Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

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MrMacSon
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Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

Post by MrMacSon » Fri Nov 13, 2020 4:26 am

Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho Chapter 78 / LXXVIII (all dialogue in this chapter is attributed to Justin).

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Now this king Herod, at the time when the Magi came to him from Arabia, and said they knew from a star which appeared in the heavens that a King had been born in your country, and that they had come to worship Him, learned from the elders of your people that it was thus written regarding Bethlehem in the prophet: ‘And thou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art by no means least among the princes of Judah; for out of thee shall go forth the leader who shall feed my people’ [Micah 5.2].

Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to Bethlehem and worshipped the Child, and presented Him with gifts, gold and frankincense, and myrrh; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a revelation after worshipping the Child in Bethlehem. And Joseph, the spouse of Mary, who wished at first to put away his betrothed Mary, supposing her to be pregnant by intercourse with a man, i.e., from fornication, was commanded in a vision not to put away his wife; and the angel who appeared to him told him that what is in her womb is of the Holy Ghost. Then he was afraid, and did not put her away; but on the occasion of the first census which was taken in Judæa, under Cyrenius, he went up from Nazareth, where he lived, to Bethlehem, to which he belonged, to be enrolled; for his family was of the tribe of Judah, which then inhabited that region. Then along with Mary he is ordered to proceed into Egypt, and remain there with the Child until another revelation warn them to return into Judæa. But when the Child was born in Bethlehem, since Joseph could not find a lodging in that village, he took up his quarters in a certain cave near the village; and while they were there Mary brought forth the Christ and placed Him in a manger, and here the Magi who came from Arabia found Him.

I have repeated to you,” I continued, “what Isaiah foretold about the sign which foreshadowed the cave; but for the sake of those who have come with us to-day, I shall again remind you of the passage.”

Then I repeated the passage from Isaiah which I have already written,1 adding that, by means of those words, those who presided over the mysteries of Mithras were stirred up by the devil to say that in a place, called among them a cave, they were initiated by him/them [2244].

“So Herod, when the Magi from Arabia did not return to him, as he had asked them to do, but had departed by another way to their own country, according to the commands laid on them; and when Joseph, with Mary and the Child, had now gone into Egypt, as it was revealed to them to do; as he did not know the Child whom the Magi had gone to worship, ordered simply the whole of the children then in Bethlehem to be massacred. And Jeremiah prophesied that this would happen, speaking by the Holy Ghost thus: ‘A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and much wailing, Rachel weeping for her children; and she would not be comforted, because they are not’ [Jer. 31.15]

"Therefore, on account of the voice which would be heard from Ramah, i.e., from Arabia (for there is in Arabia at this very time a place called Rama), wailing would come on the place where Rachel the wife of Jacob called Israel, the holy patriarch, has been buried, i.e., on Bethlehem; while the women weep for their own slaughtered children, and have no consolation by reason of what has happened to them. For that expression of Isaiah, ‘He shall take the power of Damascus and spoils of Samaria,’ foretold that the power of the evil demon that dwelt in Damascus should be overcome by Christ as soon as He was born; and this is proved to have happened.

"For the Magi, who were held in bondage / [spoiled]2 for the commission of all evil deeds through the power of that demon, by coming to worship Christ, shows that they have revolted from that dominion which held them captive; and this [dominion] the Scripture has showed us to reside in Damascus. Moreover, that sinful and unjust power is termed well in parable, Samaria [2247].2 And none of you can deny that Damascus was, and is, in the region of Arabia, although now it belongs to what is called Syrophœnicia. Hence it would be becoming for you, sirs, to learn what you have not perceived, from those who have received grace from God, namely, from us Christians; and not to strive in every way to maintain your own doctrines, dishonouring those of God.

Therefore also this grace has been transferred to us, as Isaiah says, speaking to the following effect: ‘This people draws near to Me, they honour Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me; but in vain they worship Me, teaching the commands and doctrines of men. Therefore, behold, I will proceed to remove this people, and I shall remove them; and I shall take away the wisdom of their wise men, and bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent men’ [Isa. 29. 13.14]. ”

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2244 Text has, by “them;” but Maranus says the artifice lay in the priest’s compelling the initiated to say that Mithras himself was the initiator in the cave.1

2247 Justin thinks the “spoils of Samaria” denote 'spoils of Satan'; Tertull[ian] thinks that they are 'spoils of Christ'.2

https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01. ... xviii.html
.

2 That's quite a contrast: the spoils of Samaria being denoted as the spoils of Satan v the spoils of Christ. Where does Tertullian address this? Does Justin address or refer to it elsewhere?

1 The only other place I am aware where Justin cites Isaiah in reference to a cave is chapter 70 of Dial. Trypho; after he also makes reference to a cave as the place ''those who believe in Mithras are initiated". And a rock features in relation to a cave in both (i) the passage in which Justin refers to Mithras (being begotten of a rock), and (ii) in Isaiah, in Isa. 33:16.

Dialogue with Trypho 70 (again, all dialogue attributed to Justin)

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"And when those who record the mysteries of Mithras say that he was begotten of a rock, and call the place where those who believe in him are initiated a cave, do I not perceive here that the utterance of Daniel, that a stone without hands was cut out of a great mountain, has been imitated by them, and that they have attempted likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah’s [2210] words? [2211] For they [ie. the devils] contrived that the words of righteousness be quoted also by them [ie. the priests of Mithras]. But I must repeat to you the words of Isaiah referred to, in order that from them you may know that these things are so. They are these:

‘Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; those that are near shall know my might. The sinners in Zion are removed; trembling shall seize the impious. Who shall announce to you the everlasting place? The man who walks in righteousness, speaks in the right way, hates sin and unrighteousness, and keeps his hands pure from bribes, stops the ears from hearing the unjust judgment of blood closes the eyes from seeing unrighteousness: he shall dwell in the lofty cave of the strong rock. Bread shall be given to him, and his water [shall be] sure. Ye shall see the King with glory, and your eyes shall look far off. Your soul shall pursue diligently the fear of the Lord. Where is the scribe? Where are the counsellors? Where is he that numbers those who are nourished,—the small and great people? With whom they did not take counsel, nor knew the depth of the voices, so that they heard not. The people who are become depreciated, and there is no understanding in him who hears’ [Isaiah 33:13-19]

"Now it is evident, that in this prophecy [allusion is made] to the bread which our Christ gave us to eat [2215] in remembrance of His being made flesh for the sake of His believers, for whom also He suffered; and to the cup which He gave us to drink [2216] in remembrance of His own blood, with giving of thanks. And this prophecy proves that we shall behold this very King with glory; and the very terms of the prophecy declare loudly, that the people foreknown to believe in Him were foreknown to pursue diligently the fear of the Lord. Moreover, these Scriptures are equally explicit in saying, that those who are reputed to know the writings of the Scriptures, and who hear the prophecies, have no understanding. And when I hear, Trypho,” said I, “that Perseus was begotten of a virgin, I understand that the deceiving serpent counterfeited also this."

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2210: The text here has ταῦτα ποιῆσαι ὁμοίως. Maranus suggests ᾽Ησαίου for ποιῆσαι; and so we have translated.

2211: Justin says that the priests of Mithras imitated all the words of Isaiah about to be quoted; and to prove it, is content with a single example, namely, the precepts of righteousness, which they were wont to relate to him, as in these words of Isaiah: “He who walks in righteousness,” etc. Justin omitted many other passages, as easy and obvious. For since Mithras is the same as fire, it manifestly answers to the fire of which Isaiah speaks. And since Justin reminded them who are initiated, that they are said to be initiated by Mithras himself, it was not necessary to remind them that the words of Isaiah are imitated in this: “You shall see the King with glory.” Bread and water are referred to by Isaiah: so also in these mysteries of Mithras, Justin testifies that bread and a cup of water are placed before them (Apol. i.).—Maranus.

2215, 2216: Literally, “to do,” ποιεῖν. [The horrible charge of banqueting on blood, etc., constantly repeated against Christians, was probably based on the Eucharist. See Kaye’s Illustrations from Tatian, Athenagorus, and Theoph. Antioch., cap. ix. p. 153.]

https://ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01/anf0 ... v.lxx.html
.

Why would Justin be worried about charging the believers in Mithras with attempting to "likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah’s words?" [2211]


A comparison of the beginning of Dialogue with Trypho 78 and most of Matthew 2 -

Dial. Trypho 78
Matthew 2:1-12 (NRSV)




Now this king Herod, at the time when the Magi came to him
from Arabia, and said they knew from a star which appeared in
the heavens
that a King had been born
in your country, and that
they had come to worship Him, learned from the elders of your
people that it was thus written regarding Bethlehem in the prophet:

‘And thou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
art by no means least among the princes of Judah;
for out of thee shall go forth the leader who shall feed my people’
[Micah 5.2].

Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to Bethlehem and worshipped
the Child, and presented Him with gifts, gold and frankincense, and myrrh; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a revelation after worshipping the Child in Bethlehem.

[essentially Matt 1:18-24 here] Then along with Mary he [Joseph] is ordered to proceed into Egypt, and remain there with the Child until another revelation warn them to return into Judæa.

But when the Child was born in Bethlehem, since Joseph could not find a lodging in that village, he took up his quarters in a certain cave near the village; and while they were there Mary brought forth the Christ and placed Him in a manger, and here the Magi who came from Arabia found Him.

I have repeated to you,” I continued, “what Isaiah foretold about the sign which foreshadowed the cave; but for the sake of those who have come with us to-day, I shall again remind you of the passage.”

Then I repeated the passage from Isaiah which I have already written [Isaiah 33:13-19] adding that, by means of those words, those who presided over the mysteries of Mithras were stirred up by the devil to say that in a place, called among them a cave, they were initiated by him / them [2244].

