Academia.edu has a very interesting article by Nathan Schumer, "The Population Size of Sepphoris: Rethinking Urbanization in Early and Middle Roman Galilee"
https://www.academia.edu/33894484/The_P ... ddle_Roman
He thinks that the consensus estimate of about 6,000 inhabitants in the upper city, which was probably the only urbanized area until after 70 CE, is about twice the actual population. He recalculates this to range between 2,000-4,300 inhabitants, using most recent archaeological research on this city, which is the most thoroughly excavated of Galilean cities.
Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
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