Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
Post Reply
Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Fri Aug 30, 2019 9:43 am

Zerubbabel is a Greek name, easily deciphered, זרב appears in Job 6:17, the Septuagint conveniently reads θέρμης
and the name compounds as זרב-בל and quickly found in a Greek Lexicon.

1. θερμόβουλος (Thermoboulos)
- Hot-tempered, Rash (adj.)

2. θερμόβλυστος (Thermoblustos)
- Hot-bubbling

3. θερμοπύλαι (Thermopúlai)
- Gates of hot-springs, Thermopylae.

Thermopylae is where the famous battle took place during the Persian Empire that inspired the Movie, 300 (2007). www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Thermopylae

The soldiers of the army of Xerxes I came from all over the Persian Empire, so no doubt that the people of the Book of Ezra-Nehemiah participated, else why would they be exempt?

Thermopylae is associated with Amphictyon [ἀμφικτύον] that resembles נבוכדנצור
- נבו/ἀμφι
- כדן/κτύον
- צור/-ικός
- נבוכדנצור - Ἀμφικτυονικός (adj) "belonging to the Amphictyons"

Thermopylae
It derives its name from its hot sulphur springs.
; Following Thermopylae, the Persian army proceeded to sack and burn Plataea and Thespiae (two cities)

Compare; Genesis 14, a battle-scene near Sulphur springs (14:10).

In Genesis 14:14, a Greek word appears in the Hebrew text, חניכי (ἡνίοχοι) "charioteers" , which also the name of Heniochi, an ancient tribe inhabiting northwest shores of Colchis, ἡνίοχοι appears twice in Herodotus, chapter 7, accordingly, the Colchis practised circumcision.

Herodotus 2.104
Colchians, Egyptians and Ethiopians are the only nations that have from the first practised circumcision.

Herodotus 7.40
After these came Xerxes himself in a chariot drawn by Nesaean horses; beside him was his charioteer, whose name was Patiramphes, the son of Otanes, a Persian.

Πατιράμφης (Patiramphes) was the charioteer [חניך] of Xerxes (of the Battle of Thermopylae)
*Historical Abraham?

These wars resulted in treaties (449 BCE)
- All Greek cities of Asia were to 'live by their own laws' or 'be autonomous' (depending on translation).

Ezra 7:6
Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given: and the king granted him all his request.

Did the Persian allow them to live by their own laws without a treaty.
- The Peace of Callias treaty was established in 449 BCE during the reign of Artaxerxes I (Ezra 7:1)
- Cyrus is Artaxerxes I according to Josephus (Daniel 10:1) (Isaiah 45:1) (Ezra 1:2)

Callias II
Some time after the death of Cimon, probably about 449 BCE, he went to Susa to conclude with Artaxerxes I a treaty of peace which became known as the Peace of Callias. This treaty ended the Greco-Persian War and safeguarded the Greek city-states in Asia Minor from Persian attacks. Callias may also been responsible for peace treaties with Rhegion and Leontinoi, as well as the later peace treaty with Sparta known as the Thirty Years' Peace.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Sat Aug 31, 2019 5:47 am

The father of Zerubbabel is שאלתיאל, if this meant to be " ... from/of God", then אל would have originally fronted the word, written instead אלישאלת that would be an hebraization of θεαίτητος (Theaetetus) "obtained by God".

This is affirmed through Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae 5.10.3, in which he reveals that Samuel was styled " θεαίτητον "
"the name of Samuel, which may be styled one that was asked of God" (θεαίτητον) (1 Samuel 1:20)

Theaetetus is a Ancient Greek mathematician ( 417–369 BCE) and featured in Plato's eponymous Socratic dialogue, He was aligned with Artaxerxes II, died from his wounds in the Corinthian War.

Zerubbabel (son of Shealtiel) is titled "governor of Judah" in Haggai (פחת יהודה) also the title of Nehemiah.

פחת (pechah)
The Lexicons can't define this word "Of foreign origin", but barely an inconvenient, it means ὑποκάτω (hupokátō) "subordinate"
meaning ὕπαρχος (Uparchos) "subordinate governor, of satraps" and confirmed in Herodotus.

Herodotus 3.70
When they were six, Darius, whose father, Hystaspes, was a subordinate governor [ὕπαρχος]

Herodotus 3.120
The governor of Sardis [Σαρδίων ὕπαρχος] appointed by Cyrus was Oroetes, a Persian.

Herodotus 3.126
Mitrobates, the governor from Dascyleium [Δασκυλείου ὕπαρχον]

Herodotus 4.166
Aryandes had been appointed viceroy [ὕπαρχος] of Egypt by Cambyses, at a later day, he was put to death for making himself equal to Darius.

Herodotus 5.25
Darius said, and after appointing Artaphrenes, his father's son, to be viceroy[ὕπαρχον] of Sardis

Herodotus 5.27
Persians set as governor [ὕπαρχον] over those that were left of them Lycaretus the brother of Maeandrius who had been king of Samos.

