I just read someones blog article where they mention a theory about the 4 cities of Asshur of Genesis 10. They follow the usual placement in Assyria. I commented that the cities or city may not be there but somewhere else but they didn't seem very intrigued. So I thought I should rewrite my own piece on the Great City of "Asshur" possibly matching Atlantis capital city and Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku in Peru/Bolivia. Here it is below. (Note it might not be written well enough yet so I might edit it later.)
Below are the variant readings of Genesis 10:11-12.
10:10 (And) the beginning/firstcentres of his kingdom was/were Babel, (and) Erech, (and) Accad, and Calneh, in (the land of) Shinar.
10:10 The beginning/firstcentres of his kingdom was/were Babel, Erech and Accad--all of them in (the land of) Shinar.
10:11-12 Outof/from that/the land he (Nimrod) went forth (in)to Asshur, and/wherehe built Nineveh, (and) Rehoboth-Ir, (and) Calah, and Resen (which is) between Nineveh and Calah (which/thesame is a/the great city).
10:11-12 Outof/from that/the land he (Nimrod) went forth (in)to Asshur, and/wherehe built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and Resen (which is) between Nineveh and Calah; all these (suburbs combined to form) a/the great city.
10:11-12 Out of that land went forth Asshur (or the gracious one), and builded Nineveh, (and) Rehoboth-Ir, (and) Calah, and Resen (which is) between Nineveh and Calah (which/thesame is a/the great city).
10:11-12 Out of that land went forth Asshur (or the gracious one), and builded Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and Resen (which is) between Nineveh and Calah; all these (suburbs combined to form) a/the great city.
10:11-12 Out of that land he went forth, being made strong, or when he had been made strong, and builded Nineveh, (and) Rehoboth-Ir, (and) Calah, and Resen (which is) between Nineveh and Calah (which/thesame is a/the great city).
10:11-12 Out of that land he went forth, being made strong, or when he had been made strong, and builded Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, and Resen (which is) between Nineveh and Calah; all these (suburbs combined to form) a/the great city.
In these verses we see there are 3 or 4 cities of Nimrod in Shinar, and 1 or 3* or 4 cities of Nimrod/Asshur in Asshur/unnamed-land, or 3/4 + 1/3/4 cities in both places. (* Note: There could 3 cities in the second place because the meaning of the 2nd site Rehoboth-Ir is "openland/wide-places/wide-squares/roominess/public-square/streets/avenues/broadplaces of the city" which may mean it is not a city.)
The usual interpretation of these verses is that Nimrod built 3 or 4 cities in Shumer/Sumer/Sumeria, and then Nimrod or Asshur went forth into Assyria and built 3 or 4 cities or 1 great city. It is true that Assyria is also called the land of Nimrod in the Bible. However the 2nd & 3rd verses may not be refering to Assyria because:
(1) Assyria and Nineveh and Calah were much later in history and were not around in the time of Nimrod (except for the preistoric layers of Nineveh).
(2) Only 2 cities supposedly match (Nineveh and Calah) while the other 2 cities (Rehoboth-Ir and Resen) have not "yet" been found in Assyria. One of the unfound cities is specifically said to be between Nineveh and Calah and to be a great city (in contrast to the cities of Nimrod in Shinar), and it seems strange that this city hasn't been easily found if it is really there. "Some identify Resen with Yassin tepe, others with Karameles", but its doubtful it is really there. One scholar suggests Resen may be Arbela, but this is abit too far out to be between Nineveh & Calah. Rehoboth-Ir has been supposed to be the squares/streets of Nineveh, but the meaning of the name Rehoboth seemingly might imply a much larger place? Furthermore it is interesting that the bible doesn't mention the city of Assur/Ashur if it was really refering to Assyria. Alternatively it doesn't match in the alternative reading that they were all 1 great city because Nineveh and Calah in Assyria are separate cities not one great city. It is strange that some think Rehoboth is part of Nineveh while the other 2 cities are separate sites.
(3) Some of the versions of the verses don't even mention any name of Asshur for the land that he (Nimrod/Asshur) went forth into.
(4) Hislop notes that it is unlikely that Asshur set himself up in the immediate neighbourhood of Nimrod/Shinar, as it is "improbable that Nimrod would have quietly borne so mighty a rival so near him".
