At the Last Supper, the gospel of Luke narrates a strange incident found in no other gospel:
Luke 22.35-38: 35 And He said to them, “When I sent you out without moneybelt and bag and sandals, you did not lack anything, did you?” They said, “No, nothing.” 36 And He said to them, “But now, whoever has a moneybelt is to take it along, likewise also a bag, and whoever has no sword is to sell his cloak and buy one. 37 For I tell you that this which is written must be fulfilled in Me, ‘And He was counted with wrongdoers’ (= Isaiah 53.12), for that which refers to Me has its fulfillment.” 38 They said, “Lord, behold, here are two swords.” And He said to them, “It is enough.” / 35 Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, «Ὅτε ἀπέστειλα ὑμᾶς ἄτερ βαλλαντίου καὶ πήρας καὶ ὑποδημάτων, μή τινος ὑστερήσατε;» οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, «Οὐθενός.» 36 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς, «Ἀλλὰ νῦν ὁ ἔχων βαλλάντιον ἀράτω, ὁμοίως καὶ πήραν, καὶ ὁ μὴ ἔχων πωλησάτω τὸ ἱμάτιον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀγορασάτω μάχαιραν. 37 λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι τοῦτο τὸ γεγραμμένον δεῖ τελεσθῆναι ἐν ἐμοί, τό, ‹Καὶ μετὰ ἀνόμων ἐλογίσθη,› καὶ γὰρ τὸ περὶ ἐμοῦ τέλος ἔχει.» 38 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, «Κύριε, ἰδοὺ, μάχαιραι ὧδε δύο.» ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, «Ἱκανόν ἐστιν.»
The translation of ὁ ἔχων and ὁ μὴ ἔχων in verse 36 is difficult, but I will not go into that matter in this post; I think that all of what I will write in this post applies regardless of which option one chooses for that translation.
Jesus is referring back to his sending of the disciples on a mission earlier in the ministry:
Matthew 10.1, 5-14: 1 Jesus summoned His twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. .... 5 These twelve Jesus sent out after instructing them, saying, “Do not go on a road to Gentiles, and do not enter a city of Samaritans; 6 but rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 7 And as you go, preach, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven has come near.’ 8 Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those with leprosy, cast out demons. Freely you received, freely give. 9 Do not acquire gold, or silver, or copper for your belts, 10 or a bag for your journey, or even two tunics, or sandals, or a staff; for the worker is deserving of his support. 11 And whatever city or village you enter, inquire who is worthy in it, and stay at his house until you leave that city. 12 As you enter the house, give it your greeting. 13 If the house is worthy, see that your blessing of peace comes upon it. But if it is not worthy, take back your blessing of peace. 14 And whoever does not receive you nor listen to your words, as you leave that house or city, shake the dust off your feet.” / 1 Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς δώδεκα μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων ὥστε ἐκβάλλειν αὐτὰ καὶ θεραπεύειν πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν. .... 5 Τούτους τοὺς δώδεκα ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς παραγγείλας αὐτοῖς λέγων, «Εἰς ὁδὸν ἐθνῶν μὴ ἀπέλθητε καὶ εἰς πόλιν Σαμαριτῶν μὴ εἰσέλθητε· 6 πορεύεσθε δὲ μᾶλλον πρὸς τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἀπολωλότα οἴκου Ἰσραήλ. 7 πορευόμενοι δὲ κηρύσσετε λέγοντες ὅτι, ‹Ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.› 8 ἀσθενοῦντας θεραπεύετε, νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε, λεπροὺς καθαρίζετε, δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλετε· δωρεὰν ἐλάβετε, δωρεὰν δότε. 9 μὴ κτήσησθε χρυσὸν μηδὲ ἄργυρον μηδὲ χαλκὸν εἰς τὰς ζώνας ὑμῶν, 10 μὴ πήραν εἰς ὁδὸν μηδὲ δύο χιτῶνας μηδὲ ὑποδήματα μηδὲ ῥάβδον· ἄξιος γὰρ ὁ ἐργάτης τῆς τροφῆς αὐτοῦ. 11 εἰς ἣν δ´ ἂν πόλιν ἢ κώμην εἰσέλθητε, ἐξετάσατε τίς ἐν αὐτῇ ἄξιός ἐστιν· κἀκεῖ μείνατε ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε. 12 εἰσερχόμενοι δὲ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἀσπάσασθε αὐτήν· 13 καὶ ἐὰν μὲν ᾖ ἡ οἰκία ἀξία, ἐλθάτω ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν ἐπ´ αὐτήν, ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ᾖ ἀξία, ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐπιστραφήτω. 14 καὶ ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ἀκούσῃ τοὺς λόγους ὑμῶν, ἐξερχόμενοι ἔξω τῆς οἰκίας ἢ τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνης ἐκτινάξατε τὸν κονιορτὸν τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν.»