“So Herod, when the Magi from Arabia did not return to him, as he had asked them to do, but had departed by another way to their own country, according to the commands laid on them; and when Joseph, with Mary and the Child, had now gone into Egypt, as it was revealed to them to do; as he did not know the Child whom the Magi had gone to worship, ordered simply the whole of the children then in Bethlehem to be massacred. And Jeremiah prophesied that this would happen, speaking by the Holy Ghost thus:

‘A voice was heard in Ramah,
lamentation and much wailing,
Rachel weeping for her children;
and she would not be comforted, because they are not’
[Jer. 31.15]

"Therefore, on account of the voice which would be heard from Ramah, i.e., from Arabia (for there is in Arabia at this very time a place called Rama), wailing would come on the place where Rachel the wife of Jacob called Israel, the holy patriarch, has been buried, i.e., on Bethlehem; while the women weep for their own slaughtered children, and have no consolation by reason of what has happened to them.

[etc]
.
In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, "Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at its rising, and have come to pay him homage."

When King Herod heard this, he was frightened and all Jerusalem with him; and calling together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. They told him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for so it has been written by the prophet:

'And you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
are by no means least among the rulers of Judah;
for from you shall come a ruler who is to shepherd my people Israel'." [Micah 5.2, modified(?)]

Then Herod secretly called for the wise men and learned from them the exact time when the star had appeared. Then he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, "Go and search diligently for the child; and when you have found him, bring me word so that I may also go and pay him homage."

When they had heard the king, they set out; and there, ahead of them, went the star that they had seen at its rising, until it stopped over the place where the child was. When they saw that the star had stopped, they were overwhelmed with joy. On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother; and they knelt down and paid him homage. Then, opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.

And having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they [the Magi] left for their own country by another path.

13 Now after they had left, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Get up, take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there until I tell you; for Herod is about to search for the child, to destroy him.” 14 Then Joseph got up, took the child and his mother by night, and went to Egypt, 15 and remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet [Hosea], “Out of Egypt I have called my son.” [Hos. 11:1]

16 When Herod saw that he had been tricked by the wise men, he was infuriated, and he sent and killed all the children in and around Bethlehem who were two years old or under, according to the time that he had learned from the wise men. 17 Then was fulfilled what had been spoken through the prophet Jeremiah:

18 “A voice was heard in Ramah,
wailing and loud lamentation,
Rachel weeping for her children;
she refused to be consoled, because they are no more.”
[Jer. 31:15]

The account of Justin Martyr seems more convoluted that that of Matthew 2, almost as if Justin is philosophising in a fuller draft version, and Matthew is a pared-down. more straight-forward final version of the account. Why did Justin feel the need discuss and tease out Mithras, Isaiah, the cave, around the Magi if he was working off Matt 2?

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Ben C. Smith
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Re: Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

Post by Ben C. Smith » Fri Nov 13, 2020 8:02 am

MrMacSon wrote:
Fri Nov 13, 2020 4:26 am
That's quite a contrast: the spoils of Samaria being denoted as the spoils of Satan v the spoils of Christ. Where does Tertullian address this? Does Justin address or refer to it elsewhere?
Well, it looks like a reference to chapter 9 of Against the Jews, to chapter 20 of On the Resurrection of the Flesh, or to chapters 12-14 of book 3 of Against Marcion, but I do not read those passages as suggesting that Christ himself is the spoils or plunder of Samaria. He seems to be welcoming the Magi as the spoils of Samaria, similar to what Justin says. If there is another reference to this motif in which Christ himself is said to be the spoils, I guess I do not know where it is; or if one of the statements in one of those passages suggests Christ as the spoils, it has not yet sunk in for me. Maybe Stephan knows what is being referred to here; Tertullian and Justin are kind of his boys.
The only other place I am aware where Justin cites Isaiah in reference to a cave is chapter 70 of Dial. Trypho....
Right. That is the chapter he is referring to when he says that he has already given the text of the the passage from Isaiah.
Why would Justin be worried about charging the believers in Mithras with attempting to "likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah’s words?"
Because he is keen, both here and elsewhere, to make Christianity primary and its competitors secondary. He is saying that Mithras copied Christianity where they sometimes seem to be similar, and not vice versa.
The account of Justin Martyr seems more convoluted that that of Matthew 2, almost as if Justin is philosophising in a fuller draft version, and Matthew is a pared-down. more straight-forward final version of the account.
Surely it goes the other way around. Justin is consciously and visibly commenting on stories and texts which are already in place before him, and one of those stories or texts either is or looks very similar to Matthew 2. Matthew is the base text, Justin the interpretation.
Why did Justin feel the need discuss and tease out Mithras, Isaiah, the cave, around the Magi if he was working off Matt 2?
Because he is doing what apologists and theologians do: draw meaning and connections out of texts deemed to be authoritative or inspired.

The following is what I have for Dialogue 78 so far as references to the gospel texts are concerned (that is, I am focusing on Justin's parallels with the gospels, not with Tertullian or other patristic authors except insofar as they inform our view of Justin's use of his materials):