(5) If the Ir of Rehoboth-Ir means "river" not "city" then it would match the Euphrates not the Tigris.
(6) Preflood Asshur is unlikely to match Assyria later after the Flood because Asshur was one of 4 lands of the preflood world and so was larger than Assyria, and also a global Flood could have wiped out the preflood geography, plus Assyria is much later after the Flood in archaeology.
So the 1/3/4 sites in the 2nd land might not be in Assyria. Therefore this allows us to condiser other possible locations. Asshur is similar to Anshan in Elam, but there doesn't seem to be a match for the 1/3/4 sites there. Rehoboth-Ir occurs in the list of Edomite kings in Genesis & Chronicles, but there is no match for the 1/3/4 sites in Edom. Another possibility was the Indus Valley which I thought for a while might match. But we afterwards found that Peru has a seemingly better match while the Indus Valley turns out to maybe not have very good matches.
What we discovered was that the 1 or 3 or 4 cities of "Asshur" may match Atlantis and Peru. The reasons why include:
1. We happened to notice that the meanings of the 4 sites' names seemingly might match Atlantis and Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku or 3/4 cities of Peru.
2. Resen being said to be between Nineveh & Calah may match with parts of Tiahuanaco or with cities of Peru along the Route of Viracocha.
3. Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku/Wanaku at the bottom of lake Titicaca is analogous to Eridu/Urdu at the top of the (Persian) Gulf.
4. The land in the Genesis 10 verses may be unnamed or may be Asshur. If it is named Asshur then it might be connected with the land of Asshur before the Flood. Preflood Asshur could match one of 4 quarters or landmasses of the world. As such Asshur could possibly match the likes of (South) America(s)?
Our scenario is either that the 4 parts of 1 great city of "Asshur" match corresponding parts of Atlantis city and Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku city in Peru, or the 3 or 4 cities of "Asshur" match 3/4 cities of Peru along the Route of Viracocha including Tiahuanaco (which is Atlantis capital city) and/or match the '3 Windows'.
First we will give the meanings of the 4 sites names:
Nineveh "abode/dwelling of Ninus/son" / "agreeable/handsome" / "place of fish" / ["house of Nina"?]
Rehoboth((-)ir) "(the) openland/wide-places/wide-squares/roominess/public-square/streets/avenues/broadplaces (of the city/river)".
Calah "vigour / full age / old age / firm rugged strength".
Resen "bridle / jaw (of crocodile) / halter".
Scenario 1: The 4 parts of 1 great city of "Asshur" match Atlantis city and Tiahuanaco:
One of the readings of the Genesis verses says the 4 sites (Nineveh, Calah, Resen, Rehoboth) were all parts of the great city.
Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku has a number of buildings/parts including: Akapana, Kalasasya, Kantatayita, Pumapunku, Laukurmata.
Atlantis city also has a number of parts including the hill dwelling of Clito & Poseidon, the temple, the palace, the concentric rings, the large plain.
There are matches of some parts of Atlantis city with parts of Tiahuanaco (see separate Atlantis paper/article). The hill dwelling of Clito of Atlantis matches the Akapana of Tiahuanaco. Tiahaunaco has some water rings, matching the rings of Atlantis city.
The meaning of the name Rehoboth-ir "(the) openland/wide-places/wide-squares/roominess/public-square/streets/avenues/broadplaces (of the city/river)" seemingly may match the large plain of Atlantis with its criss-crossing channels? Such a plain is also found around Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku (see our Atlantis paper/article).
Calah's name is similar to that of the Kalasasaya at Tiwanaku/Tiahuanaco. The meaning of the name Calah "vigour / full age / old age / firm rugged strength" could match either the Kalasasaya or the Pumapunku in Tiahuanaco, and the temple of Poseidon or the Palace of Poseidon or the citadel or acropolis in Atlantis city.
Nineveh's meaning "abode/dwelling of Ninus/son" / "agreeable/handsome" / "place of fish" / ["house of Nina"?] could match either the Akapana (which has evidence of water works in it) or the Puma-punku in Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku, and the hill dwelling of Clito or the temple or palace of Poseidon in Atlantis city.
Resen's meaning "bridle / jaw (of crocodile) / halter", and Resen being between Nineveh & Calah might match the concentric circles in Atlantis and in Tiwanaku/Tiahuanaco (the central one like 2 pincers, between the Akapana/Kalasasaya and Pumapunku), or match the Pumapunku in Tiwanaku/Tiahuanaco?
