Hebrew semantics

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
Post Reply
Ethan
Posts: 707
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Hebrew semantics

Post by Ethan » Tue Jan 15, 2019 12:15 pm

Genesis 23:2
Sarah died in Kirjatharba

If the word ארבע meant "Four", then semantically, Kirjatharba is identical too τετράπολις (Tetrapolis) "Four Cities" and there
was a such in Canaan.

Joshua 14:15
The name of Hebron before was Kirjatharba; which Arba was a great man among the Anakims. And the land had rest from war.
ושם חברון לפנים קרית ארבע האדם הגדול בענקים הוא והארץ שקטה ממלחמה
τὸ δὲ ὄνομα τῆς Χεβρων ἦν τὸ πρότερον πόλις Αρβοκ μητρόπολις τῶν Ενακιμ αὕτη καὶ ἡ γῆ ἐκόπασεν τοῦ πολέμου

The reading of Joshua 14:15 is corrupt, "האדם הגדול" translates into μητρόπολις (Metropolis), the archaic reading of the
being μητρόπτολις, as if reading "אם-גדול = μητρό-πτολις".

The word μητρόπολιν appears in 2 Samuel 20:19 translating from עיר ואם [Metropolis in Israel]

Semantics
שתים ערים = διπολιν
שלש ערים = τρίπολιν
ארבע ערים = τετράπολιν
חמש ערים = πεντάπολιν
אם ערים = μητρόπολιν
ערי שר = πολίαρχος "Poliarch"

Some verses transliterate πολις as בעל.
2 Kings 4:42 reads Baalshalisha [τρίπολις/בעל שלשה], but the Septuagint
read Βαιθσαρισα, as if translating from בית שלשה, there is a Tripoli in Lebanon.

בעל שלש = τρίπολις
בעל חרמון = Ἑρμοῦ πόλις
בעל שמש = Ἡλιούπολις (בית שמש,ערים שמש)
בעל פעור = Φοῖβος πόλις (Ἀπόλλων φοῖβος)
בעל תמר = πόλιν φοινίκων

One can see that πτόλιν is a Phoenician word, בת־ערים "daughter-city"

בת־ערים - πτόλιν
בת־ערית - πτόλις

Roles
שר־צבא = ἀρχιστράτηγος "commander-in-chief"
שר המשקים = ἀρχιοινοχόῳ "chief cupbearer"
שר האופים = ἀρχισιτοποιῷ "chief baker"
שר הסריסים = ἀρχιευνοῦχος "chief eunuch"
שר הטבחים = ἀρχιμαγείρῳ "chief butcher"
שרי־גדודים = συστρεμμάτων "chief conspirators"
שר־חמשים = πεντηκόνταρχον "commander of fifty men"
שר בית־הסהר = ἀρχιδεσμοφύλακος "Chief watcher"
נשיאי העדה = ἄρχοντες "commander"
שרי הנצבים = ἄρχοντες "commander"
שר־הצבא = ἀρχιστράτηγος "commander-in-chief"
ערי שר = πολίαρχος "chief of the city"
מלכי־צדק = ταξίαρχος "commander of the corps" (Melchizedek)
השר המשא = ὁ ἄρχων τῶν ᾠδῶν "Chief singer"
שרי המדינות = ἀρχόντων τῶν χωρῶν "chief of the country"
שרי הרכב = ἄρχοντας τῶν ἁρμάτων "commander of the chariot"
ראש השלושים = ἄρχοντα τῶν τριάκοντα "commander of thirty men
Last edited by Ethan on Tue Jan 15, 2019 1:02 pm, edited 3 times in total.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 707
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Hebrew semantics

Post by Ethan » Tue Jan 15, 2019 12:59 pm

Genesis 1:1 - בראשית "In the beginning" [ἐν ἀρχῇ]
Deuteronomy 18:4 - ראשית "first-fruit" [ἀπαρχὰς]
Genesis 8:13 - בראשון "first" [πρώτου]
Genesis 38:28 - ראשנה "first" [πρότερος]
Genesis 41:20 - ראשנות "first" [πρώτας ]
Exodus 40:2 - ראשון [πρώτου]
Deuteronomy 10:5 - ראשון "first" [πρώτην]
Ezekiel 44:30 - ראשית "first-fruits [ἀπαρχαὶ ]

The Septuagint translates בראשון as a complete word, "πρώτου" [πρώτων]
- πρῴ - early in the day, early, at morn

This fits the semantics of Deuteronomy 18:4 " ἀπαρχὰς τοῦ σίτου" [firstfruits of your crops]
by simplifying the reading as πρῴ-σῖτος "early crops".

πρῴ σῖτ → בראשית "early crops"
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... w&la=greek
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... t&la=greek

A pentecontad calendar is marked by festivals on the last day of each fifty-day period, such as the Feast of Barley, Feast of New Wine, the Feast of Oil.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 707
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Hebrew semantics

Post by Ethan » Wed Jan 16, 2019 6:26 am

Exodus 23:11
But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest (שָׁמַט)

Deuteronomy 15:1
At the end of every seven years thou shalt make a release (שְׁמִטָּה)

תעשה שמטה - ποιήσεις ἄφεσιν "Make a release"
תשמטנה - ἄφεσιν ποιήσεις "Make a release"

Why does שמטה means "Rest" in Exodus 23:11 and "Release" in Deuteronomy 15:1 but the Septuagint in both verses read " ἄφεσιν ποιήσει"

והשביעת - τῷ δὲ ἑβδόμῳ "But the seventh" (Exodus 23:11)

מקץ שבע־שנים תעשה שמטה (Deuteronomy 15:1)
δ ἑπτὰ ἐτῶν ποιήσεις ἄφεσιν(lxx)
μέθ ἑπτὰ ἐτῶν ποιήσεις ἄφεσιν (corrected) "after the seventh year make a release"

This effects the semantics of Gen 2:3, "Rest" on the seventh or "Release", but the word שבת is ἑπτάς "period of seven days"
or the word שבע־שנים "two periods of seven days" since the Jewish pentecontad calender is 50x7=350 and thus two additional weeks is needed to fill that void.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Post Reply