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 78.1-11: 1 “Now this king Herod, at the time when the Magi came to him from Arabia and said they knew from a star which appeared in the heavens that a King had been born in your country, and that they had come to worship Him, learned from the elders of your people that it was thus written regarding Bethlehem in the prophet, ‘And you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the princes of Judah; for out of you shall go forth the leader who shall feed my people’ (= Micah 5.2). 2 Accordingly the Magi from Arabia came to Bethlehem and worshiped the Child, and presented Him with gifts, gold and frankincense, and myrrh; but returned not to Herod, being warned in a revelation after worshipping the Child in Bethlehem. 3 And Joseph, the spouse of Mary, who wished at first to put away his betrothed Mary, supposing her to be pregnant by intercourse with a man, that is, from fornication, was commanded in a vision not to put away his wife; and the angel who appeared to him told him that what is in her womb is of the Holy Spirit. 4 Then he was afraid, and did not put her away; but on the occasion of the first census which was taken in Judea, under Cyrenius, he went up from Nazareth, where he lived, to Bethlehem, to which he belonged, to be enrolled; for his family was of the tribe of Judah, which then inhabited that region. Then along with Mary he is ordered to proceed into Egypt, and remain there with the Child until another revelation warn them to return into Judea. 5 But when the Child was born in Bethlehem, since Joseph could not find a lodging in that village, he took up his quarters in a certain cave near the village; and while they were there Mary brought forth the Christ and placed Him in a manger, and here the Magi who came from Arabia found Him. 6 I have repeated to you,” I continued, “what Isaiah foretold about the sign which foreshadowed the cave; but for the sake of those who have come with us today, I shall again remind you of the passage.” Then I repeated the passage from Isaiah which I have already written (= Isaiah 33.13-19; Dialogue 70.1-3), adding that, by means of those words, those who presided over the mysteries of Mithras were stirred up by the devil to say that in a place, called among them a cave, they were initiated by him. 7 “So Herod, when the Magi from Arabia did not return to him, as he had asked them to do, but had departed by another way to their own country, according to the commands laid on them; and when Joseph, with Mary and the Child, had now gone into Egypt, as it was revealed to them to do; as he did not know the Child whom the Magi had gone to worship, ordered simply the whole of the children then in Bethlehem to be massacred. 8 And Jeremiah prophesied that this would happen, speaking by the Holy Spirit thus, ‘A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and much wailing, Rachel weeping for her children; and she would not be comforted, because they are not’ (= Jeremiah 31.15). Therefore, on account of the voice which would be heard from Ramah, that is, from Arabia, for there is in Arabia at this very time a place called Rama, wailing would come on the place where Rachel the wife of Jacob called Israel, the holy patriarch, has been buried, that is, on Bethlehem; while the women weep for their own slaughtered children, and have no consolation by reason of what has happened to them. 9 For that expression of Isaiah, ‘He shall take the power of Damascus and spoils of Samaria’ (= Isaiah 8.4), foretold that the power of the evil demon that dwelt in Damascus should be overcome by Christ as soon as He was born; and this is proved to have happened. For the Magi, who were held in bondage for the commission of all evil deeds through the power of that demon, by coming to worship Christ, shows that they have revolted from that dominion which held them captive; and this the Scripture has showed us to reside in Damascus. 10 Moreover, that sinful and unjust power is termed well in parable, Samaria. And none of you can deny that Damascus was, and is, in the region of Arabia (although now it belongs to what is called Syrophoenicia). Hence it would be becoming for you, O men, to learn what you have not perceived, from those who have received grace from God, namely, from us Christians; and not to strive in every way to maintain your own doctrines, dishonoring those of God. 11 Therefore also this grace has been transferred to us, as Isaiah says, speaking to the following effect, ‘This people draws near to Me, they honor Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me; but in vain they worship Me, teaching the commands and doctrines of men. Therefore, behold, I will proceed to remove this people, and I shall remove them; and I shall take away the wisdom of their wise men, and bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent men’ (= Isaiah 29-13-14).” / 1 «καὶ γὰρ οὗτος ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρώδης, μαθὼν παρὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων τοῦ λαοῦ ὑμῶν, τότε ἐλθόντων πρὸς αὐτὸν τῶν ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας μάγων, καὶ εἰπόντων ἐξ ἀστέρος τοῦ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ φανέντος ἐγνωκέναι ὅτι βασιλεὺς γεγένηται ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ ὑμῶν, καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτόν, καὶ ἐν Βηθλεὲμ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων εἰπόντων, ὅτι γέγραπται ἐν τῷ προφήτῃ οὕτως, ‹Καὶ σὺ Βηθλεέμ, γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα· ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου.› 2 τῶν ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας οὖν μάγων ἐλθόντων εἰς Βηθλεὲμ καὶ προσκυνησάντων τὸ παιδίον καὶ προσενεγκάντων αὐτῷ δῶρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν, ἔπειτα κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν, μετὰ τὸ προσκυνῆσαι τὸν παῖδα ἐν Βηθλεέμ, ἐκελεύσθησαν μὴ ἐπανελθεῖν πρὸς τὸν Ἡρώδην. 3 καὶ Ἰωσὴφ δέ, ὁ τὴν Μαρίαν μεμνηστευμένος, βουληθεὶς πρότερον ἐκβαλεῖν τὴν μνηστὴν αὐτῷ Μαριάμ, νομίζων ἐγκυμονεῖν αὐτὴν ἀπὸ συνουσίας ἀνδρός, τοῦτ´ ἔστιν ἀπὸ πορνείας, δι´ ὁράματος κεκέλευστο μὴ ἐκβαλεῖν τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, εἰπόντος αὐτῷ τοῦ φανέντος ἀγγέλου ὅτι ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου ὃ ἔχει κατὰ γαστρός ἐστι. 4 φοβηθεὶς οὖν οὐκ ἐκβέβληκεν αὐτήν, ἀλλά, ἀπογραφῆς οὔσης ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ τότε πρώτης ἐπὶ Κυρηνίου, ἀνεληλύθει ἀπὸ Ναζαρέτ, ἔνθα ᾤκει, εἰς Βηθλεέμ, ὅθεν ἦν, ἀπογράψασθαι· ἀπὸ γὰρ τῆς κατοικούσης τὴν γῆν ἐκείνην φυλῆς Ἰούδα τὸ γένος ἦν. καὶ αὐτὸς ἅμα τῇ Μαρίᾳ κελεύεται ἐξελθεῖν εἰς Αἴγυπτον καὶ εἶναι ἐκεῖ ἅμα τῷ παιδίῳ, ἄχρις ἂν αὐτοῖς πάλιν ἀποκαλυφθῇ ἐπανελθεῖν εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν. 5 γεννηθέντος δὲ τότε τοῦ παιδίου ἐν Βηθλεέμ, ἐπειδὴ Ἰωσὴφ οὐκ εἶχεν ἐν τῇ κώμῃ ἐκείνῃ που καταλῦσαι, ἐν σπηλαίῳ τινὶ σύνεγγυς τῆς κώμης κατέλυσε· καὶ τότε, αὐτῶν ὄντων ἐκεῖ, ἐτετόκει ἡ Μαρία τὸν Χριστὸν καὶ ἐν φάτνῃ αὐτὸν ἐτεθείκει, ὅπου ἐλθόντες οἱ ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας μάγοι εὗρον αὐτόν. 6 ὅτι δὲ Ἠσαίας καὶ περὶ τοῦ συμβόλου τοῦ κατὰ τὸ σπήλαιον προεκεκηρύχει, ἀνιστόρησα ὑμῖν,» ἔφην, «καὶ δι´ αὐτοὺς δὲ τοὺς σήμερον σὺν ὑμῖν ἐλθόντας πάλιν τῆς περικοπῆς ἐπιμνησθήσομαι,» εἶπον· καὶ ἀνιστόρησα ἣν καὶ προέγραψα ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἠσαίου περικοπήν, εἰπὼν διὰ τοὺς λόγους ἐκείνους τοὺς τὰ Μίθρα μυστήρια παραδιδόντας, ἐν τόπῳ ἐπικαλουμένῳ παρ´ αὐτοῖς σπηλαίῳ μυεῖσθαι ὑπ´ αὐτῶν, ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου ἐνεργηθῆναι εἰπεῖν. 7 «Καὶ ὁ Ἡρώδης, μὴ ἐπανελθόντων πρὸς αὐτὸν τῶν ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας μάγων, ὡς ἠξίωσεν αὐτοὺς ποιῆσαι, ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὰ κελευσθέντα αὐτοῖς δι´ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν ἀπαλλαγέντων, καὶ τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ ἅμα τῇ Μαρίᾳ καὶ τῷ παιδίῳ, ὡς καὶ αὐτοῖς ἀποκεκάλυπτο, ἤδη ἐξελθόντων εἰς Αἴγυπτον, οὐ γινώσκων τὸν παῖδα, ὃν ἐληλύθεισαν προσκυνῆσαι οἱ μάγοι, πάντας ἁπλῶς τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἐν Βηθλεὲμ ἐκέλευσεν ἀναιρεθῆναι. 8 καὶ τοῦτο ἐπεπροφήτευτο μέλλειν γίνεσθαι διὰ Ἰερεμίου, εἰπόντος δι´ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος οὕτως, ‹Φωνὴ ἐν Ῥαμᾶ ἠκούσθη, κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὀδυρμὸς πολύς· Ῥαχὴλ κλαίουσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς, καὶ οὐκ ἤθελε παρακληθῆναι, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσί.› διὰ οὖν τὴν φωνήν, ἣ ἔμελλεν ἀκούεσθαι ἀπὸ Ῥαμᾶ, τοῦτ´ ἔστιν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀρραβίας (ἔστι γὰρ καὶ μέχρι τοῦ νῦν τόπος καλούμενος ἐν Ἀρραβίᾳ Ῥαμᾶ), κλαυθμὸς ἔμελλεν τὸν τόπον καταλαμβάνειν, ὅπου Ῥαχήλ, ἡ γυνὴ Ἰακώβ, τοῦ ἐπικληθέντος Ἰσραήλ, τοῦ ἁγίου πατριάρχου, τέθαπται, τοῦτ´ ἔστι τὴν Βηθλεέμ, κλαιουσῶν τῶν γυναικῶν τὰ τέκνα τὰ ἴδια τὰ ἀνῃρημένα καὶ μὴ παράκλησιν ἐχουσῶν ἐπὶ τῷ συμβεβηκότι αὐταῖς. 9 καὶ γὰρ τὸ εἰπεῖν τὸν Ἠσαίαν, ‹Λήψεται δύναμιν Δαμασκοῦ καὶ σκῦλα Σαμαρείας,› τὴν τοῦ πονηροῦ δαίμονος, τοῦ ἐν Δαμασκῷ οἰκοῦντος, δύναμιν ἐσήμαινε νικηθήσεσθαι τῷ Χριστῷ ἅμα τῷ γεννηθῆναι· ὅπερ δείκνυται γεγενημένον. οἱ γὰρ μάγοι, οἵτινες ἐσκυλευμένοι ἦσαν πρὸς πάσας κακὰς πράξεις, τὰς ἐνεργουμένας ὑπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου ἐκείνου, ἐλθόντες καὶ προσκυνήσαντες τῷ Χριστῷ φαίνονται ἀποστάντες τῆς σκυλευσάσης αὐτοὺς δυνάμεως ἐκείνης, ἣν ἐν μυστηρίῳ ἐσήμαινεν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος οἰκεῖν ἐν Δαμασκῷ. 10 ἁμαρτωλὸν δὲ καὶ ἄδικον οὖσαν ἐν παραβολῇ τὴν δύναμιν ἐκείνην καλῶς Σαμαρείαν καλεῖ. ὅτι δὲ Δαμασκὸς τῆς Ἀρραβικῆς γῆς ἦν καὶ ἔστιν (εἰ καὶ νῦν προσνενέμηται τῇ Συροφοινίκῃ λεγομένῃ) οὐδ´ ὑμῶν τινες ἀρνήσασθαι δύνανται. ὥστε καλὸν ἂν εἴη ὑμᾶς, ὦ ἄνδρες, ἃ μὴ νενοήκατε, παρὰ τῶν λαβόντων χάριν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν τῶν Χριστιανῶν μανθάνειν, ἀλλὰ μὴ κατὰ πάντα ἀγωνίζεσθαι τὰ ὑμέτερα διδάγματα κρατύνειν, ἀτιμάζοντας τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ. 11 διὸ καὶ εἰς ἡμᾶς μετετέθη ἡ χάρις αὕτη, ὡς Ἠσαίας φησὶν εἰπὼν οὕτως, ‹Ἐγγίζει μοι ὁ λαὸς οὗτος· τοῖς χείλεσιν αὐτῶν τιμῶσί με, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ´ ἐμοῦ· μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων καὶ διδασκαλίας διδάσκοντες. διὰ τοῦτο ἰδού, ἐγὼ προσθήσω τοῦ μεταθεῖναι τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον, καὶ μεταθήσω αὐτούς, καὶ ἀφελῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν αὐτῶν, τὴν δὲ σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν ἀθετήσω.›»

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 77.4: 4 “For at the time of His birth Magi who came from Arabia worshiped Him, coming first to Herod, who then was sovereign in your land and whom the Scripture calls king of Assyria on account of his ungodly and sinful character. For you know,” continued I, “that the Holy Spirit often announces such events by parables and similitudes, just as He did toward all the people in Jerusalem, frequently saying to them, ‘Your father is an Amorite, and your mother a Hittite’ (= Ezekiel 16.3).” / 4 «ἅμα γὰρ τῷ γεννηθῆναι αὐτὸν μάγοι ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας παραγενόμενοι προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ, πρότερον ἐλθόντες πρὸς Ἡρώδην τὸν ἐν τῇ γῇ ὑμῶν τότε βασιλεύοντα, ὃν ὁ λόγος καλεῖ βασιλέα Ἀσσυρίων διὰ τὴν ἄθεον καὶ ἄνομον αὐτοῦ γνώμην. ἐπίστασθε γὰρ τοιαῦτα, ἔφην, ἐν παραβολαῖς καὶ ὁμοιώσεσι πολλάκις λαλοῦν τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα· οἷον πεποίηκε καὶ πρὸς τὸν λαὸν ἅπαντα τὸν ἐν Ἰεροσολύμοις, πολλάκις φῆσαν πρὸς αὐτούς, ‹Ὁ πατήρ σου Ἀμορραῖος καὶ ἡ μήτηρ σου Χετταία.›»