Scenario 2: The 3 or 4 cities of "Asshur" may match 3 or 4 cities of Peru along the route of Viracocha and/or the 3 windows.
One rendering of the Genesis 10 verses has 3 or 4 cities of Asshur or unnamed land, and one of the cities is "between" 2 of the other cities.
In Peru there are a number of sites along the Route of Viracocha including: Tiahuanaco, Pucara, Cuzco, Ollantaytampo, Machu Picchu, Quito. Atlantis city is certainly Tiahuanaco which has alot of stark matches with the details in the Atlantis Account.
Also in Peruvian tradition there is the '3 Windows' which in order are Tampu-tocco ("Macchu Picchu"?), Maras-tocco, Sutic-tocco.
Asshur may mean either "a step, steps" / "black" / "strong" / "to go in a strait line" / "gracious one" / sar "prince" / "host of heaven". The "step/steps" and/or "to go in a strait line" meaning might be similar to the Route of Viracocha?
Nineveh on one side of Resen opposite to Calah on the other side could match any one of the sites at one or the other end of the Route of Viracocha on one or the other side of whichever site Resen matches, and match either Tampu-tocco or Sutic-tocco. The name Nineveh is maybe abit like Inti-huatana "hitching-post of the sun/Inti" (at Macchu Picchu)? The meaning of Nineveh "abode/dwelling of Ninus/son" / "agreeable/handsome" / "place of fish" / ["house of Nina"?] could match Tiahuanaco/Pumapunku/Akapana?
Calah on the other side of Resen could match any one of the sites at one or the other end of the Route of Viracocha on one or the other side of whichever site Resen matches, and match either Sutic-tocco or Tampu-tocco. Possibly it could be Tiahuanaco where the Kalasasaya is which might match the name Calah? The meaning of Calah "vigour / full age / old age / firm rugged strength" could match Macchu Picchu or some of the other sites along the Route?
Resen between Nineveh & Calah could match any of the sites between Tiahuanaco and Quito, including Pucara, Cuzco, Ollantaytampo, Machu Picchu, and it could match Maras-tocco between Tampu-tocco and Sutic-tocco. The meaning of Resen "bridle / jaw (of crocodile) / halter" might match one of the sites? Since Resen is the "great city" in the 4 cities of Asshur version of the Genesis verses it might perhaps match Cuzco?
The Genesis verses don't say where Rehoboth-Ir was in relation to the other 3, and as we already shoed in the 1st scenario the "wide-places" meaning of Rehoboth may imply that Rehoboth might not be a city but may be the large plain of Atlantis and the plain around Tiahuanaco. The 'Ir' is either "city" or "river". If it is "river" then it might match the Desaguadero nearby Tiahuanaco?
The land "Asshur" or the unnamed land would be Peru & Atlantis. I haven't seen any connection of the name Asshur with the Peru region except for Sitchin making the Andean region the realm of Ishkur? Unless the meaning of the name Asshur perhaps matches the Andean area or history? Instead it is likely that the version with the land unnamed is more correct than the version with the land being called Asshur, and so being unnamed there is no definite case of the name not matching Peru, and it is possible that the unnamed land could be Peru.
Nimrod (meaning "rebel" or "subduer of the spotted one") or "Asshur" would match Poseidon in the Atlantis Account, and Viracocha or the Puma in Peruvian, and also Meski-aggaseir/Saggi-aggusheir who "went up into the mountains" in the Sumerian King List. Nimrod could possibly match the Andean hero Naymlap? Sitchin poited out that Peru is connected with the storm god who is variously called Rimac, Ishkur, etc. We have already said how the meaning of Asshur might possibly connect with the Route of Viracocha?
It would make sense that the bible must mention Atlantis city somewhere. That the city of Asshur or Resen was called a/the "great city" also suits Atlantis as the greatest city of the ancient world. The great city of Asshur being founded just after Sumerian civilisation is also sufficiently early enough to match both Atlantis and Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku.
The great distance from Sumeria to Peru is maybe also implied by the bible saying Nimrod/Asshur went forth out of that land (Shinar).
Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
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"Community Fluoridation" = compulsory Mass Medication.