Mark 6.7-11: 7 And He summons the twelve and began to send them out in pairs, and gave them authority over the unclean spirits; 8 and He instructed them that they were to take nothing for their journey, except a mere staff — no bread, no bag, no money in their belt — 9 but to wear sandals, and, “Do not wear two tunics.” 10 And He said to them, “Wherever you enter a house, stay there until you leave town. 11 Any place that does not receive you or listen to you, as you go out from there, shake the dust off the soles of your feet as a testimony against them.” / 7 Καὶ προσκαλεῖται τοὺς δώδεκα καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοὺς ἀποστέλλειν δύο δύο καὶ ἐδίδου αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν ἀκαθάρτων, 8 καὶ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδὲν αἴρωσιν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον — μὴ ἄρτον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ εἰς τὴν ζώνην χαλκόν — 9 ἀλλ´ ὑποδεδεμένους σανδάλια, καὶ, «Μὴ ἐνδύσησθε δύο χιτῶνας.» 10 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· ὅπου ἐὰν εἰσέλθητε εἰς οἰκίαν, ἐκεῖ μένετε ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε ἐκεῖθεν. 11 καὶ ὃς ἂν τόπος μὴ δέξηται ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ἀκούσωσιν ὑμῶν, ἐκπορευόμενοι ἐκεῖθεν ἐκτινάξατε τὸν χοῦν τὸν ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς.
Luke 9.1-5: 1 Now He called the twelve together and gave them power and authority over all the demons, and the power to heal diseases. 2 And He sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to perform healing. 3 And He said to them, “Take nothing for your journey, neither a staff, nor a bag, nor bread, nor money; and do not even have two tunics. 4 And whatever house you enter, stay there until you leave that city. 5 And as for all who do not receive you, when you leave that city, shake the dust off your feet as a testimony against them.” / 1 Συγκαλεσάμενος δὲ τοὺς δώδεκα ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ δαιμόνια καὶ νόσους θεραπεύειν 2 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἰᾶσθαι τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς, 3 καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς, «Μηδὲν αἴρετε εἰς τὴν ὁδόν, μήτε ῥάβδον μήτε πήραν μήτε ἄρτον μήτε ἀργύριον μήτε ἀνὰ δύο χιτῶνας ἔχειν. 4 καὶ εἰς ἣν ἂν οἰκίαν εἰσέλθητε, ἐκεῖ μένετε καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἐξέρχεσθε. 5 καὶ ὅσοι ἂν μὴ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς, ἐξερχόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνης τὸν κονιορτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν ἀποτινάσσετε εἰς μαρτύριον ἐπ´ αὐτούς.»