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 102.2-3: 2 “For the statement, ‘My hope from the breasts of my mother’ (= Psalm 22.9), as soon as He was born in Bethlehem, as I previously remarked, king Herod, having learned from the Arabian Magi about Him, made a plot to put Him to death and by God’s command Joseph took Him with Mary and departed into Egypt. For the Father had decreed that He whom He had begotten should be put to death, but not before He had grown to manhood and proclaimed the word which proceeded from Him. 3 But if any of you say to us, ‘Could not God rather have put Herod to death?’ I return answer by anticipation, ‘Could not God have cut off in the beginning the serpent so that he exist not, rather than have said, ”And I will put enmity between him and the woman, and between his seed and her seed“ (= Genesis 3.15)? Could He not have at once created a multitude of men?’” / 2 «τὸ γὰρ, ‹Ἡ ἐλπίς μου ἀπὸ μασθῶν τῆς μητρός μου,› ἅμα γὰρ τῷ γεννηθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν Βηθλεέμ, ὡς προέφην, παρὰ τῶν ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας μάγων μαθὼν Ἡρώδης ὁ βασιλεὺς τὰ κατ´ αὐτὸν ἐπεβούλευσεν ἀνελεῖν αὐτόν, καὶ κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κέλευσιν Ἰωσὴφ λαβὼν αὐτὸν ἅμα τῇ Μαρίᾳ ἀπῆλθεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον· μετὰ γὰρ τὸ κηρύξαι αὐτὸν τὸν παρ´ αὐτοῦ λόγον ἀνδρωθέντα ὁ πατὴρ θανατωθήσεσθαι αὐτὸν ἐκεκρίκει ὃν ἐγεγεννήκει. 3 ἐὰν δέ τις ἡμῖν λέγῃ, ‹Μὴ γὰρ οὐκ ἠδύνατο ὁ θεὸς μᾶλλον τὸν Ἡρώδην ἀποκτεῖναι;› προλαβὼν λέγω, ‹Μὴ γὰρ οὐκ ἠδύνατο ὁ θεὸς τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ τὸν ὄφιν ἐξᾶραι τοῦ μὴ εἶναι, καὶ μὴ εἰπεῖν ὅτι, «Καὶ ἔχθραν θήσω ἀνὰ μέσον αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς γυναικός,» καὶ τοῦ σπέρματος αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῦ σπέρματος αὐτῆς; μὴ γὰρ οὐκ ἠδύνατο εὐθὺς πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων ποιῆσαι;›»

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 103.3-4: “And the expression, ‘They opened their mouth upon me like a roaring lion’ (= Psalm 22.13), designates him who was then king of the Jews, and was called Herod, a successor of the Herod who when Christ was born slew all the infants in Bethlehem born about the same time because he imagined that amongst them He would assuredly be of whom the Magi from Arabia had spoken, for he was ignorant of the will of Him that is stronger than all, how He had commanded Joseph and Mary to take the Child and depart into Egypt and there to remain until a revelation should again be made to them to return into their own country. And there they did remain until Herod, who slew the infants in Bethlehem, was dead and Archelaus had succeeded him. And he died before Christ came to the dispensation on the cross which was given Him by His Father. 4 And, when Herod succeeded Archelaus, having received the authority which had been allotted to him, Pilate sent to him by way of compliment Jesus bound; and God foreknowing that this would happen, had thus spoken, ‘And they brought Him to the Assyrian, a present to the king’ (= Hosea 10.6).” / 3 «καὶ τὸ, ‹Ἤνοιξαν ἐπ´ ἐμὲ τὸ στόμα αὐτῶν ὡς λέων ὠρυόμενος,› δηλοῖ τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων τότε ὄντα, καὶ αὐτὸν Ἡρώδην λεγόμενον, διάδοχον γεγενημένον Ἡρώδου τοῦ, ὅτε ἐγεγέννητο, ἀνελόντος πάντας τοὺς ἐν Βηθλεὲμ ἐκείνου τοῦ καιροῦ γεννηθέντας παῖδας, διὰ τὸ ὑπονοεῖν ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντως εἶναι τὸν περὶ οὗ εἰρήκεισαν αὐτῷ οἱ ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας ἐλθόντες μάγοι· μὴ ἐπιστάμενος τὴν τοῦ ἰσχυροτέρου πάντων βουλήν, ὡς εἰς Αἴγυπτον τῷ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ τῇ Μαρίᾳ ἐκεκελεύκει ἀπαλλαγῆναι λαβοῦσι τὸ παιδίον, καὶ εἶναι ἐκεῖ ἄχρις ἂν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ἀποκαλυφθῇ ἐπανελθεῖν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν· κἀκεῖ ἦσαν ἀπελθόντες ἄχρις ἂν ἀπέθανεν ὁ ἀποκτείνας τὰ ἐν Βηθλεὲμ παιδία Ἡρώδης καὶ Ἀρχέλαος αὐτὸν διεδέξατο· καὶ οὗτος ἐτελεύτα πρὶν τὸν Χριστὸν τὴν οἰκονομίαν τὴν κατὰ τὸ βούλημα τοῦ πατρὸς γεγενημένην ὑπ´ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῷ σταυρωθῆναι ἐλθεῖν. 4 Ἡρώδου δὲ τὸν Ἀρχέλαον διαδεξαμένου, λαβόντος τὴν ἐξουσίαν τὴν ἀπονεμηθεῖσαν αὐτῷ, ᾧ καὶ Πιλάτος χαριζόμενος δεδεμένον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἔπεμψε, καὶ τοῦτο γενησόμενον προειδὼς ὁ θεὸς εἰρήκει οὕτως, ‹Καὶ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἀσσυρίου ἀπήνεγκαν ξένια τῷ βασιλεῖ.›»

Justin Martyr, Dialogue 106.4: 4 “And that He should arise from the seed of Abraham like a star Moses showed beforehand when he thus said, ‘A star shall arise from Jacob and a leader from Israel’ (= Numbers 24.17), and another Scripture says, ‘Behold a man; the East is His name’ (= Zechariah 6.12). Accordingly, when a star rose in heaven at the time of His birth, as is recorded in the Memorabilia of His apostles, the Magi from Arabia, recognizing the sign by this, came and worshipped Him.” / 4 «καὶ ὅτι ὡς ἄστρον ἔμελλεν ἀνατέλλειν αὐτὸς διὰ τοῦ γένους τοῦ Ἀβραάμ, Μωυσῆς παρεδήλωσεν οὕτως εἰπών, ‹Ἀνατελεῖ ἄστρον ἐξ Ἰακὼβ καὶ ἡγούμενος ἐξ Ἰσραήλ,› καὶ ἄλλη δὲ γραφή φησιν, ‹Ἰδοὺ ἀνήρ, ἀνατολὴ ὄνομα αὐτῷ.› ἀνατείλαντος οὖν καὶ ἐν οὐρανῷ ἅμα τῷ γεννηθῆναι αὐτὸν ἀστέρος, ὡς γέγραπται ἐν τοῖς ἀπομνημονεύμασι τῶν ἀποστόλων αὐτοῦ. οἱ ἀπὸ Ἀρραβίας μάγοι, ἐκ τούτου ἐπιγνόντες, παρεγένοντο καὶ προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ.»

Isaiah 8.3-4: 3 So I approached the prophetess, and she conceived and gave birth to a son. Then the Lord said to me, “Name him Maher-shalal-hash-baz; 4 for before the boy knows how to cry out, ‘My father,’ or, ‘My mother,’ the wealth of Damascus and the spoils of Samaria will be carried away before the king of Assyria.” / 3 καὶ προσῆλθον πρὸς τὴν προφῆτιν καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἔλαβεν καὶ ἔτεκεν υἱόν καὶ εἶπεν κύριός μοι, «Κάλεσον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ταχέως σκύλευσον ὀξέως προνόμευσον 4 διότι πρὶν ἢ γνῶναι τὸ παιδίον καλεῖν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα λήμψεται δύναμιν Δαμασκοῦ καὶ τὰ σκῦλα Σαμαρείας ἔναντι βασιλέως Ἀσσυρίων.»

Isaiah 33.13-19: 13 “You who are far away, hear what I have done, and you who are near, acknowledge My might.” 14 Sinners in Zion are terrified; trembling has seized the godless. “Who among us can live with the consuming fire? Who among us can live with everlasting burning?” 15 One who walks righteously and speaks with integrity, one who rejects unjust gain and shakes his hands so that they hold no bribe; one who stops his ears from hearing about bloodshed and shuts his eyes from looking at evil. 16 He will dwell in a highest cave; his refuge will be the impregnable rock; his bread will be given him; his water will be sure. 17 Your eyes will see the King in His beauty; they will see a distant land. 18 Your heart will meditate on terror. “Where is one who counts? Where is one who weighs? Where is one who counts the towers?” 19 You will no longer see a fierce people, a people of unintelligible speech which no one comprehends, of a stammering tongue which no one understands. / 13 «Ἀκούσονται οἱ πόρρωθεν ἃ ἐποίησα· γνώσονται οἱ ἐγγίζοντες τὴν ἰσχύν μου.» 14 ἀπέστησαν οἱ ἐν Σιων ἄνομοι· λήμψεται τρόμος τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς· «Τίς ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν ὅτι πῦρ καίεται; τίς ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν τὸν τόπον τὸν αἰώνιον;» 15 πορευόμενος ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ, λαλῶν εὐθεῖαν, ὁδόν μισῶν ἀνομίαν καὶ ἀδικίαν καὶ τὰς χεῖρας ἀποσειόμενος ἀπὸ δώρων, βαρύνων τὰ ὦτα ἵνα μὴ ἀκούσῃ κρίσιν αἵματος, καμμύων τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἵνα μὴ ἴδῃ ἀδικίαν, 16 οὗτος οἰκήσει ἐν ὑψηλῷ σπηλαίῳ, πέτρας ἰσχυρᾶς, ἄρτος αὐτῷ δοθήσεται καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ αὐτοῦ πιστόν. 17 βασιλέα μετὰ δόξης ὄψεσθε καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ὑμῶν ὄψονται γῆν πόρρωθεν. 18 ἡ ψυχὴ ὑμῶν μελετήσει φόβον. «Ποῦ εἰσιν οἱ γραμματικοί; ποῦ εἰσιν οἱ συμβουλεύοντες; ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῶν τοὺς τρεφομένους;» 19 μικρὸν καὶ μέγαν λαόν ᾧ οὐ συνεβουλεύσαντο, οὐδὲ ᾔδει βαθύφωνον ὥστε μὴ ἀκοῦσαι λαὸς πεφαυλισμένος καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν τῷ ἀκούοντι σύνεσις.

