of an interpolator introducing Christ myth theology into an original letter that knew nothing of Jesus as the expected Judean messiah, much less Jesus as a semi-divine savior figure, demonstrates that the proponents of the Christ myth found communities that read letters of Paul that dealt with ways that gentiles who trusted in the Judean god could co-inherit the fruitful land promised by God to Abraham's offspring.

This is similar to scholars on Marcion proposing that Marcion had read ur-texts of one or more collections of letters of Paul, then proposed what he thought was genuine, and what he imagined were Judaic adulterations interpolated into the original letters of Paul. While my hypothesis takes the opposite approach (letters by a Judean who was within the fringes of mainstream of the accepted practices of Diaspora Judeans.

So, setting it to the tune of the famous US vintage camp/bible study song: "If it's good for Marc-i-on, If it's good for Marc-i-on, If it's good for Marc-i-on, then it's good enough for meeee!"

But, what do I know anyhow, eh?

DCH

User avatar
DCHindley
Posts: 2622
Joined: Mon Oct 07, 2013 9:53 am
Location: Ohio, USA

Re: Did Paul know Jesus?

Post by DCHindley » Sun Mar 10, 2019 12:49 pm

arnoldo wrote:
Sun Mar 10, 2019 8:33 am
DCHindley wrote:
Sun Mar 10, 2019 8:03 am
What this has-to-be-wrong hypothesis does is bracket off material that relate to Christ myth theology. The verses under scrutiny in this thread (1 Cor. 2:2; 2 Cor. 5:16) have been underlined (for whatever reason I cannot select a color). What this demonstrates is that the Christ myth interpolator had his own POV quite different from the POV of the writer of the original letters as read by the interpolator. The dynamics of an interpolator introducing Christ myth theology into an original letter that knew nothing of Jesus as the expected Judean messiah, much less Jesus as a semi-divine savior figure, demonstrates that the proponents of the Christ myth found communities that read letters of Paul that dealt with ways that gentiles who trusted in the Judean god could co-inherit the fruitful land promised by God to Abraham's offspring.

This is similar to scholars on Marcion proposing that Marcion had read ur-texts of one or more collections of letters of Paul, then proposed what he thought was genuine, and what he imagined were Judaic adulterations interpolated into the original letters of Paul. While my hypothesis takes the opposite approach (letters by a Judean who was within the fringes of mainstream of the accepted practices of Diaspora Judeans, which were interpolated by Christ-myth theology).

... But, what do I know anyhow, eh?
No, it is an interesting theory. Along this lines it would be possible Paul didn't also know Cephas, no?

Galatians 2:11( Young's Literal Translation)
And when Peter came to Antioch, to the face I stood up against him, because he was blameworthy,

Dont know what happened to your original message above. Maybe you pulled it once you realized this was a can of worms. :scratch:

The way I figure it, Paul knew a Cephas, a John and a James (Jacob). Paul, to legitimatize his theological stance that gentiles who trust in the Judean God should be accepted as co-heirs to the promises God had made to Abraham, he had lined up priests among the Temple apparatus who would accept these as if from Judeans in the diaspora. These three were likely his priestly contacts.

The interpolator him/herself had known of disciples of Jesus, one Simon aka Peter, one named John, and Jesus' brother James/Jacob. These figures who surrounded Jesus functioned as leaders of his movement after his death, at least until the utter obliteration of Judean society and culture due to Roman response to the Judean rebellion of 66-74 CE.

Of these particular names, James/Jacob and John were exceptionally common in that era, especially in Judean dominated areas. Cephas is a Greek variant of a Hebrew/Aramaic name that is translated Caiaphas in the NT and slightly different in Josephus, although not necessarily the HP by that name in the NT). Peter as a name is not well attested but would be suitable for someone's nick-name if he was known as laying a foundation for something.

My guess would be that Peter represented the Gentile followers of Jesus (who they venerated as a divinely appointed ruler of the future messianic kingdom), primarily resident in Judea, Galilee/Transjordan, Trachonitis, Samaria and Southern Syria up to Antioch. James seemed to have this same role among native born Judeans in these same areas. John, my guess is, was interested in the Hellenized Judeans of the Diaspora who were re-settling in Judea, but not those actually living in the Greek speaking areas.

Paul, for his part, may have worked with Greek speaking households of one of the branches of the Herodian family (possibly one of the princes appointed as client kings of a buffer state against the Parthian empire.

When I did my thing with Galatians, I came up with the following:

Galatians 1:6-24

Recovered "original" text read by interpolator:

1:6a I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting him who called you so graciously [i.e., God]
6b [...]
6c and turning to a different (sort of) good news,

7a not that there is another (sort of) good news, but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the (actual) good news 7b [...].

8 But even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you good news contrary to that which we preached to you, let him be accursed.

9 As we have said before, so now I say again, If any one is preaching to you a good news contrary to that which you received, let him be accursed.

10a Am I now seeking the favor of men, or of God? Or am I trying to please men? If I were still pleasing men, I should not be a servant
10b [...].

11 For I would have you know, brethren, that the good news which was preached by me is not man's good news.

12a For I did not receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came through a revelation
12b [...].

13 For you have heard of my former life in Judaism, how I persecuted the church of God violently and tried to destroy it;

14 and I advanced in Judaism beyond many of my own age among my people, so extremely zealous was I for the traditions of my fathers.

15 But when it pleased God, who had set me apart before I was born, and had called me through his grace,

16a to reveal
16b [...]
16c to me that I might declare [God's]
16e “good news” among the Gentiles, I did not confer with flesh and blood,

17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia; and again I returned to Damascus.

18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas, and remained with him fifteen days.

19a But I saw none of the other apostles except James
19b [...].

