The Formation of Revelation 13

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The Formation of Revelation 13

Post by klewis » Sat Nov 09, 2019 2:30 pm

Revelation chapter 13 was a product of Daniel 7 and parallel formation of other sections within Revelation.

As always, there is more to the story, but this is the gist of it. Examples taken from my book How John Wrote the Book of Revelation from Concept to Publication.

The adding of the beast into Revelation was a simple matter of copying the seventh chapter of Daniel onto a new wax tablet with only slight changes to the text. In constructing the beast narrative, John focuses on the beast’s power and how he will ultimately prevail over the saints.
The beast came from the sea (Dan 7:2). The beast came from the sea (Rev 13:1).
The first was like a lion (Dan 7:4). He had a mouth like a lion (Rev 13:2).
The second was like a bear (Dan 7:5). He had feet like a bear (Rev 13:2).
The third was like a leopard (Dan 7:6). He was a leopard (Rev 13:2)
The fourth was strong and destryed anything left (Dan 7:7). He destroyed all the nations and the saints (Rev 13:4-7).
He spoke great things (Dan 7:8).
He shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High (Dan 7:25).
He spoke blasphemous things against God.
Authority to make war for forty-two months* was given to him. (Rev 13:5).
The last beast had ten horns (Dan 7:7). he had ten horns (Rev 13:1).
There came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots: and behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things (Dan 7:8).

Concerning the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn which came up, and before which three fell, even that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke great things, whose look was more stout than its fellows (Dan 7:20)
I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. He had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke like a dragon (Rev 13:11).

He exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence (Rev 13:12).
The interpretation of these things (Dan 7:16) Here is wisdom. He who has understanding . . . .
His number is 666 (Rev 13:18).

When John separates content derived from a Hebrew scripture source he uses a phrase

The interpretation of these things (Dan 7:16) Here is the mind that has wisdom (Rev 17:9 text from Rev 13:8)
These great animals, which are four, are four kings, who shall arise out of the earth (Dan 7:17).
The fourth animal shall be a fourth kingdom on earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces (Dan 7:23).
As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall ten kings arise: and another shall arise after them; and he shall be diverse from the former, and he shall put down three kings (Dan 7:24).
The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sits (Rev 17:9).
They are seven kings. Five have fallen, the one is, the other has not yet come. When he comes, he must continue a little while (Rev 17:10).
The beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goes to destruction (Rev 17:11).
The ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority as kings, with the beast, for one hour (Rev 17:12).
I saw, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them (Dan 7:21). These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is the lord of lords, and king of kings, and those who are with him are called chosen and faithful (Rev 17:14).

When John finished inserting Daniel 7 into where Revelation 13 is today he then bulked it up through the process of parallel formation with Revelation 5:
God on the throne (Rev 5:1) Satan on his throne (Rev 13:4)
“Who is worthy to open the book, and to break its seals?” (Rev 5:2). “Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?” (Rev 13:4).
“He [Jesus] bought us for God with your blood, out of every tribe, language, people, and nation, and made us kings and priests to our God, and we will reign on the earth.” (Rev 5:10) The beast was mortally wounded (Rev 13:3).
He made war with the saints from every tribe, language, people, and nation.
The false prophet made everyone worship the beast or they will not be able to purchase food (Rev 13:7.

The parallel that John formed with Revelation 5 and Revelation 13 allows us to see a portion of the editing process in which John moved, instead of copied, Daniel 7:10, 14 to Revelation 5:11, 13.

Before him: thousands of thousands ministered to him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him (Dan 7:10). I heard something like a voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousands of ten thousands, and thousands of thousands (Rev 5:11).
There was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom which shall not be destroyed (Dan 7:14). “To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen!” (Rev 5:13).

John connected the first three churches with the beast narrative in Revelation 13:1-17 by forming an inverted parallel and using synonyms as a means of connecting the two. The church in Ephesus forms a simple parallel with the false prophet, the church in Smyrna forms a complex parallel with the middle portion of the beast narrative. The church in Pergamum forms a simple parallel with the first third of the beast narrative. John is in effect making the parallel formation of the first three churches an inverted parallel where the parallel formation itself is an inverted parallel.

This section is structurally a simple parallel:
The Church in Ephesus (Rev 2:1-7)
A. They tested those who call themselves apostles (syn: prophets) and found them to be false (Rev 2:2).

B. They endured for Jesus’ name’s sake (Rev 2:3).

C. If they overcome they will be able to eat of the tree of life (Rev 2:7).
The False Prophet (Rev 13:11-17)
A'. The [false prophet (syn: apostles; see 19:20)] deceives everyone (Rev 13:11-17).

B'. They have succumbed to the name of the beast (Rev 13:17).
C'. No one will eat without the mark of the beast (Rev 13:17).

The following section is structurally an inverted parallel / chiasmus in which the text of Smyrna goes forward and the parallel in Daniel 13:8-10 is backwards:
The church in Smyrna (Rev 2:8-11)
A. They are oppressed by the synagogue of Satan (Rev 2:9).

B. They will be taken to prison (syn: captivity) and some will be killed (Rev 2:10).

C. He who has an ear let him hear (Rev 2:11).

D. If they overcome they will not be harmed by the second death (in Rev 20:14-5 everyone not in the book of life will go to the second death) (Rev 2:11).
The Middle Portion of the Beast Narrative (Rev 13:8-10).
A'. Here is the endurance of the saints (Rev 13:10).

B'. If anyone is to go into captivity, he will go into captivity. If anyone is to be killed with the sword, he must be killed (Rev 13:10).

C'. If anyone has an ear let him hear (Rev 13:9).

D'. Everyone who worships the beast will not be in the book of life (Rev 13:8).

The following section forms a simple parallel with the church in Pergamum and Revelation 13:2-7:
The Church in Pergamum (Rev 2:12-7)
A. Where Satan’s throne is (Rev 2:13).

B. Antipas (meaning: against everyone) who was killed (Rev 2:13).

C. They eat food sacrificed to idols (Rev 2:16).

D. Those who are not faithful will face the sword of Jesus’ mouth (Rev 2:16; from Rev 19:15 where Jesus will war against the beast).
A'. Where the dragon’s throne is (Rev 13:2).

B'. The beast was fatally wounded (Rev 13:3).

C'. Everyone worshiped the beast (Rev 13:4).

D'. Who will war against the beast (Rev 13:4).

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