War of Varus
In light of the following tabulations, the year of the War of Varus was in 1 CE, its episode shadowing the death of Herod the Great in March of that year.
Gospel accounts record that Jesus Christ was born at the time of a taxation at Bethlehem, while Herod son of Antipater¹ was alive, and in the first days of Quirinius² acceding³ to procurator of Syria.
In accordance the birth of Jesus Christ is then fixed to the Anno Domini calendar, with Herod's death in March and then the War of Varus following Pentecost in May.
¹Herod the Great. ²Cyrenius.³Vellius Paterculus, Roman History: Book 2, Chapter 102.
Gaius Julius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Paulus were consuls for 1 CE.
A concilium to decide Herod's successors was held in Rome under the auspices of Augustus and Consul Gaius¹; Legions in Judaea under the auspices of Consul Gaius cooperating with Varus.
Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 2 Chapter 5; Pisae Inscription, Messenian Inscription.
Coins minted by Herod's successors only after they were affirmed by Rome, from 1 CE.
1 CE War of Varus.
160 BCE to 34 BCE for the one hundred and twenty six years of the Hasmonean dynasty, followed by the Herodian dynasty.
Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 14, Chapter 16.
34 BCE Herod enthroned by the Jewish aristocracy and people.
Sept 31 BCE — 37/38 BCE in the seventh year since Actium Herod's rule began under Rome.
Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 15.5.2; Josephus, The Wars of the Jews 1.19.3.
37 BCE Herod enthroned by Rome.
In 37 BCE Antigonus¹ was deposed as sovereign and held captive by Rome, Herod accession of Government and enthroned as sovereign as proclaimation of Rome. Jerusalem 34 BCE, Herod enthroned as sovereign as endowed² by the Jewish aristocracy and people. First issue of Jewish coins recognizing Herod as King in year three, 34 BCE.
¹Enthroned King and High Priest by Parthia. ²After the death of Antigonus the sovereignty was deemed accessible to another
Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 1.
37 BCE Herod enthroned by Rome. 34 BCE Herod enthroned by the Jewish aristocracy and people.
In 35 BCE Antony had an unsuccessful campaign against Parthia. Antigonus being held captive by Antony for his triumph for a victory over Parthia was no longer a necessity.
Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 15.1.
Death of Antigonus in 34 BCE.
Antony successful in the Armenian war in 34 BCE. Antony beheaded Antigonus in order to quell Jewish unrest and enable Herod to accede to the lawful realm of Antigonus, in 34 BCE. Triumph for the victory over Armenia held by Antony in Alexandria.
Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 15.1. Plutarch, Life of Antonius.
Death of Antigonus in 34 BCE.
Herod died in 1 CE, 'having reigned thirty-four years since he had caused Antigonus to be slain, and obtained his kingdom; but thirty-seven years since he had been made king by the Romans': Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 1.33.1
Herod died in 1 CE 'having reigned since he had procured Antigonus to be slain, thirty-four years; but since he had been declared king by the Romans, thirty-seven': Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 17.8.1.