I'd like Francesco Sizzi's Dianoia Astronomica. It contains his rebuttal to Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's four big moons.
It contains an astrology-based argument that those moons could not possibly exist (my paraphrase of his text):
In the macrocosm, there are seven planets: two favorable (beneficas) ones, two unfavorable (maleficas) ones, two luminaries, and unique Mercury, erratic and indifferent (vagum & indifferens). In the microcosm, the human head has seven openings: two nostrils, two eyes, two ears, and one mouth. He also noted that there are seven days in the week, seven metals, etc. Given all these corresponding sets of seven, there was clearly no place for the extra planets that Galileo had claimed to have discovered. So they do not exist.
I'd be interested in what else he argued.
All other historical discussion, ancient or modern, falls here.