Luke 10.1-9: 1 Now after this the Lord appointed seventy-two others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come. 2 And He was saying to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few; therefore plead with the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into His harvest. 3 Go; behold, I am sending you out like lambs in the midst of wolves. 4 Carry no moneybelt, no bag, no sandals, and greet no one along the way. 5 And whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace be to this house.’ 6 And if a man of peace is there, your peace will rest upon him; but if not, it will return to you. 7 Stay in that house, eating and drinking what they provide; for the laborer is deserving of his wages. Do not move from house to house. 8 Whatever city you enter and they receive you, eat what is served to you; 9 and heal those in it who are sick, and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you.’” / 1 Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἀνέδειξεν ὁ κύριος ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα δύο καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο δύο πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ εἰς πᾶσαν πόλιν καὶ τόπον οὗ ἤμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι. 2 ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς, «Ὁ μὲν θερισμὸς πολύς, οἱ δὲ ἐργάται ὀλίγοι· δεήθητε οὖν τοῦ κυρίου τοῦ θερισμοῦ ὅπως ἐργάτας ἐκβάλῃ εἰς τὸν θερισμὸν αὐτοῦ. 3 ὑπάγετε· ἰδοὺ, ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων. 4 μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα, καὶ μηδένα κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀσπάσησθε. 5 εἰς ἣν δ´ ἂν εἰσέλθητε οἰκίαν, πρῶτον λέγετε, ‹Εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ.› 6 καὶ ἐὰν ἐκεῖ ᾖ υἱὸς εἰρήνης, ἐπαναπαήσεται ἐπ´ αὐτὸν ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν· εἰ δὲ μή γε, ἐφ´ ὑμᾶς ἀνακάμψει. 7 ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ οἰκίᾳ μένετε ἐσθίοντες καὶ πίνοντες τὰ παρ´ αὐτῶν· ἄξιος γὰρ ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ. μὴ μεταβαίνετε ἐξ οἰκίας εἰς οἰκίαν. 8 καὶ εἰς ἣν ἂν πόλιν εἰσέρχησθε καὶ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς, ἐσθίετε τὰ παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν 9 καὶ θεραπεύετε τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ λέγετε αὐτοῖς, ‹Ἤγγικεν ἐφ´ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.›»
Didache 11.6: 6 When an apostle leaves he should take nothing except bread, until he arrives at his night’s lodging. If he asks for money, he is a false prophet. / 6 Ἐξερχόμενος δὲ ὁ ἀπόστολος μηδὲν λαμβανέτω εἰ μὴ ἄρτον, ἕως οὗ αὐλισθῇ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀργύριον αἰτῇ, ψευδοπροφήτης ἐστί<ν>.
Thomas 14.1-5: 1 Jesus said to them, “If you fast, you will give birth to sin in yourselves. 2 And if you pray, you will be condemned. 3 And if you give alms, you will do ill to your spirits. 4 And if you go into any region and you travel in the districts — if you are received, eat what is set before you. Those who are sick among them, heal. 5 For whatever goes into your mouth will not defile you. Rather, whatever comes out of your mouth — that is what defiles you.”
And it is immediately obvious to exactly which set of instructions Jesus is referring:
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Luke 22.35: ἄτερ βαλλαντίου καὶ πήρας καὶ ὑποδημάτων
Luke 10.4: μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα
The term βαλλάντιον is not an extremely common one. In the entire Greek Bible it appears only in Tobit (Sinaiticus) 1.14; 8.2; Proverbs 1.14; Job 14.17; Luke 10.4; 12.33; 22.35, 36. It is evident, then, that Luke 22.35 is referring back specifically to the instructions at Luke 10.4. The issue is that the gospel of Luke actually gives us two different sets of mission instructions, as ought to be clear from the passages I listed. Luke 9.1-5 consists of instructions for the 12 disciples (9.1), whereas Luke 10.1-12 consists of instructions for 72 "others" (ἑτέρους, 10.1). Yet in Luke 22.35-38 Jesus is speaking mainly, to all appearances, to the 12 (refer to Luke 22.28-30, for instance); at the very least he is not excluding
the 12. He is reminding the 12, in other words, of instructions which he actually gave to the 72. This inconsistency already suggests a later editorial hand; the editor responsible for Luke 22.35-38 is not the same person as the author or editor responsible for the mission instructions in Luke 9.1-5 and 10.1-12.
The suggestion finds support in Epiphanius, Panarion
42.11.6, 17; Epiphanius attests to the absence
of Luke 22.35-38 from the Marcionite gospel. In other words, the Marcionite gospel lacks an inconcinnity which the presence of Luke 22.35-38 creates in the gospel text. The probable directionality is clear: canonical Luke added this passage either to the Marcionite gospel or to its source (to which the Marcionite gospel remained true at this point).
But what is the point of adding this episode to a gospel which originally lacked it? I suspect there are two separate reasons.
First, it is often the case with new movements, both ancient and modern, that earlier ideals succumb to later realities. I believe we already see this trend in connection with these same mission instructions in the gospel of Mark, which, contrary to the other versions, allows a staff and sandals:
John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus, page 338: 338 I take it for granted, by the way, that the move here is from negative and radical to positive and normal. I find it most unlikely that anyone would bother to permit a staff and sandals unless, previously, somebody else had forbidden them.
