Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

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gryan
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Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by gryan » Fri Feb 19, 2021 4:11 pm

I have argued elsewhere that the flow of thought in Galatians is more coherent if there are two Jameses: 1) James "the Lord's brother" (also referred to in the phrase "men from James") and 2) the James of the "esteemed pillars"--"James, Cephas and John."

On this page (without any reference to Pseudo-Papias) I will show how my two Jameses reading of Galatians is very easily harmonized with the Jameses of GMark and Luke-Acts.

Evidence from GMark

1) Assuming that three men named Joses (Ἰωσῆτος) are all the same person:

Mark 6:3 (home town)
Isn't this the carpenter? Isn't this Mary's son and the brother of James, Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...
Mark 15:40 (Death)
Some women were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene,
Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...
Mark 15:47 (Burial)
Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses (Ἰωσῆτος) saw where he was laid.

2) Given that the next James mentioned as "Mary's son" is not identified as "the less" or as brother of "Joses," then the alert reader suspects that this might be another James. There are two Jameses among the 12. One has a brother John, who is not mentioned here. So the best bet is that this James might be "son of Alphaeus"

Mark 16:1 (Resurrection)
When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the [mother] of James (Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου), and Salome bought spices so they could go and anoint the body of Jesus.

Evidence from Luke

3) Luke infancy narrative has "Mary" named prophetically as "mother of the Lord"
Luke 1:43
And why am I so honored, that the mother of my Lord (ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου) should come to me?

4) In all of Luke, there is no "brother" of Jesus who is ever given a name. So when the alert reader sees the name of a "James" in the phrase "Mary mother of James," (a usage drawn from Mark as a probable source) this "James"--as in GMark, but more so-- is best understood as "son of Alphaeus."

Luke 24:10 (Resurrection)
It was Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the [mother] of James (Μαρία ἡ Ἰακώβου), and the other women with them who told this to the apostles.

Evidence from Acts

5) When the reader of Luke-Acts as a literary unit comes to the description of "Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers," there is no idea of any name for any of Jesus' brothers.

Acts 1:13-14
And when they came in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas son of James. These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers (Μαριὰμ τῇ μητρὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ καὶ σὺν τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς αὐτοῦ).

6) Given that the brother of John was put to death:
Acts 12:2
He (King Herod) had James, the brother of John, put to death with the sword.

7) Peter's reference to "James and the brothers" seems to refer naturally to the previously named "James" who was one of the 12--"James son of Alphaeus:
Acts 12:17
Peter (at “the house of Mary the mother of John, also called Mark,” regarding “how the Lord had brought him out of the prison”) said, "Tell James and the brothers (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς) about this”...

8) The next time a James is mentioned, it is someone who speaks authoritatively at the Jerusalem Conference with Paul present, and this James, in the flow of thought in Luke-Acts is probably as one of the 12, a leader as implied in the phrase "James and the brothers"--James son of Alphaeus:

15:12-13
The whole assembly fell silent as they listened to Barnabas and Paul describing the signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. When they had finished speaking, James declared, “Men-brothers ( Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί), listen to me!...

Conclusion:

In GMark there is 1) one "James" that corresponds to "James brother of the Lord"--The son of Mary, and brother of Joses. and
2) another "James" that corresponds to one of the "esteemed pillars"--James son of Alpheaus.

In Luke-Acts, there is only one mention of a "Mary mother of James," and the only "Jameses" available to the reader are from the 12.

In Acts, these two available James are reduced to one when James the brother of John dies:

James the son of Alpheus is probably the lead speaker at the Jerusalem conference, and this James fits the profile of the "esteemed pillar" of Galatians (not to be confused with James the brother of Joses in Mark, who fits the profile of "brother of the Lord").

Thoughts?
Last edited by gryan on Sat Feb 20, 2021 6:47 am, edited 5 times in total.

hakeem
Posts: 483
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Re: Two James in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by hakeem » Fri Feb 19, 2021 7:43 pm

gryan wrote:
Fri Feb 19, 2021 4:11 pm
I have argued elsewhere that the flow of thought in Galatians is more coherent if there are two Jameses: 1) James "the Lord's brother" (also referred to in the phrase "men from James") and 2) the James of the "esteemed pillars"--"James, Cephas and John."

On this page (without any reference to Pseudo-Papias) I will show how my two Jameses reading of Galatians is very easily harmonized with the Jameses of GMark and Luke-Acts.

Evidence from GMark

1) Assuming that three men named Joses (Ἰωσῆτος) are all the same person:

Mark 6:3 (home town)
Isn't this the carpenter? Isn't this Mary's son and the brother of James, Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...
Mark 15:40 (Death)
Some women were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene,
Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...
Mark 15:47 (Burial)
Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses (Ἰωσῆτος) saw where he was laid.