20 (In what I am writing to you, before God, I do not lie!)

21 Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia.

22a And I was still not known by sight to the churches
22b [...]
22c in Judea;

23 they only heard it said, "He who once persecuted us is now preaching the faith he once tried to destroy."

24 And they glorified God because of me.

The interpolator's introduced Christ myth theology:

6b through Christ

7b (about) the Christ

10b of Christ

12b of Jesus Christ

16b his Son
<him (as)> per existing text

19b the Lord's brother

22b of Christ

Gal 2:1-21

Recovered "original" letter read by the interpolator:

2:1 Then after fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along with me.

2 I went up by revelation; and I laid before them (but privately before those who were of repute) the good news which I preach among the Gentiles, lest somehow I should be running or had run in vain.

3 But even Titus, who was with me, was not compelled to be circumcised, though he was a Greek,

4a (in spite of false brethren secretly brought in, who slipped in to spy out our freedom which we have
4b [...],
4c in order to bring us into bondage,

5 to whom we did not yield submission even for a moment, that the truth of the good news might be preserved for you).

6 And from those who were reputed to be something (what they were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality)--those, I say, who were of repute added nothing to me;

7a but on the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the good news to the uncircumcised,
7b - 8 [...],

9 and when they perceived the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised;

10 only they would have us remember the Poor, which very thing I was eager to do.

11 But when Cephas came to Antioch I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned.

12 For before certain men came from James, he ate with the Gentiles; but when they came he drew back and separated himself, fearing the circumcision party.

13 And with him the rest of the Jews acted insincerely, so that even Barnabas was carried away by their insincerity.

14 But when I saw that they were not straightforward about the truth of the good news, I said to Cephas before them all, "If you, though a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?"

15 We ourselves, who are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners,

16a yet who know that a man is not justified by works of the law but through faith
16b [...],
16c even we have believed
16d [...],
16e in order to be justified by faith
16f [...],
16g and not by works of the law, because by works of the law “shall no one be justified.” (Ps 143:2)

17a But if, in our endeavor to be justified 17b [...],
17c we ourselves were found to be sinners, are we
17d [...]
17e then a servant of sin? Certainly not!

18 -20 [...];

21a I do not nullify the grace of God;
21b [...].

Christ myth theology introduced into original text by the interpolator:

4b in Christ Jesus

7b just as Peter had been entrusted with the good news to the circumcised

8 for he who worked through Peter for the mission to the circumcised worked through me also for the Gentiles

16b in Jesus Christ

16d in Christ Jesus

16e in Christ

17b in Christ

17d is Christ

18 If I build up again those things which I tore down, then I prove myself a transgressor.

19 For I through the law died to the law, that I might live to God.

20 I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me and the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me

21b for if justification were through the law, then Christ died to no purpose

IMHO, this interpolator was trying to harmonize these differing traditions, by equating Paul's Cephas with the interpolator's Peter, Paul's Jacob (the priest) with Jesus' "brother" Jacob (who was probably not really a priest but a Rechabite), and Paul's John (the priest) with John the disciple of Jesus (probably not a priest). At a much later time, whoever organized the distribution of approved NT manuscripts, added "wh is also Cephas" to John 1:42 "You shall be called Cephas" (which means Peter)." Nowhere else in the Gospels or Acts speaks of Cephas, only Peter, except in the Pauline corpus letters to the Galatians and 1 Corinthians.

This might be a good place to offer up this table of the readings for Cephas as opposed to Peter in this block of text:


Verse
GNT (based on earliest manuscripts)
TR (Received Text/Byzantine tradition)
KHFAS
PETROS
1 COR 1:12 Κηφᾶ = KHFA Κηφᾶ = KHFA ALL
1 COR 3:22 Κηφᾶ = KHFA Κηφᾶ = KHFA ALL
1 COR 9:5 Κηφᾶ = KHFA Κηφᾶ = KHFA ALL
1 COR 15:5 Κηφᾷ = KHFA Κηφᾷ = KHFA ALL
GAL 1:18 Κηφᾶν = KHFAN Πέτρον = PETRON p46, 01, 02, 03 06, 012, 018, 020
GAL 2:7 Πέτρος = PETROS Πέτρος = PETROS ALL
GAL 2:8 Πέτρῳ = PETRW Πέτρῳ = PETRW ALL
GAL 2:9 Κηφᾶς = KHFAS Κηφᾶς = KHFAS 01, 03, 04, 018, 020 p46, 06, 012
GAL 2:11 Κηφᾶς = KHFAS Πέτρος = PETROS 01, 02, 03, 04, 015 p46, 06, 012, 018, 020
GAL 2:14 Κηφᾷ = KHFA Πέτρῳ = PETRW p46, 01, 02, 03, 04, 015 06, 012, 018, 020

Key:
p46 (c. AD 81-96 [Kim]/c. AD 150 [Comfort]/c. AD 200 [Aland])
p66 (c. AD 90-110[Hunger]/c. AD 150 [Comfort]/c. AD 200 [Aland])
p75 (c. AD 175-225 [Martin/Kasser]/c. AD 275-300 [Comfort]/III [Aland])
p106 (c. AD 200-250 [Comfort]/III [Aland])
01 = א (Sinaiticus, IV)
02 = A (Alexandrinus, V)
03 = B (Vaticanus, IV)
04 = C (Ephraemi Rescriptus, V)
06 = D (Claromontanus, VI)
012 = G (Boernerianus, IX)
015 = H (Euthalianus, VI)
018 = K (Moscow, IX)
020 = L (Rome, IX)

DCH
Last edited by DCHindley on Sun Mar 10, 2019 1:06 pm, edited 3 times in total.

Post Reply