Similarly, we can see the ideal of having genuine prophets of God running around freely giving divinely inspired guidance in early Christianity succumbing to the realities of people abusing such a situation, leading to tighter controls on and eventually even prohibitions of such prophecies. Modern, more recent history is full of such examples, as well, but I fear that to list any of them would invite social or political commentary which would distract from the point I am making. (Just think back to movements of any stripe which began with one ideal in mind but ended up having to modify it or tone it down because its implementation was unsustainable or simply not realistic.)
Thus, with regard to Luke 22.35-38, it is plausible to me that the original mission instructions from earlier in the movement, from their most restrictive (Matthew, Luke, the Didache) to their most permissive (Mark), were later viewed as unrealistic and inviting unnecessary dangers upon itinerant preachers and teachers. Thus, Jesus himself tells his disciples that things have changed, and that they ought to take along their moneybelts and bags and cloaks, and even swords.
Second, it is also
often the case that earlier gospel authors or editors will create questions or problems which later gospel authors or editors take it upon themselves to answer or solve. And I think that, in this case, an incident at the arrest of Jesus is what inspired the bit about the swords in Luke 22.38:
Matthew 26.51-54: 51 And behold, one of those who were with Jesus reached and drew his sword, and struck the slave of the High Priest and cut off his ear. 52 Then Jesus says to him, “Put your sword back into its place; for all those who take up the sword will perish by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels? 54 How then would the Scriptures be fulfilled, which say that it must happen this way?”
Mark 14.47: 47 But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the slave of the High Priest and cut off his ear.
Luke 22.49-51: 49 When those who were around Him saw what was going to happen, they said, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” 50 And one of them struck the slave of the High Priest and cut off his right ear. 51 But Jesus responded and said, “Stop! No more of this.” And He touched his ear and healed him.
John 18.10-11: 10 Then Simon Peter, since he had a sword, drew it and struck the High Priest’s slave, and cut off his right ear; and the slave’s name was Malchus. 11 So Jesus said to Peter, “Put the sword into the sheath; the cup which the Father has given Me, am I not to drink it?”
Revelation 13.10: 10 If anyone is destined for captivity, to captivity he goes; if anyone kills with the sword, with the sword he must be killed. Here is the perseverance and the faith of the saints.
One wonders why at least one of Jesus' followers has a sword in the first place; none of them has been mentioned earlier in any of the gospels as possessing one. Luke 22.38 suggests that swords are at least available to (some of) Jesus' followers, so that when we come to the arrest a couple of pericopes later we are prepared for one of them to pull one out to defend Jesus.
But why two
swords? Only one is actually used to cut off the (right) ear of the slave of the High Priest. Well, I think the answer to this question is that the Lucan editor probably intends for us to think of two men of a violent nature who might be wont to carry swords. Among the apostolic company, those two would be James and John:
Mark 3.16-19: 16 And He appointed the twelve; and to Simon he gave the name Peter, 17 and James, the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James (to them He gave the name Boanerges, which means, “sons of thunder”); 18 and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot; 19 and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Him.
Luke 9.51-56: 51 When the days were approaching for His ascension, He was determined to go to Jerusalem; 52 and He sent messengers on ahead of Him, and they went and entered a village of the Samaritans to make arrangements for Him. 53 And they did not receive Him, because He was traveling toward Jerusalem. 54 When His disciples James and John saw this, they said, “Lord, do You want us to command fire to come down from heaven and consume them?” 55 But He turned and rebuked them. 56 And they went on to another village.
Only the gospel of John identifies the wielder of the sword as Peter; I think that the Lucan editor wants us to think, rather, of James and John, on the model of two other violent men from the Hebrew scriptures:
Genesis 34.25-31: 25 Now it came about on the third day, when they were in pain, that two of Jacob’s sons [οἱ δύο υἱοὶ Ιακωβ] — Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers — each took his sword [ἔλαβον... ἕκαστος τὴν μάχαιραν αὐτοῦ] and came upon the city undetected, and killed every male. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah from Shechem’s house, and left. 27 Jacob’s sons came upon those killed and looted the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28 They took their flocks, their herds, and their donkeys, and that which was in the city and that which was in the field; 29 and they captured and looted all their wealth and all their little ones and their wives, even everything that was in the houses. 30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought trouble on me by making me repulsive among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites; and since my men are few in number, they will band together against me and attack me, and I will be destroyed, I and my household!” 31 But they said, “Should he treat our sister like a prostitute?”