2) Given that the next James mentioned as "Mary's son" is not identified as "the less" or as brother of "Joses," then the alert reader suspects that this might be another James. There are two Jameses among the 12. One has a brother John, who is not mentioned here. So the best bet is that this James might be "son of Alphaeus"

Mark 16:1 (Resurrection)
When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so they could go and anoint the body of Jesus.

Evidence from Luke

3) Luke infancy narrative has "Mary" named prophetically as "mother of the Lord"
Luke 1:43
And why am I so honored, that the mother of my Lord (ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου) should come to me?

4) In all of Luke, there is no "brother" of Jesus who is ever given a name. So when the alert reader sees the name of a "James" in the phrase "Mary mother of James," (a usage drawn from Mark as a probable source) this "James"--as in GMark, but more so-- is best understood as "son of Alphaeus."

Luke 24:10 (Resurrection)
It was Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the other women with them who told this to the apostles.

Evidence from Acts

5) When the reader of Luke-Acts as a literary unit comes to the description of "Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers," there is no idea of any name for any of Jesus' brothers.

Acts 1:13-14
And when they came in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas son of James. These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers.

6) Given that the brother of John was put to death:
Acts 12:2
He (King Herod) had James, the brother of John, put to death with the sword.

7) Peter's reference to "James and the brothers" seems to refer naturally to the previously named "James" who was one of the 12--"James son of Alphaeus:
Acts 12:17
Peter (at “the house of Mary the mother of John, also called Mark,” regarding “how the Lord had brought him out of the prison”) said, "Tell James and the brothers (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς) about this”...

8) The next time a James is mentioned, it is someone who speaks authoritatively at the Jerusalem Conference with Paul present, and this James, in the flow of thought in Luke-Acts is most identified as one of the 12 who has become a leader in Jerusalem, James son of Alphaeus:

15:12-13
The whole assembly fell silent as they listened to Barnabas and Paul describing the signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. When they had finished speaking, James declared, “Men-brothers ( Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί), listen to me!...

Conclusion:

In GMark there is 1) one "James" that corresponds to "James brother of the Lord"--The son of Mary, and brother of Joses. and
2) another "James" that corresponds to one of the "esteemed pillars"--James son of Alpheaus.

In Luke-Acts, there is only one mention of a "Mary mother of James," and the only "Jameses" available to the reader are from the 12.

In Acts, these two available James are reduced to one when James the brother of John dies:

James the son of Alpheus is probably the lead speaker at the Jerusalem conference, and this James fits the profile of the "esteemed pillar" of Galatians (not to be confused with James the brother of Joses in Mark, who fits the profile of "brother of the Lord").

Thoughts?
A very complex analysis to correctly show that there was no apostle listed as the Lord's brother in gMark, gLuke and Acts of the Apostles.

gryan
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Re: Two James in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by gryan » Sat Feb 20, 2021 2:11 am

hakeem wrote:
Fri Feb 19, 2021 7:43 pm
gryan wrote:
Fri Feb 19, 2021 4:11 pm
I have argued elsewhere that the flow of thought in Galatians is more coherent if there are two Jameses: 1) James "the Lord's brother" (also referred to in the phrase "men from James") and 2) the James of the "esteemed pillars"--"James, Cephas and John."

On this page (without any reference to Pseudo-Papias) I will show how my two Jameses reading of Galatians is very easily harmonized with the Jameses of GMark and Luke-Acts.
A very complex analysis to correctly show that there was no apostle listed as the Lord's brother in gMark, gLuke and Acts of the Apostles.
hakeem: Your wording is correct in its precision! In the Gospels and Acts there is no "apostle" listed as "the Lord's brother", and so there is no exact match for identifying the "James" Paul speaks of in Gal 1:19: "I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord’s brother."

However, we do have a "James" in GMark who--as another son of Mary, Jesus' mother--fits the profile of a uterine "brother" of Jesus:

Mark 6:3 (home town)
Isn't this the carpenter? Isn't this Mary's son and the brother of James, Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...
Mark 15:40 (Death)
Some women were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene,
Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...

Also, in GMark, there is a pair of detailed stories of Jesus in his home town interacting with 1) his "family" 2) specifically, his "mother and brothers":

Mark 3:20-35
Jesus' Family
(Matthew 12:22–30; Luke 11:14–23)

20Then Jesus went home, and once again a crowd gathered, so that He and His disciples could not even eat. 21When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is out of His mind.”

22And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul” and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.”

23So Jesus called them together and began to speak to them in parables: “How can Satan drive out Satan? 24If a kingdom is divided against itself, it cannot stand. 25If a house is divided against itself, it cannot stand. 26And if Satan is divided and rises against himself, he cannot stand; his end has come. 27Indeed, no one can enter a strong man’s house to steal his possessions unless he first ties up the strong man. Then he can plunder his house.

28Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many as they utter. 29But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of eternal sin.”

30Jesus made this statement because they were saying, “He has an unclean spirit.”

Jesus’ Mother and Brothers
(Matthew 12:46–50; Luke 8:19–21)

Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon Him, and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are outside, asking for You.”

But Jesus replied, “Who are My mother and My brothers?” Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My brothers! For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”

As you point out correctly, this "James" (who is another son of Jesus' mother, Mary) is not called an "apostle" in GMark. Not even a hint if it! I do not think GMark portrays James, the brother of Jesus, as an "apostle." And so also, he is not to be confused with either of the two Jameses named among the chosen 12.

Hakeem: You are right that my analysis of the two Jameses of Mark and Luke-Acts is not "very easy" as I claimed, but is in your well chosen words, "very complex." I'm a Christian, seminary trained, and well read in the field of biblical studies, but it was only this week that I did this detailed study and came to my findings which I myself found surprising! I was surprised that it was a lot easier than I expected to make the case for two Jameses in GMark and Luke-Acts. But alas, that does not make it "very easy" objectively.

However, could you agree that it is "very easy" for anyone to see that GMark is telling about of the biological family of Jesus that included a literal "brother" named "James"? Could you further agree that in Acts, the "James" who spoke at the Jerusalem council was probably "James son of Alphaeus"? And finally, could you agree that these are two different Jameses?

Bernard Muller
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Re: Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by Bernard Muller » Sat Feb 20, 2021 10:17 am

to gryan, (bolding mine)
5) When the reader of Luke-Acts as a literary unit comes to the description of "Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers," there is no idea of any name for any of Jesus' brothers.
Yes, but Jesus is said to have blood brothers (plural). That's not the case for the other "James", including James, the son of Alphaeus.
7) Peter's reference to "James and the brothers" seems to refer naturally to the previously named "James" who was one of the 12--"James son of Alphaeus:
Here James is presented as either a prominent member of the brotherhood or having a leadership role relative to that brotherhood. James, the son of Alphaeus (not featured after 1:13), was used only to identify the Mary (as not the mother of Jesus) in gLuke.
So that important James is the same as in Acts 15:12-13 and is unlikely the one who is son of Alphaeus.
Who was he? gMark & gMatthew have James as one of the brother of Jesus, and that would be known when Acts was written.

Cordially, Bernard

rgprice
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Re: Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by rgprice » Sat Feb 20, 2021 10:34 am

Firstly, I'll point out that there may not have been two James in Galatians to begin with. Marcion's version of Galatians seems to have only had one meeting and one mention of James.

See Ben's helpful work here: viewtopic.php?f=3&t=1836

I'm leaning in favor this, because the whole thing is rather confusing as it sits now. In addition, this "double meeting" doesn't really line up well with Acts, and, as you say, Acts gives no indication that Jesus had a brother named James.

I'm now leaning of favor of what Ben has in Red in the link as being an interpolation that wasn't even present in Acts was written.

So, it may well be that there is no need to explain to two James as two different real people, its just an interpolation. And as you express, the whole thing is rather convoluted and hard to understand right now, which is why it almost looks like two different people.

hakeem
Posts: 483
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Re: Two James in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by hakeem » Sat Feb 20, 2021 11:01 am

gryan wrote:
Sat Feb 20, 2021 2:11 am

hakeem: Your wording is correct in its precision! In the Gospels and Acts there is no "apostle" listed as "the Lord's brother", and so there is no exact match for identifying the "James" Paul speaks of in Gal 1:19: "I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord’s brother."

However, we do have a "James" in GMark who--as another son of Mary, Jesus' mother--fits the profile of a uterine "brother" of Jesus..
Please, the Pauline writer simply lied about staying with Peter in Jerusalem for fifteen days and meeting an apostle James, the Lord's brother.

There is no historical evidence whatsoever that NT Jesus was real, had a real mother, apostles or brothers.

Galatians 1.18-19 is evidence that stories of Jesus and the apostles preceded the Epistle writers.

gryan
Posts: 177
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Re: Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by gryan » Sat Feb 20, 2021 11:23 am

rgprice wrote:
Sat Feb 20, 2021 10:34 am
...it almost looks like two different people.
Convoluted, yes. But what appears convoluted in the NT, taken as a whole--especially when straining not to see two Jameses in NT Galatians, which is what the mainstream tradition does--remains clear in GMark, taken as a literary unity:

Mark 6:3 (home town)
Isn't this the carpenter? Isn't this Mary's son and the brother of James, Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...
Mark 15:40 (Death)
Some women were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene,
Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses (Ἰωσῆτος)...