Jeremiah 38.15 OG (31.15 Masoretic): 15 This is what the Lord says, “A voice is heard in Ramah, lamenting and bitter weeping. Rachel is weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.” / 15 οὕτως εἶπεν κύριος, «Φωνὴ ἐν Ραμα ἠκούσθη, θρήνου καὶ κλαυθμοῦ καὶ ὀδυρμοῦ, Ραχηλ ἀποκλαιομένη· οὐκ ἤθελεν παύσασθαι ἐπὶ τοῖς υἱοῖς αὐτῆς, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσίν.»

Micah 5.1 OG (5.2 Masoretic): 1 “But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you One will come forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His times of coming forth are from long ago, from the days of eternity.” / 1 «Καὶ σύ, Βηθλεεμ, οἶκος τοῦ Εφραθα, ὀλιγοστὸς εἶ τοῦ εἶναι ἐν χιλιάσιν Ιουδα· ἐκ σοῦ μοι ἐξελεύσεται τοῦ εἶναι εἰς ἄρχοντα ἐν τῷ Ισραηλ, καὶ αἱ ἔξοδοι αὐτοῦ ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς ἐξ ἡμερῶν αἰῶνος.»

Matthew 2.1-23: 1 Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, saying, 2 “Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we saw His star in the east and have come to worship Him.” 3 When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. 5 They said to him, “In Bethlehem of Judea; for this is what has been written by the prophet, 6 ‘And you, Bethlehem, land of Judah, are by no means least among the leaders of Judah; for from you will come forth a Ruler Who will shepherd My people Israel’ (= Micah 5.2).” 7 Then Herod secretly called for the Magi and determined from them the exact time the star appeared. 8 And he sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the Child; and when you have found Him, report to me, so that I too may come and worship Him.” 9 After hearing the king, they went on their way; and behold, the star, which they had seen in the east, went on ahead of them until it came to a stop over the place where the Child was to be found. 10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced exceedingly with great joy. 11 And after they came into the house, they saw the Child with His mother Mary; and they fell down and worshiped Him. Then they opened their treasures and presented to Him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. 12 And after being warned by God in a dream not to return to Herod, the Magi left for their own country by another way. 13 Now when they had gone, behold, an angel of the Lord appears to Joseph in a dream and said, “Get up! Take the Child and His mother and flee to Egypt, and stay there until I tell you; for Herod is going to search for the Child to kill Him.” 14 So Joseph got up and took the Child and His mother while it was still night, and left for Egypt. 15 He stayed there until the death of Herod; this happened so that what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet would be fulfilled, “Out of Egypt I called My Son” (= Hosea 11.1). 16 Then when Herod saw that he had been tricked by the magi, he became very enraged, and sent men and killed all the boys who were in Bethlehem and all its vicinity who were two years old or under, according to the time which he had determined from the magi. 17 Then what had been spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, 18 “A voice was heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children; and she refused to be comforted, because they were no more” (= Jeremiah 31.15). 19 But when Herod died, behold, an angel of the Lord appears in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, and said, 20 “Get up, take the Child and His mother, and go to the land of Israel; for those who sought the Child’s life are dead.” 21 So Joseph got up, took the Child and His mother, and came into the land of Israel. 22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Then after being warned by God in a dream, he left for the regions of Galilee, 23 and came and settled in a city called Nazareth. This happened so that what was spoken through the prophets would be fulfilled, that He will be called a Nazarene (≈ Judges 13.5, 7; 16.17). / 1 τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδού, μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα 2 λέγοντες, «Ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ.» 3 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης ἐταράχθη καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ, 4 καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ᾽ αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται. 5 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ, «Ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας· οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου, 6 ‹Καὶ σὺ, Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα· ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ.›» 7 τότε Ἡρῴδης λάθρᾳ καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ᾽ αὐτῶν τὸν χρόνον τοῦ φαινομένου ἀστέρος, 8 καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εἶπεν, «Πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβῶς περὶ τοῦ παιδίου· ἐπὰν δὲ εὕρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ὅπως κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ.» 9 οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν καὶ ἰδού, ὁ ἀστήρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, προῆγεν αὐτούς, ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον. 10 ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα. 11 καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἶδον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῶν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν. 12 καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ᾽ ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην, δι᾽ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν. 13 ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἰδού, ἄγγελος κυρίου φαίνεται κατ᾽ ὄναρ τῷ Ἰωσὴφ λέγων, «Ἐγερθεὶς παράλαβε τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ φεῦγε εἰς Αἴγυπτον καὶ ἴσθι ἐκεῖ ἕως ἂν εἴπω σοι· μέλλει γὰρ Ἡρῴδης ζητεῖν τὸ παιδίον τοῦ ἀπολέσαι αὐτό.» 14 ὁ δὲ ἐγερθεὶς παρέλαβεν τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ νυκτὸς καὶ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον, 15 καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἕως τῆς τελευτῆς Ἡρῴδου, ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος, «Ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐκάλεσα τὸν υἱόν μου.» 16 τότε Ἡρῴδης ἰδὼν ὅτι ἐνεπαίχθη ὑπὸ τῶν μάγων ἐθυμώθη λίαν, καὶ ἀποστείλας ἀνεῖλεν πάντας τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἐν Βηθλέεμ καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ὁρίοις αὐτῆς ἀπὸ διετοῦς καὶ κατωτέρω, κατὰ τὸν χρόνον ὃν ἠκρίβωσεν παρὰ τῶν μάγων. 17 τότε ἐπληρώθη τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἰερεμίου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος, 18 «Φωνὴ ἐν Ῥαμὰ ἠκούσθη, κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὀδυρμὸς πολύς, Ῥαχὴλ κλαίουσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς, καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν παρακληθῆναι, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσίν.» 19 τελευτήσαντος δὲ τοῦ Ἡρῴδου ἰδού, ἄγγελος κυρίου φαίνεται κατ᾽ ὄναρ τῷ Ἰωσὴφ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ 20 λέγων, «Ἐγερθεὶς παράλαβε τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ πορεύου εἰς γῆν Ἰσραήλ· τεθνήκασιν γὰρ οἱ ζητοῦντες τὴν ψυχὴν τοῦ παιδίου.» 21 ὁ δὲ ἐγερθεὶς παρέλαβεν τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς γῆν Ἰσραήλ. 22 ἀκούσας δὲ ὅτι Ἀρχέλαος βασιλεύει τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἀντὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ἡρῴδου ἐφοβήθη ἐκεῖ ἀπελθεῖν· χρηματισθεὶς δὲ κατ᾽ ὄναρ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὰ μέρη τῆς Γαλιλαίας, 23 καὶ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ· ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται.

Luke 2.1-7: 1 Now in those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a census be taken of all the inhabited earth. 2 This was the first census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. 3 And all the people were on their way to register for the census, each to his own city. 4 Now Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David, 5 in order to register along with Mary, who was betrothed to him, and was pregnant. 6 While they were there, the time came for her to give birth. 7 And she gave birth to her firstborn son; and she wrapped Him in cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn. / 1 ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην. 2 αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου. 3 καὶ ἐπορεύοντο πάντες ἀπογράφεσθαι, ἕκαστος εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν. 4 ἀνέβη δὲ καὶ Ἰωσὴφ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐκ πόλεως Ναζαρὲθ εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν εἰς πόλιν Δαυὶδ ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ, διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυίδ, 5 ἀπογράψασθαι σὺν Μαριὰμ τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ, οὔσῃ ἐγκύῳ. 6 ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, 7 καὶ ἔτεκεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν πρωτότοκον, καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι.