Simeon and Levi took up two swords (one each) against an entire city; James and John requested permission to torch a Samaritan village (Luke 9.54); Jesus' followers requested permission to use a sword at the arrest (Luke 22.49); and I suspect that our Lucan editor connected these dots and gave James and John two swords of their own (one each).
When the disciples show Jesus the two swords, and Jesus responds laconically, "It is enough" (ἱκανόν ἐστιν), he is not saying, "They
(the two swords) are enough" (ἱκαναί εἰσιν), which would be silly anyway, two swords not being enough for an entire band of apostles in virtually any way. Rather, I think he is rebuking the ones who showed him the swords, kind of in the sense of saying, "Enough, you two," for already having
the swords to hand. Thus the seemingly unintentional surprise of, say, Mark 14.47 (the use of a sword at the arrest of Jesus) is avoided; this
surprise in Luke 22.38 (two disciples, presumably James and John, already bearing swords) is intentional, and the reader is supposed to react as if the news is right in character for them. "Oh, of course
Obviously some parts of this treatment are more secure than others, but I am pretty sure that I am on the right track overall. I welcome ideas which put the pieces together even more elegantly.
More content for that passage about Simeon and Levi:
1 Now Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to visit the daughters of the land. 2 When Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, he took her and lay with her and raped her. 3 But he was deeply attracted to Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the girl and spoke tenderly to her. 4 So Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get me this young woman as a wife.” 5 Now Jacob heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah; but his sons were with his livestock in the field, so Jacob said nothing until they came in. 6 Then Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him. 7 Now the sons of Jacob came in from the field when they heard about it; and the men were grieved, and they were very angry because he had done a disgraceful thing in Israel by sleeping with Jacob’s daughter, for such a thing ought not to be done.
8 But Hamor spoke with them, saying, “The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter; please give her to him in marriage. 9 And intermarry with us; give your daughters to us and take our daughters for yourselves. 10 So you will live with us, and the land shall be open to you; live and trade in it and acquire property in it.” 11 Shechem also said to her father and to her brothers, “Let me find favor in your sight, and I will give whatever you tell me. 12 Demand of me ever so much bridal payment and gift, and I will give whatever you tell me; but give me the girl in marriage.”
13 But Jacob’s sons answered Shechem and his father Hamor with deceit, because he had defiled their sister Dinah. 14 They said to them, “We cannot do this thing, that is, give our sister to a man who is uncircumcised, for that would be a disgrace to us. 15 Only on this condition will we consent to you: if you will become like us, in that every male of you will be circumcised, 16 then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we will live with you and become one people. 17 But if you do not listen to us to be circumcised, then we will take our daughter and go.”
18 Now their words seemed reasonable to Hamor and Shechem, Hamor’s son. 19 The young man did not delay to do this, because he was delighted with Jacob’s daughter. Now he was more respected than all the household of his father. 20 So Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city and spoke to the people of their city, saying, 21 “These men are friendly to us; therefore let them live in the land and trade in it, for behold, the land is large enough for them. We will take their daughters in marriage, and give our daughters to them. 22 Only on this condition will the men consent to us to live with us, to become one people: that every male among us be circumcised just as they are circumcised. 23 Will their livestock and their property and all their animals not be ours? Let’s just consent to them, and they will live with us.” 24 All who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and to his son Shechem, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.
25 Now it came about on the third day, when they were in pain, that two of Jacob’s sons
[οἱ δύο υἱοὶ Ιακωβ] — Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers — each took his sword
[ἔλαβον... ἕκαστος τὴν μάχαιραν αὐτοῦ] and came upon the city undetected, and killed every male. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah from Shechem’s house, and left. 27 Jacob’s sons came upon those killed and looted the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28 They took their flocks, their herds, and their donkeys, and that which was in the city and that which was in the field; 29 and they captured and looted all their wealth and all their little ones and their wives, even everything that was in the houses. 30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought trouble on me by making me repulsive among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites; and since my men are few in number, they will band together against me and attack me, and I will be destroyed, I and my household!” 31 But they said, “Should he treat our sister like a prostitute?”