Ancient Hebrew Calendar

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
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Ged
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Re: Ancient Hebrew Calendar

Post by Ged » Tue Dec 19, 2017 3:33 pm

One more thing I would like to add to this topic, that might be of interest to some here.

Concerning the 1st day of Tishri, yes, it was the New Year start of an exceptional 50th year in the original Hebrew calendar. (Leviticus 25:8-10) But it also seems to have been a reference point for yet another astronomical synchronism. A mysterious number appears in an old Hebrew writing with no obvious explanation.
“Blessed is he who waits and arrives at the 1335 days.” (Daniel 12:12)
Apparently, this figure is another calendar procedure because, when we add it to the 1st day of Tishri, it arrives at the Day of Pentecost, the 6th of Sivan, three and a half years later, and 50 days after Passover. So, the great festival dates were being used, in addition to their religious function, to hold together a surprisingly accurate luni-solar system.

In summary, the pre-Metonic Hebrew calendar was a 7-year cycle of alternating 86/87 months, crosschecked by a regular 1335-day formula, and cross-checked again by a long cycle of 600 months after 481/2 years. Its distinguishing mark was a Sabbatical ‘stamp’ making it unique from every other national calendar.

Ive updated my paper and added diagrams and tables here:

Ged
The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.

Halochem144
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Re: Dead Sea Scrolls Reveal Hidden Calendar

Post by Halochem144 » Sat Jan 12, 2019 10:00 am

Ged wrote:
Fri Mar 03, 2017 10:06 am
iskander wrote:
http://thetorah.com/jewish-calendar-in- ... olar-year/

Does God need the help of the rabbis ?
Thanks for bringing up the Dead Sea Scrolls calendar. Their 364-day system certainly was sabbatical, but it would have fallen behind the seasons after a few years. Interesting none the less. DSS scholars have wondered if they added 7 days to their solar calendar every 7 years in order to keep it on track?
Hello there! I am studying Jubilees and in regards to the statement "does God need the help of the rabbis" NO he does not. And we must keep in mind that when God gave the calendar to Enoch at a perfect 364 days a year, it was perfect. We need not worry about the changing of seasons nor the adding of leap years for the divine order was established by God from the very beginning. It is written that 4 days mark the season changes, and are the 31st days of the 3rd month, 6th month, 9th month, and 12 month. Feasts are held in celebration of the season change on the 1st day of 1st month; 1st day of 4th month, 1st day of 7th month, and 1st day of the 10th month. The 31st days are to be "set apart" as markers ONLY and not to be counted in the reckoning of the days of the year. This means only 360 days are to be counted as measure which makes an exact 30 days per month. We can find oyt exactly which days mark the seasons change for they are the equinoxes. If we were to plant our crops using these markers, God would bless the seasons and the new growth and the harvests. Its only when we deviate from him and not trust in his perfect calculation and order, that seasons fail, crops fail, and we cannot count days months and years properly, leading to confusion as to the times we live in. Deviating from this order is what created the theory of global warming and climate change! So how do we get back? We must find the 4 markers. They are exactly 13 weeks apart from each other. The only confusion I have right now is whether God considers Aviv the first month, or tishrei the first month. This is so important because where does the Enoch calendar actually begin?

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Re: Dead Sea Scrolls Reveal Hidden Calendar

Post by Ged » Sat Jan 12, 2019 10:09 pm

Halochem144 wrote:
Sat Jan 12, 2019 10:00 am
The only confusion I have right now is whether God considers Aviv the first month, or tishrei the first month. This is so important because where does the Enoch calendar actually begin?
Hi Halochem. Abib (Aviv) was the 1st month throughout the Old Testament except for a rare Jubilee year that started in Tishri. It was called a 50th year, but actually overlaid the 49th year and 1st year of the next cycle. Here is a diagram:


Image


You will find websites that speak of a 'religious' abib calendar, and a 'civil' tishri calendar. This dual calendar idea confuses the issue. It is only correct following changes during the inter-testament period, but prior to that it was as Ive described above. Abib was the 1st month. (Exodus 12:2,17) As for the calendar of Enoch, I think it was an effort by Essenic sects to rediscover the original calendar given to Moses. Whether they got it right or not is moot.
The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.

Ethan
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Re: Ancient Hebrew Calendar

Post by Ethan » Sun Jan 13, 2019 8:17 am

You have confused the entire calendar, the word "Sabbath" means Fifty [חמשים], the Akkadian word is hamšâtum
but through dialectic shift, became shappatum in Babylonian, hence "Sabbath".

Each fifty-day period was made up of seven weeks of seven days and seven Sabbaths, with an extra fiftieth day, known as the atzeret.

Leviticus 23:15 - seven sabbaths shall be complete
Leviticus 23:16 - After the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days

Temple scroll -11QT=11Q19, 20, 4Q365a - XVIII-XX
…You shall count-seven complete Sabbaths from the day of your bringing the sheaf of [the wave-offering. You shall c]ount until the morrow of the seventh Sabbath. You shall count [fifty] days. You shall bring a new grain-offering….it is the feast of Weeks and the feast of Firstfruits, an eterna[l] memorial.

….You [shall count] seven seeks from the day when you bring the new grain-offering… seven full Sabbaths [shall elapse un]til you have counted fifty days to the morrow of the seventh Sabbath. [You] shall [bring] new wine for a drink-offering…

….[You sha]ll count from that day seven weeks, seven times (seven days), forty-nine days; there shall be seven full Sabbaths; until the morrow of the seventh Sabbath you shall count fifty days. You shall then offer new oil…"
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf
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Ged
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Re: Ancient Hebrew Calendar

Post by Ged » Sun Jan 13, 2019 9:16 am

Slight misunderstanding here Ethan. :eh: You're referencing the count of 50 days that occurred every year from Passover to Pentecost. I'm discussing the Sabbatical years mentioned in chapter 25.
The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.

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Re: Ancient Hebrew Calendar

Post by Ethan » Sun Jan 13, 2019 10:41 am

Sabbath = 50 days
- Seven sabbaths in a year, 49 day + 1 = Sabbath

This is a different calendar and the words for days, years and month had different meanings, this is the reason why Genesis 1 is divided
into Seven periods, or why the number "50" commonly props up in the Bible.

Gen 7:24 - 150 Days of rain
Gen 9:28 - Noah lived 350 days
Gen 9:29 - Noah lived 950 years

Fifty also connected with the Phoenix.

Herodotus 2:73 - Once in five hundred year the Phoenix comes (Ezekiel 17:3)
Genesis 5:32 - Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem (שמ/φοῖνιξ, χιόν)
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf
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