Protevangelium 17.1-22.2:

17.1 Now there went out a decree from the king Augustus that all (= Luke 2.1) those in Bethlehem in Judea (= Matthew 2.1) should be enrolled (= Luke 2.1). And Joseph said, “I shall enroll my sons, but what shall I do with this child? How shall I enroll her? As my wife? I am ashamed to do that. Or as my daughter? But all the children of Israel know that she is not my daughter. On this day of the Lord the Lord will do as he wills.” 2 And he saddled his jenny and sat her on it; his son led and Joseph followed. And they drew near to the third milestone. And Joseph turned round and saw her sad and said within himself, “Perhaps the child within her is paining her.” Another time Joseph turned round and saw her laughing and said to her, “Mary, why is it that I see your face at one moment laughing and at another sad?” And Mary said to Joseph, “I see with my eyes two peoples, one weeping and lamenting and one rejoicing and exulting.” 3 And having come halfway, Mary said to him, “Joseph, take me down from the jenny, for the child within me presses me to come forth.” And he took her down from the jenny and said to her, “Where shall I take you and hide your shame? For the place is desert.” 18.1 And he found a cave there and brought her into it, and left her in the care of his sons and went out to seek for a Hebrew midwife in the region of Bethlehem. / 17.1 Κέλευσις δὲ ἐγένετο ἀπὸ [τουν] Ἀόστου τοῦ βασιλέως ἀπογράψασθαι ὅσοι εἰσὶν ἐν Βηθλεὲμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας. καὶ εἶπεν Ἰωσήφ· «Ἐγὼ ἀπογράψομαι τοὺς υἱούς μου. ταύτην δὲ τὴν παῖδα τί ποιήσω; πῶς αὐτὴν ἀπογράψομαι; γυναῖκα ἐμήν; ἐπαισχύνομαι. ἀλλὰ θυγατέρα; οἶδαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν θυγάτηρ μου. αὕτη ἡ ἡμέρα κυρίου ποιήσει ὡς βούλεται.» 2 καὶ ἔστρωσεν τὸν ὄνον καὶ ἐκάθισεν αὐτὴν καὶ ἧλκεν ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἠκολούθει Σαμουήλ. καὶ [ην]ἤγγισαν ἐπὶ μίλιον τρίτον, καὶ ἐστράφη Ἰωσὴφ, καὶ εἶδεν αὐτὴν στυγνὴν καὶ ἔλεγεν, «Ἴσως τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ χειμάζει αὐτήν.» καὶ πάλιν ἐστράφη Ἰωσὴφ καὶ εἶδεν αὐτὴν γελοῦσαν, καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, «Μαριάμμη, τί ἐστίν σοι τοῦτο, ὅτι τὸ πρόσωπόν σου βλέπω ποτὲ μὲν γελοῦντα ποτὲ δὲ στυγνάζον;» καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· «Ἰωσήφ, ὅτι δύο λαοὺς βλέπω ἐν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς μου, ἕνα κλαίοντα καὶ κοπτόμενον καὶ ἕνα χαίροντα καὶ ἀγαλλιῶντα.» 3 καὶ ἤλθωσιν ἀνὰ μέσον τῆς ὁδοῦ, καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Μαριάμμη, «Ἰωσήφ, κατάγαγέ με ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄνου, ὅτι τὸ ἐν ἐμοὶ ἐπείγει με προελθεῖν.» καὶ κατήγαγεν αὐτὴν ἐκεῖ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, «Ποῦ σε ἀπάξω καὶ σκεπάσω σου τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην, ὅτι ὁ τόπος ἔρημός ἐστιν;» 18.1 καὶ εὗρεν ἐκεῖ σπήλαιον καὶ εἰσήγαγεν αὐτὴν καὶ παρέστησεν αὐτῇ[ν] τοὺς υἱοὺς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ζητῆσαι μαῖαν Ἑβραίαν ἐν χώρᾳ Βηθλεέμ.

18.2 Now I, Joseph, was walking, and yet I did not walk, and I looked up to the air and saw the air in amazement. And I looked up at the vault of heaven, and saw it standing still and the birds of the heaven motionless. And I looked down at the earth, and saw a dish placed there and workmen reclining, and their hands were in the dish. But those who chewed did not chew, and those who lifted up did not lift, and those who put something to their mouth put nothing to their mouth, but everybody looked upward. And behold, sheep were being driven and they did not come forward but stood still; and the shepherd raised his hand to strike them with his staff, but his hand remained upright. And I looked at the flow of the river, and I saw the mouths of the kids over it, and they did not drink. And then suddenly everything went on its course. 19.1a And behold, a woman came down from the hill country and said to me, “Man, where are you going?” And I said, “I seek a Hebrew midwife.” And she answered me, “Are you from Israel?” And I said to her, “Yes.” And she said, “And who is she who brings forth in the cave?” And I said, “My betrothed.” And she said to me, “Is she not your wife?” And I said to her, “She is Mary, who was brought up in the temple of the Lord, and I received her by lot as my wife, and she is not my wife, but she has conceived by the Holy Spirit.” And the midwife said to him, “Is this true?” And Joseph said to her, “Come and see.” / 2 «Ἐγὼ δὲ Ἰωσὴφ περιεπάτουν καὶ οὐ περιεπάτουν. καὶ ἀνέβλεψα εἰς τὸν πόλον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ εἶδον αὐτὸν ἑστῶτα, καὶ εἰς τὸν ἀέρα καὶ εἶδον αὐτὸν ἔκθαμβον καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἠρεμοῦντα. καὶ ἐπέβλεψα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ εἶδον σκάφην κειμένην καὶ ἐργάτας ἀνακειμένους, καὶ ἦσαν αἱ χεῖρες αὐτῶν ἐν τῇ σκάφῃ. καὶ οἱ μασώμενοι οὐκ ἐμασῶντο καὶ οἱ αἴροντες οὐκ ἀνέφερον καὶ οἱ προσφέροντες τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν οὐ προσέφερον, ἀλλὰ πάντων ἦν τὰ πρόσωπα ἄνω βλέποντα. καὶ εἶδον ἐλαυνόμενα πρόβατα, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα ἑστήκει· καὶ ἐπῆρεν ὁ ποιμὴν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ τοῦ πατάξαι αὐτά, καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἔστη ἄνω. 19.1a καὶ ἐπέβλεψα ἐπὶ τὸν χείμαρρον τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ εἶδον ἐρίφους καὶ τὰ στόματα αὐτῶν ἐπικείμενα τῷ ὕδατι καὶ μὴ πίνοντα. καὶ πάντα θήξει ὑπὸ τοῦ δρόμου αὐτῶν ἀπηλαύνετο. καὶ εἶδον γυναῖκα καταβαίνουσαν ἀπὸ τῆς ὀρεινῆς, καὶ εἶπέν μοι, ‹Ἄνθρωπε, ποῦ πορεύῃ;› καὶ εἶπον, ‹Μαῖαν ζητῶ Ἑβραίαν.› καὶ ἀποκριθεῖσα εἶπέν μοι, ‹Ἐξ Ἰσραὴλ εἶ;› καὶ εἶπον αὐτῇ, ‹Ναί.› Ἡ δὲ εἶπεν· ‹Καὶ τίς ἐστιν ἡ γεννῶσα ἐν τῷ σπηλαίῳ;› καὶ εἶπον ἐγώ· ‹Ἡ μεμνηστευμένη μοι.› Καὶ εἶπέ μοι· ‹Οὐκ ἔστι σου γυνή;› Καὶ εἶπον αὐτῇ· ‹Μαρία ἐστίν͵ ἡ ἀνατραφεῖσα ἐν τῷ ναῷ Κυρίου. καὶ ἐκληρωσάμην αὐτὴν γυναῖκα͵ καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν μου γυνή͵ ἀλλὰ σύλλημμα ἔχει ἐκ Πνεύματος ἁγίου.›» καὶ εἶπεν ἡ μαῖα, «Τοῦτο ἀληθές;» καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Ἰωσήφ, «Δεῦρο καὶ ἴδε.» / Papyrus Bodmer V: 18.2 — 19.1a And he found one who was just coming down from the hill country, and he took her with him, and said to the midwife, “Mary is betrothed to me, but she conceived of the Holy Spirit after she had been brought up in the Temple of the Lord.” / 18.2 — 19.1a καὶ εὑρὼν ἤνεγκεν ἀπὸ ὀρενῆς καταβαίνουσαν. και εἶπεν Ἰωσὴφ τῇ μαίᾳ ὅτι «Μαρία ἐστὶν ἡ μεμνηστευμένη μοι, ἀλλὰ σύλλημμα ἔχει ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου, ἀνατραφεῖσα ἐν ναῷ κυρίου.»

19.1b And she went with him. 2 And they stopped at the entrance to the cave, and behold, a bright cloud overshadowed the cave. And the midwife said, “My soul is magnified today, for my eyes have seen wonderful things; for salvation is born to Israel.” And immediately the cloud disappeared from the cave and a great light appeared, so that our eyes could not bear it. A short time afterwards that light withdrew until the baby appeared, and it came and took the breast of its mother Mary. And the midwife cried, “This day is great for me, because I have seen this new sight.” 3 And the midwife came out of the cave, and Salome met her. And she said to her, “Salome, Salome, I have a new sight to tell you about; a virgin has brought forth, a thing which her condition does not allow.” And Salome said, “As the Lord my God lives, unless I insert my finger and test her condition, I will not believe that a virgin has given birth.” / 19.1b καὶ ἀπῄει μετ´ αὐτοῦ, 2 καὶ ἔστησαν ἐν τῷ τόπῳ τοῦ σπηλαίου. καὶ ἦν νεφέλη σκοτεινὴ ἐπισκιάζουσα τὸ σπήλαιον. καὶ εἶπεν ἡ μαῖα, «Ἐμεγαλύνθη ἡ ψυχή μου σήμερον, ὅτι εἶδον οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου παράδοξα σήμερον, ὅτι σωτηρία τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γεγένηται.» καὶ παραχρῆμα ἡ νεφέλη ὑπεστέλλετο τοῦ σπηλαίου, καὶ ἐφάνη φῶς μέγα ἐν τῷ σπηλαίῳ ὥστε τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς μὴ φέρειν. καὶ πρὸς ὀλίγον τὸ φῶς ἐκεῖνο ὑπεστέλλετο, ἕως ἐφάνη βρέφος· καὶ ἦλθεν καὶ ἔλαβε μασθὸν ἐκ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ Μαρίας. καὶ ἀνεβόησεν ἡ μαῖα καὶ εἶπεν, «Ὡς μεγάλη μοι ἡ σήμερον ἡμέρα, ὅτι εἶδον τὸ καινὸν θέαμα τοῦτο.» 3 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ σπηλαίου ἡ μαῖα, καὶ ἠπήντησεν αὐτῇ Σαλώμη, καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, «Σαλώμη Σαλώμη, καινόν σοι θέαμα ἔχω ἐξηγήσασθαι· παρθένος ἐγέννησεν, ἃ οὐ χωρεῖ ἡ φύσις αὐτῆς.» καὶ εἶπεν Σαλώμη· «Ζῇ Κύριος ὁ Θεός μου· ἐὰν μὴ βάλω τὸν δάκτυλόν μου καὶ ἐραυνήσω τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς͵ οὐ μὴ πιστεύσω ὅτι ἡ παρθένος ἐγέννησεν.»