Herodotus 6.33
governor [ὑπάρχῳ.] at Dascyleum, Oebares son of Megabazus

Herodotus 7.33
Artayctes, a Persian and the governor [ὕπαρχον] of Sestus, and crucified him alive

Herodotus 7.105
Mascames son of Megadostes governor[ὕπαρχον of this Doriscus

Herodotus 7.194
Their captain was the viceroy [ὕπαρχος] from Cyme in Aeolia, Sandoces son of Thamasius

Herodotus 9.116
This province was ruled by Xerxes' viceroy[ὕπαρχος] Artayctes, a cunning man and a wicked one

Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War 8.108
Arsaces, the Persian lieutenant [ὑπάρχου] of Tissaphernes

Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War 8.108
Tamos the king's lieutenant [ ὕπαρχος] in Ionia.

Xenophon, Anabasis 1.8
Ariaeus, Cyrus (the younger)' lieutenant ( ὕπαρχος)

Xenophon, Anabasis 4.4
This region was called Western Armenia. Its lieutenant-governor was Tiribazus [ὕπαρχος - Τιρίβαζος]
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Sat Aug 31, 2019 6:44 am

Haggai 1:1 - In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month
*Second Year of Darius II (430 BCE)

Haggai (חגי) is apparently related too חג (feast) that derives "Hajj", but that too is definable through Greek from ἀνάγω

ἀνάγω, -άγω
Lead up, conduct the choir, celebrate, sacrifice, lift up a paean, song of lamentation

In the Septuagint, חגי is Αγγαιος compare with Ἄγιος and Ἄγις.

Jeshua; יהושע : Εὐσεβής (Eusebes) (adj) "pious" or
Josedech; יהוצדק : Εὔδικος (Eudicus ) (adj) "righteous"

כהן (kohen) = διάκονος (diā́kōn) that derives Deacon
A. servant, messenger, waiting-man,
B. attendant or official in a temple or religious guild,
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Sat Aug 31, 2019 10:34 am

Haggai 2:11; concerning the law (תורה)

This תורה (Torah) was introduced in Ezra 7 during reign of Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) in his Seventh Year, thus the year 458 BCE and Haggai begins in the second year of Darius II (423–404 BCE) thus 420 BCE, a 38 year difference.

They were Egyptian Rebellions, 486-483 BCE, 464-454 BCE and in 405 BCE, the purpose of Jerusalem, is to be a watch-tower or buffer against Egypt, this is why the Persian Empire dispatched Ezra and Nehemiah, along with the Anti-Egyptian sentiment of the Torah.


Battle of Thermopylae; 480 BCE *Ἀμφικτυονικός/נבוכדנצור
Ezra 7 - Law (458 BCE)
Esther; 483 BCE
Ezra 1:2 - Zerubbabel (420 BCE) (Darius II)

(Broken Chronology)
Zadok > Shallum > Hilkiah > Azariah > Seraiah > Ezra ( Ezra 7:1)
Zadok > Shallum > Hilkiah > Azariah > Seraiah > Josedech (1 Chronicles 6:15)

According too 1 Chronicles 6:15, Josedech went into captivity during by the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, but his given family tree is identical to Ezra, who is present during the reign of Artaxerxes I.

Nehemiah 2:1; Twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king (445 BCE)

Zerubbabel must have succeeded Nehemiah as a subordinate governor of Judea.

Nehemiah; c. 445 BCE
Zerubbabel; c. 420 BCE

Xerxes
Daniel 9:1 - Darius the son of Ahasuerus (אחשורוש) *Darius (son of Xerxes I)
Esther 1:1 - the days of Ahasuerus (אחשורוש)

Titles in Ezra
אדרגזריא—ἇνδρες δικασταί ; jurors, men of the jury
אחשדרפניא—σατράπης ; Satrap
דתבריא—δικαστήριον; the court, i. e. the judges, office of the governor
גדבריא—γαζοφύλαξ ; treasurer
הדבר—ῥήτωρ ; public speaker, orator, one who gives sentence, judge, orator
כרוזא—κῆρυξ ; public messenger, messengers between nations at war
תפתיא—δεσπότης ; master, lord, despot
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Sat Aug 31, 2019 11:32 am

Zerubbabel entered the scene during the reign of Darius II {423–404 BCE} and he appears in Ezra 2 among the children escaping the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar, a name that means "Ἀμφικτυονικός" (belonging to the Amphictyons), the religious association of the Delian League.

During this time was the Peloponnesian War, the Delian League VS Peloponnesian League, that was led by Sparta and supported by the Persian Empire.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peloponnesian_War

Freeing Slaves
20,000 Athenian slaves freed by the Spartan hoplites at Decelea.