Mark 3:20-35
Jesus' Family
(Matthew 12:22–30; Luke 11:14–23)

20Then Jesus went home, and once again a crowd gathered, so that He and His disciples could not even eat. 21When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is out of His mind.”

22And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul” and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.”

23So Jesus called them together and began to speak to them in parables: “How can Satan drive out Satan? 24If a kingdom is divided against itself, it cannot stand. 25If a house is divided against itself, it cannot stand. 26And if Satan is divided and rises against himself, he cannot stand; his end has come. 27Indeed, no one can enter a strong man’s house to steal his possessions unless he first ties up the strong man. Then he can plunder his house.

28Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many as they utter. 29But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of eternal sin.”

30Jesus made this statement because they were saying, “He has an unclean spirit.”

Jesus’ Mother and Brothers
(Matthew 12:46–50; Luke 8:19–21)

Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon Him, and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are outside, asking for You.”

But Jesus replied, “Who are My mother and My brothers?” Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My brothers! For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”

The existence of a "James" who is a "brother" of Jesus--another son of Mary, the mother of Jesus--seems simple in GMark. And to go with it, there are two stories of tensions between Jesus and his mother and brothers. The James of GMark is clearly not one of the 12.

But for some reason, the author of GLuke decided not to print most of the material cited above from GMark, even though she did presumably see it, since one part gets printed, in a watered down form:

Luke 8:19-21
Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came to see Him, but they were unable to reach Him because of the crowd. He was told, “Your mother and brothers are standing outside, wanting to see You.” But He replied, “My mother and brothers are those who hear the word of God and carry it out.”

What's going on here, between GMark and GLuke, as you see it?

gryan
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Re: Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by gryan » Sat Feb 20, 2021 12:26 pm

Bernard Muller wrote:
Sat Feb 20, 2021 10:17 am

7) Peter's reference to "James and the brothers" seems to refer naturally to the previously named "James" who was one of the 12--"James son of Alphaeus:
Here James is presented as either a prominent member of the brotherhood or having a leadership role relative to that brotherhood. James, the son of Alphaeus (not featured after 1:13), was used only to identify the Mary (as not the mother of Jesus) in gLuke.
So that important James is the same as in Acts 15:12-13 and is unlikely the one who is son of Alphaeus.
Who was he? gMark & gMatthew have James as one of the brother of Jesus, and that would be known when Acts was written.
The Synoptic Gospels are clear about how Jesus defined "brotherhood":

Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon Him, and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are outside, asking for You.”

But Jesus replied, “Who are My mother and My brothers?” Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My brothers! For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”

Seems to me that the 12 were in a leadership role in the "brotherhood" as Jesus understood it, and his biological brothers were way out on the fringe? Knowing that, I'd need more to convince me that a "James" who was on the fringe in Mt and Mk, and who was not even mentioned by name in GLuke had suddenly become a key leader in Acts, without any explanation.

gryan
Posts: 177
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Re: Two James in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by gryan » Sat Feb 20, 2021 12:31 pm

hakeem wrote:
Sat Feb 20, 2021 11:01 am

Galatians 1.18-19 is evidence that stories of Jesus and the apostles preceded the Epistle writers.
I see it differently, although I do think Paul was probably part of a community of writers, and thus may have been privy to the process whereby GMark was written. Who knows? Maybe the Galatians saw the author of Mark dictating parts of GMark "before their eyes"!

GMark 16:6
As they entered the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe sitting on the right side, and they were alarmed. "Don't be alarmed," he said. "You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, the one having been crucified (τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον).[/u] He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him.

Gal 3:1
Oh unperceptive Galatians! Who has bewitched you? Before whose eyes Jesus Christ was written formerly as having been crucified (προεγράφη ἐσταυρωμένος).

I'm wondering: What is it that makes literature "come to life" and seem really real? Does it have to have happened in just that way? Or is there something of a joy of embellishment.

Let me tell you that a minute ago, I was gazing at the white--or blue-- evening sky, and there were phone poles and trees silhouetted upon it like the letters on the page of this computer screen. I'm not lying.

Thanks for your comments.

Bernard Muller
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Re: Two Jameses in Galatians: Harmony with Mark and Luke-Acts

Post by Bernard Muller » Sat Feb 20, 2021 1:32 pm

to gryan,
"brethren" can also mean members of the church of Jerusalem:
Acts 11:29 "Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren which dwelt in Judaea:"
The next "brethren" is in Acts12:17: "But he, beckoning unto them with the hand to hold their peace, declared unto them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison. And he said, Go shew these things unto James, and to the brethren. And he departed, and went into another place."
So it looks that "brethren" are the same as is 11:29.

Cordially, Bernard

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