20.1 And the midwife went in and said to Mary, “Make yourself ready, for there is no small contention concerning you.” And Salome inserted her finger to test her condition. And she cried out saying, “Woe for my wickedness and my unbelief! For I have tempted the living God; and behold, my hand falls away from me, consumed by fire!” 2 And she bowed her knees before the Lord saying, “O God of my fathers, remember me, for I am the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; do not make me pilloried for the children of Israel, but restore me to the poor. For you know, Lord, that in your name I perform my duties and from you I have received my hire.” 3 And behold, an angel of the Lord appeared and said to her, “Salome, Salome, the Lord God has heard your prayer. Bring your hand to the child and touch him and salvation and joy will be yours.” 4 And Salome came near and touched him, saying, “I will worship him, for a great king has been born to Israel.” And Salome was healed as she had requested, and she went out of the cave. And, behold, an angel of the Lord cried, “Salome, Salome, do not report what marvels you have seen, until the child has come to Jerusalem.” / 20.1 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν ἡ μαῖα καὶ εἶπεν, «Μαρία, σχημάτισον σεαυτήν· οὐ γὰρ μικρὸς ἀγὼν πρόκειται περὶ σοῦ.» καὶ ἡ Μαρία ἀκούσασα ταῦτα ἐσχημάτισεν αὑτήν. καὶ ἔβαλε Σαλώμη τὸν δάκτυλον αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς. καὶ ἀνηλάλαξεν Σαλώμη καὶ εἶπεν, «Οὐαὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ μου καὶ τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ μου, ὅτι ἐξεπείρασα Θεὸν ζῶντα. καὶ ἰδού, ἡ χείρ μου πυρὶ ἀποπίπτει ἀπ´ ἐμοῦ.» 2 καὶ ἔκλινεν τὰ γόνατα πρὸς τὸν δεσπότην Σαλώμη λέγουσα, «Ὁ Θεὸς τῶν πατέρων μου, μνήσθητί μου ὅτι σπέρμα εἰμὶ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακώβ. μὴ παραδειγματίσῃς με τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραήλ, ἀλλὰ ἀπόδος με τοῖς πένησιν. σὺ γὰρ οἶδας, δέσποτα, ὅτι ἐπὶ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι τὰς θεραπείας ἐπετέλουν καὶ τὸν μισθόν μου παρὰ σοῦ ἐλάμβανον.» 3 καὶ ἰδού, ἄγγελος κυρίου ἔστη λέγων πρὸς αὐτήν, «Σαλώμη, Σαλώμη, ἐπήκουσεν ὁ πάντων δεσπότης τῆς δεήσεώς σου. προσένεγκε τὴν χεῖρά σου τῷ παιδίῳ καὶ βάσταξον αὐτό, καὶ ἔσται σοι σωτηρία καὶ χαρά.» 4 λαβοῦσα δὲ χαρὰν προσῆλθε Σαλώμη τῷ παιδίῳ καὶ ἐβάσταξεν αὐτὸ λέγουσα, «Προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ, ὅτι οὗτος ἐγεννήθη βασιλεὺς τῷ Ἰσραήλ.» καὶ παραχρῆμα ἰάθη Σαλώμη καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ σπηλαίου δεδικαιωμένη. καὶ ἰδού, φωνὴ λέγουσα, «Σαλώμη, Σαλώμη, μὴ ἀναγγείλῃς ὅσα εἶδες παράδοξα ἕως ἔρθῃ ὁ παῖς εἰς Ἱεροσάλημα.» / Papyrus Bodmer V: 20.1 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐσχημάτισεν αὐτήν, καὶ ἠραύνησε ἡ Σαλώμη τὴν φύσιν αὐτῆς. καὶ ἀνηλάλαξεν Σαλώμη ὅτι ἐξεπείρασεν Θεὸν ζῶντα, «Καὶ ἰδού, ἡ χείρ μου πυρὶ ἀποπίπτει ἀπ´ ἐμοῦ.» 2 καὶ προσηύξατο πρὸς κύριον, καὶ ἰάθη ἡ μαῖα ἐν τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. 3 καὶ ἰδού, ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἔστη πρὸς Σαλώμην λέγων, «Εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου ἐνώπιον Κυρίου τοῦ Θεοῦ. προσελθοῦσα ἅψαι τοῦ παιδίου καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται σοι ἡ σωτηρία.» 4 καὶ ἐποίησεν οὕτω καὶ ἰάθη Σαλώμη καθὼς προσεκύνησεν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ σπηλαίου. ἰδού, ἄγγελος κυρίου ἐν φωνῇ λέγων, «Σαλώμη, Σαλώμη, μὴ ἀναγγείλῃς ὅσα εἶδες παράδοξα ἕως ἔρθῃ ὁ παῖς εἰς Ἱεροσάλημα.»

21.1 And behold, Joseph was ready to go to Judea. And there took place a great tumult in Bethlehem of Judea. For there came wise men saying, “Where is the newborn king of the Jews? For we have seen his star in the east and have come to worship him” (= Matthew 2.1-2). / 21.1 καὶ ἰδού, Ἰωσὴφ ἡτοιμάσθη τοῦ ἐξελθεῖν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ, καὶ θόρυβος ἐγένετο μέγας ἐν Βηθλὲμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας. ἤλθωσαν γὰρ μάγοι λέγοντες, «Ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; εἴδομεν γὰρ τὸν ἀστέρα αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ καὶ ἤλθαμεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ.»

21.2 When Herod heard this he was troubled and sent officers to the wise men, and sent for the high priests and questioned them, “How is it written concerning the Messiah? Where is he born?” They said to him, “In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written.” And he let them go. And he questioned the wise men and said to them, “What sign did you see concerning the newborn king?” And the wise men said, “We saw how an indescribably greater star shone among these stars and dimmed them so that the stars no longer shone; and so we knew that a king was born for Israel. And we have come to worship him.” And Herod said, “Go and seek, and when you have found him, tell me, that I also may come to worship him.” 3a And the wise men went out. And behold, the star which they had seen in the east, went before them until they came to the cave. And it stood over the head of the cave (= Matthew 2.1-10). / 21.2 καὶ ἀκούσας ὁ Ἡρώδης ἐταράχθη καὶ ἔπεμψεν ὑπηρέτας πρὸς τοὺς μάγους· καὶ μετεπέμψατο καὶ τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ ἀνέκρινεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πραιτωρίῳ λέγων αὐτοῖς, «Πῶς γέγραπται περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ; ποῦ γεννᾶται;» λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, «Ἐν Βηθλεὲμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας, οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται.» καὶ ἀπέλυσεν αὐτούς. καὶ ἀνέκρινεν τοὺς μάγους λέγων αὐτοῖς, «Τί εἴδετε σημεῖον ἐπὶ τὸν γεννηθέντα βασιλέα;» καὶ εἶπον οἱ μάγοι, «Εἴδομεν ἀστέρα παμμεγέθη λάμψαντα ἐν τοῖς ἄστροις τούτοις καὶ ἀμβλύναντα αὐτούς, ὥστε τοὺς ἀστέρας μὴ φαίνεσθαι. καὶ οὕτως ἔγνωμεν ὅτι βασιλεὺς ἐγεννήθη τῷ Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ.» καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἡρώδης, «Ὑπάγετε καὶ ζητήσατε, καὶ ἐὰν εὕρητε ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ὅπως κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ.» 3a καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ μάγοι. καὶ ἰδού, ὃν εἶδον ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ προῆγεν αὐτοὺς ἕως εἰσῆλθαν ἐν τῷ σπηλαίῳ, καὶ ἔστη ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν τοῦ παιδίου. / Papyrus Bodmer V: 21.2 καὶ ἀκούσας ὁ Ἡρώδης ἐταράχθη καὶ ἔπεμψεν ὑπηρέτας καὶ μετεπέμψατο αὐτοὺς καὶ διεσάφησαν αὐτῷ περὶ τοῦ ἀστέρος. καὶ ἰδού, εἶδον ἀστέρας ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ καὶ προῆγαν αὐτοὺς ἕως εἰσῆλθαν ἐν τῷ σπηλαίῳ καὶ ἔστη ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν τοῦ παιδίου. 3a —

21.3b And the wise men saw the young child with Mary his mother, and they took out of their pouch gifts: gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. 4 And having been warned by the angel that they should not go into Judea, they went to their own country by another route (= Matthew 2.11-12). / 21.3b καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν οἱ μάγοι ἑστῶτα μετὰ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ Μαρίας, ἐξέβαλον ἀπὸ τῆς πήρας αὐτῶν δῶρα χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν. 4 καὶ χρηματισθέντες ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγγέλου μὴ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν, διὰ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν.