Plague
In 430 BC an outbreak of a plague hit Athens. The plague ravaged the densely packed city, and in the long run, was a significant cause of its final defeat. The plague wiped out over 30,000 citizens, sailors and soldiers, including Pericles and his sons.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague_of_Athens

Darius II & Cyrus the Younger
Darius II decided to continue the war against Athens and give stronger support to the Spartans. He sent his son Cyrus the Younger into Asia Minor as satrap of Lydia, Phrygia Major and Cappadocia, and general commander (Karanos, κἀρανος) of the Persian troops.[25] There, Cyrus allied with the Spartan general Lysander. In him, Cyrus found a man who was willing to help him become king, just as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince. Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. When Cyrus was recalled to Susa by his dying father Darius, he gave Lysander the revenues from all of his cities of Asia Minor
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Sat Aug 31, 2019 12:06 pm

θεαίτητος (Theaetetus) "obtained by God" is the given-epithet of Samuel.

Samuel is the son of Elkanah (אלקנה) another given Greek name for Ἀλκμαίων (Alcmaeon), but probably an epithet for Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι (Alcmaeonidae) (בן־אלקנה), a powerful Nobel Athenian family a branch of the Neleides who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor.

This the reason why Samuel is a Nazirite (1 Samuel 1:11), this entire ritual is Greek in origin.

Nazirite

Homer's Odyssey 3.446
Then the old man, Nestor, driver of chariots, began the opening rite of hand-washing and sprinkling with barley grains, and earnestly he prayed to Athena, cutting off as first offering the hair from the head, and casting it into the fire.

Electra 90
I wept and cut off a lock of my hair as an offering and sacrificed over the altar the blood of a slaughtered sheep

Numbers 6:18
Shall take the hair of the head of his separation [נזרו], and put it in the fire.

Numbers 6 (associated words)
יפלא = ἀπείλει "promise"
נדר = δῶρον "votive gift"
שכר = μέθυ, σικερα "strong drink, wine, mead"
חמץ = ζύμωσιν, ζυμόω "fermented, swelling"
ענבים = οἰνόπη "kind of grape-vine"
משרת = στάλαγμα "a drop" cf. μίθρας"
נזרו : ἐγκρατοῦς "master of oneself, self-controlled, self-disciplined" (cf. νέστορος)
גפן יין : οἴνας οἶνον "grape-vine with tendrils"
חרצנים : ῥαγῶν "grape" (Lt. Racemorum)
זג : ἀσταφίδος "dried grapes"
פרעשער = προκόμιον "forelock"
פאה = φόβα "lock or curl of hair"
ראשו = πρόσθιος "foremost"
תער = τό ξυρόν "Razor"
יונה = οἴνας " a wild pigeon of the colour οἰνωπός, the rock-dove" (οιναδε)
תרים = τρυγών "turtle-dove, Columba turtur" (τρῡγόνε)
הכהן = διάκονος "attendant or official in a temple or religious guild'
אשם = ἀθέτημα "breach of faith, transgression"
חטא = ἄθετος "without position, rejected, unfit"
שלמים = θυήλημα "sacrificial offering"
חלת מצה = κόλλικα μᾶζαν "role or loaf of barley-bread"
רקיק מצה = φρυκτόν μᾶζαν "roasted barley-bread"

The Alcmaeonidae were said to have negotiated for an alliance with the Persians during the Persian Wars, despite the fact that Athens was leading the resistance to the Persian invasion. Pericles and Alcibiades also belonged to the Alcmaeonidae, and during the Peloponnesian War the Spartans referred to the family's curse in an attempt to discredit Pericles. Alcibiades, as the previous generation of Alcmaeonidae had done, tried to ally with the Persians after he was accused of impiety. The family disappeared after Athens's defeat in the Peloponnesian War.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Thermopylae (זרבבל)

Post by Ethan » Sun Sep 01, 2019 8:45 am

Daniel 9:1 - Darius the son of Ahasuerus
Esther 1:2 - Ahasuerus

The Septuagint identifies the King in Esther 1:2 as Ἀρταξέρξης (Artaxerxes), rather then the assumed Xerxes, but this does align with Daniel 9:1, since Darius II is the son of Artaxerxes I and he fathered Artaxerxes II and Cyrus the Younger.

This is contradiction to the odd statement in Josephus.

Antiquities of the Jews - 11.1841
After the death of Xerxes, the kingdom came to be transferred to his son Cyrus, whom the Greeks called Artaxerxes.

These Persian Kings are not numbered and Artaxerxes was never called Cyrus, but probably confused the siblings, Artaxerxes II and Cyrus the Younger, who is posthumously styled King of Persia in Daniel 10:1 and Isaiah 45:1.

There was wars and conflicts between Cyrus the Younger & Artaxerxes II creating division in the Persian Empire, the Spartans sided with Cyrus the Younger, so Hebrew, that are kin to Spartans, probably sided with the Cyrus the Younger.

In Isaiah 45:1, the Messiah epithet is given to a "Cyrus" and the word Messiah appears in Daniel 9 following Darius II, then the "Messiah" who was cut off, would be Cyrus the Younger.

Zerubbabel is present around 420 BCE who appears in Ezra 2, alongside Mordecai=Daniel=baladan (Isaiah 39:1) present during the reign of Artaxerxes I (465-424 BCE) forward too Artaxerxes II (404 to 358 BCE).
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Post Reply