22.1 But when Herod realized that he had been deceived by the wise men he was angry and sent his murderers and commanded them to kill all the babies who were two years old and under (= Matthew 2.16). 2 When Mary heard that the babies were to be killed, she was afraid and took the child and wrapped him in swaddling clothes and laid him in an ox manger (= Luke 2.7). / 22.1 τότε Ἡρώδης ἰδὼν ὅτι ἐνεπαίχθη ὑπὸ τῶν μάγων ὀργισθεὶς ἔπεμψεν αὐτοῦ τοὺς φονευτὰς λέγων αὐτοῖς ἀνελεῖν πάντα τὰ βρέφη ἀπὸ διετίας καὶ κάτω. 2 καὶ ἀκούσασα ἡ Μαρία ὅτι τὰ βρέφη ἀναιρεῖται, φοβηθεῖσα ἔλαβεν τὸν παῖδα καὶ ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν καὶ ἔβαλεν ἐν πάθνῃ βοῶν.

Origen, Against Celsus 1.51: 51 Now the Scripture speaks, respecting the place of the Savior’s birth — that the Ruler was to come forth from Bethlehem — in the following manner, “And you, Bethlehem, house of Ephrata, are not the least among the thousands of Judah, for out of you shall He come forth unto Me who is to be Ruler in Israel, and His goings forth have been of old, from everlasting” (= Micah 5.2). Now this prophecy could not suit any one of those who, as Celsus’s Jew says, were fanatics and mob leaders and who gave out that they had come from heaven, unless it were clearly shown that He had been born in Bethlehem or, as another might say, had come forth from Bethlehem to be the leader of the people. With respect to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, if anyone desires, after the prophecy of Micah and after the history recorded in the Gospels by the disciples of Jesus, to have additional evidence from other sources, let him know that, in conformity with the narrative in the Gospel regarding His birth, there is shown at Bethlehem the cave where He was born and the manger in the cave where He was wrapped in swaddling clothes. And this sight is greatly talked of in surrounding places, even among the enemies of the faith, it being said that in this cave was born that Jesus who is worshiped and reverenced by the Christians. Moreover, I am of opinion that, before the advent of Christ, the chief priests and scribes of the people, on account of the distinctness and clearness of this prophecy, taught that the Christ was to be born in Bethlehem. And this opinion had prevailed also extensively among the Jews, for which reason it is related that Herod, on inquiring at the chief priests and scribes of the people, heard from them that the Christ was to be born in Bethlehem of Judea, whence David was. It is stated also in the Gospel according to John that the Jews declared that the Christ was to be born in Bethlehem, whence David was (= John 7.42). But, after our Lord’s coming, those who busied themselves with overthrowing the belief that the place of His birth had been the subject of prophecy from the beginning withheld such teaching from the people, acting in a similar manner to those individuals who won over those soldiers of the guard stationed around the tomb who had seen Him arise from the dead and who instructed these eyewitnesses to report as follows, “Say that His disciples came and stole Him away while we slept. And if this come to the governor’s ears, we shall persuade him, and secure you” (= Matthew 28.13-14).

I have not yet laid out the Greek parallels line by line. Not sure when I will get around to that for this chapter, since I am still working on tracking down all the relevant parallels, but there you have the beginnings.

I also recently posted a bit about Justin Martyr, Damascus, Arabia, and Syrophoenicia from this same chapter.

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Re: Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

Post by MrMacSon » Fri Nov 13, 2020 2:57 pm

MrMacSon wrote:
"For the Magi, who were held in bondage / spoiled2 for the commission of all evil deeds through the power of that demon, by coming to worship Christ, shows that they have revolted from that dominion which held them captive; and this [dominion] the Scripture has showed us to reside in Damascus. Moreover, that sinful and unjust power is termed well in parable, Samaria [2247].2 And none of you can deny that Damascus was, and is, in the region of Arabia, although now it belongs to what is called Syrophœnicia. Hence it would be becoming for you, sirs, to learn what you have not perceived, from those who have received grace from God, namely, from us Christians; and not to strive in every way to maintain your own doctrines, dishonouring those of God."
---------------
2247 Justin thinks the “spoils of Samaria” denote 'spoils of Satan'; Tertull[ian] thinks that they are 'spoils of Christ'.2
.

2 That's quite a contrast: the spoils of Samaria being denoted as the spoils of Satan v the spoils of Christ. Where does Tertullian address this? Does Justin address or refer to it elsewhere?
Ben C. Smith wrote:
Fri Nov 13, 2020 8:02 am
Well, it looks like a reference to chapter 9 of Against the Jews, to chapter 20 of On the Resurrection of the Flesh, or to chapters 12-14 of book 3 of Against Marcion ...
  • Cheers Ben. I don't have a lot of time at present, but will set aside some time in coming days to look at those.

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Fri Nov 13, 2020 8:02 am
but I do not read those passages as suggesting that Christ himself is the spoils or plunder of Samaria.
  • No, nor do I.

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Fri Nov 13, 2020 8:02 am
He1 seems to be welcoming the Magi as the spoils of Samaria, similar to what Justin says. If there is another reference to this motif in which Christ himself is said to be the spoils, I guess I do not know where it is; or if one of the statements in one of those passages suggests Christ as the spoils, it has not yet sunk in for me.
  1. I presume you mean 'He' is Schaff. I agree he seems to be agreeing with Justin, but it's interesting that Tertullian might think 'the spoils of Samaria' might be the 'spoils of Christ' and that Schaff points that out ie. that he thinks it's noteworthy.
I feel there's potentially more to this, though. What Justin says seems to be a type of bait and switch. He firsts says (to reverse the order of the alternative interpretations of 'held in bondage' and 'spoiled'),

"For the Magi, who were spoiled / held in bondage for the commission of all evil deeds through the power of that demon, ..."

So, first, the assertion is that Magi had been under or incorporated in 'spoils of Satan'.

Then the first tangential move of the switch comes -

".. by coming to worship Christ, shows that they [the Magi] have revolted from that dominion which held them captive; and this [dominion] the Scripture has showed us to reside in Damascus ..."

I get the impression the syntax there - "this the Scripture" - suggests a hard-to-do or even dodgy translation.

Then

Moreover, that sinful and unjust power is termed well in parable, Samaria. And none of you can deny that Damascus was, and is, in the region of Arabia (although now it belongs to what is called Syrophœnicia). Hence it would be becoming for you, sirs, to learn what "you have not perceived", from those who have received grace from God, namely, from us Christians.

There's quite a bit going on there eg.

1. the geography: was Samaria really considered part of Arabia?

2. ''you have not perceived" is essentially gaslighting.

3. the eventual/final appeal and switch to "those who have received grace from God, namely, from us Christians."

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Re: Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

Post by MrMacSon » Fri Nov 13, 2020 3:05 pm

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Fri Nov 13, 2020 8:02 am
The only other place I am aware where Justin cites Isaiah in reference to a cave is chapter 70 of Dial. Trypho....
Right. That is the chapter he is referring to when he says that he has already given the text of the the passage from Isaiah.
Why would Justin be worried about charging the believers in Mithras with attempting to "likewise to imitate the whole of Isaiah’s words?"
Because he is keen, both here and elsewhere, to make Christianity primary and its competitors secondary. He is saying that Mithras copied Christianity where they sometimes seem to be similar, and not vice versa.
The account of Justin Martyr seems more convoluted that that of Matthew 2, almost as if Justin is philosophising in a fuller draft version, and Matthew is a pared-down. more straight-forward final version of the account.
Surely it goes the other way around. Justin is consciously and visibly commenting on stories and texts which are already in place before him, and one of those stories or texts either is or looks very similar to Matthew 2. Matthew is the base text, Justin the interpretation.
Why did Justin feel the need discuss and tease out Mithras, Isaiah, the cave, around the Magi if he was working off Matt 2?
Because he is doing what apologists and theologians do: draw meaning and connections out of texts deemed to be authoritative or inspired.
But, Why does Justin not refer to the place that Mary, Joseph & baby Christ Jesus are temporarily holed up as a / "the house" as Matthew does ??

Why does he refer to it as a cave??
Last edited by MrMacSon on Fri Nov 13, 2020 3:09 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

Post by MrMacSon » Fri Nov 13, 2020 3:08 pm

Ben wrote:The following is what I have for Dialogue 78 so far as references to the gospel texts are concerned (that is, I am focusing on Justin's parallels with the gospels, not with Tertullian or other patristic authors except insofar as they inform our view of Justin's use of his materials):
Cheers again Ben. I look forward to having a look at all that too.

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Re: Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 78

Post by Ben C. Smith » Fri Nov 13, 2020 3:57 pm

MrMacSon wrote:
Fri Nov 13, 2020 3:05 pm
But, Why does Justin not refer to the place that Mary, Joseph & baby Christ Jesus are temporarily holed up as a / "the house" as Matthew does ??

Why does he refer to it as a cave??
Good question: why did Justin Martyr find a house and turn it into a cave?? And you have the same question in reverse if you think that Matthew used Justin rather than vice versa: why did Matthew find a cave and turn it into a house?? These kinds of changes indicate directionality only if there is good reason in one direction but not in another, and I am not sure what that indication would be, unless you have a good one you are not sharing with the class.

This is exactly the phenomenon I am investigating. Why are there these seemingly "harmonized" versions of gospel sayings or stories, yet at the same time such weird differences of detail? What is the use of harmonizing the words of an angel if you are going to openly contradict the story at another point? One very distinct possibility is that Justin was harmonizing both Matthew and the Protevangelium. He had to choose, house or cave? And he chose cave. But there are other possibilities, too. I do not know the answers to such questions yet to my satisfaction, but it is rather clear that the Memorabilia and Gospels Justin refers to are gospel texts much like the ones we already know. They are probably not limited to the canonical four (as there are parallels with the Provangelium, the Gospel of Peter, and possibly others), and even the canonical four may not have looked then quite like they look now. Figuring out what they looked like is part of the task at hand.

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