Exodus 4:24

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Fri Sep 13, 2019 11:24 am

Genesis 22:6 as a unique word for the Knife, מאכלה that is μαχαίρᾳ.

מאכלה : μαχαίρᾳ
1. large knife or dirk, worn by the heroes of the Iliad next to the sword-sheath
2. sacrificial knife
3. generally, a knife for cutting up meat.

Aristophanes, Peace 949
Here is the basket of barley-seed mingled with salt, the chaplet and the sacred knife; and there is the fire; so we are only waiting for the sheep
τὸ κανοῦν πάρεστ᾽ ὀλὰς ἔχον καὶ στέμμα καὶ μάχαιραν, καὶ πῦρ γε τουτί, κοὐδὲν ἴσχει πλὴν τὸ πρόβατον ὑμᾶς.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/tex ... g=original

Genesis 22:6
He took the fire in his hand, and a knife
τὸ πῦρ μετὰ χεῗρα καὶ τὴν μάχαιραν

מאכל means "food", the prefixed מ is suffixed in the Greek hence φάγημα "food". (Genesis 6:21)
In Isaiah 9:5, מאכל means "fire-wood" unrelated to the above word, from καῦμα, κατάκαυμα "firewood" , this relates to
אכל "consume" in Exodus 3:2 that is κατακαίω. The Biblical lexicon does not distinguish homonyms of the Phoenician language.

The wording is very different between Genesis 22 and Exodus 4.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Fri Sep 13, 2019 11:54 am

In Exodus 4:20, it reads " took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass" , the Hebrew as "על־החמר" and Latin "super asinum" that are reading a singular donkey, where-as in the Septuagint, it reads " ἐπὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια" (Plural) "a beast for the yoke" (Lt. jumentum) that aught to read from על־החמרים.

The Septuagint is more realistic, reading more then one donkey, since one not enough to ride a whole family.

jumentum, ὑποζύγιον
1. a beast used for drawing or carrying, draught-cattle, a beast of bur- den, esp. a horse, mule, or ass (class.)
2. A carriage, vehicle
3. beast of burden.

חמר : ἥμερος, ἅμερος
1. tame, of animals
2. of plants and trees, cultivated (Isaiah 27:2) = ἡμερίς "cultivated vine" (כרם חמד : κρεμαστός ἡμερίς )
3. of countries, cultivated, reclaimed
4. of men, civilized, gentle. (Genesis 34:6)
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Fri Sep 13, 2019 2:19 pm

Exodus 4:22 - ואמרת , ἔρεις (תאמר)

The future tense of the verb is usually תאמר. The given verb in the Septuagint is written ἔρεις, but this is actually shortened form of ἐιρέεις (ἐρέεις) that reveals all the components.

ἐιρ (Stem) + έ (infix) + εις (tense)
dīc (Stem) + bi (infix) + s (tense)

These components are rearranged because Phoenician is written backwards.

ἐιρ_έ_εις > έ_ἐιρ_εις > ו־אמר־ת
dīc_bi_s > bi_dīc_s > ו־אמר־ת

The Latin infix "b" is phonetically close too "ו" as a labial.

The stem ἐιρ as an "i" between ἐ and ρ, now compare with Latin, this would always produce a consonant sound, so eius, reiectus is pronounced ejus and rejectus, this accounts the מ in אמר, the ב in דבר, the γ in λέγω and the π in ἔπος, originally written ϝεπος. = dico, דבר.

These infix changes the accent of the stem, so I am seeing (ὅρω), the future tense is formed with an infix "s" , so technically this is ὅρsω, but ρs merge into an ψ, so the future tense is ὅψω [ארא], only in the middle voice, ὄψομαι. [ארא־לי], but in Phoenician, the infix, prefix and suffix does not mutate the stem, is why written Phoenician barely changes, perhaps intentional as a merchant language, so that the written language was understood but spoken differently among the different groups around the Mediterranean.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Fri Sep 13, 2019 3:10 pm

פרעה (Pharaoh) came from the Greek Language, ἔφορος (ἐπίουρος)

פרעה, ἔφορος, ἐπίουρος
1. overseer, guardian, watcher, warden, ruler.
2. at Sparta, ἔφοροι, οἱ, the Ephors, a body of five magistrates, who controlled even the kings.

פרעה synonyms with φύλαξ and τηρός
1. watcher, guard, sentinel
2. guardian, keeper, protector

אצר is τηρέω "watch over, take care of, guard" (Psalm 119:33)
שמר is φύλαξ 'watch' . φ(ש) λ(מ)ξ(ר)
אשמר is φυλάσσω "I am watching"
משמר is φυλακτήριον ''guarded post, fort, castle' (Genesis 40:7)
נצר is τηρητής 'guard, warden' (2 Kings 17:9, Jeremiah 31:6)
נצר is ἐντηρέω (original and Doric form of τηρέω) also written נטר (Songs 1:6)
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Fri Sep 13, 2019 4:14 pm

Genesis 37:1 - "His father (Isaac) was a stranger, in the land of Canaan" (KJV)
וישב יעקב בארץ מגורי אביו בארץ כנען׃

מגורי = ἀποικεῖ
1. go away from home, esp. as a colonist, settle in a foreign country, emigrate
2. to dwell afar off, to live or be far away

Exodus 6:4
the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers.
את־ארץ כנען את ארץ מגריהם אשר־גרו בה

את־ארץ כנען > τάν ἔραν φοινικών "the land of the palm-groves"
את ארץ מגריהם > τάν ἔραν οἰκητήριον αὐτέων "the land of their colonialism"
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Fri Sep 13, 2019 6:15 pm

Exodus 6:4
אני שמעתי את־נאקת
ἐγών ἄκουκα τάν μυκάν "I have heard the agony" (Doric Greek).

עבד = ὀπαδός (Doric) "attendant"
עבדיה = ὀπαδός του Διος "attendant or follower of Zeus"

את־ברית = τάν ϝράτραν
1. in the Doric and Elean dialects, compact, treaty
2. of the laws of Lycurgus, which assumed the character of a compact between the Law-giver and the People
3. verbal agreement, bargain, covenant.

Exodus 5:8
את־מתכנת הלבנים > τάν τέχναμα τῶν πλίνθων

מתכן, τέχνασμα, τέχνημα
1. anything made or done by art, handiwork
2. that which is cunningly wrought, work of art, handiwork
3. an artifice, trick, a masterpiece of villainy

Exodus 5:7
תבן : στιβάς '.bed of straw, rushes, or leaves, whether strewn loose'
מתבן > στιβάδιον

Exodus 5:13
מעשה : τεῦγμα 'that which is made, a work'
אעש = τεύχω "I work"

Genesis 12:2
ברכה = εὐλογία > εὐλογ → eβλογ → βeλογ → βeλαγ → βeραχ "Bĕrak"
*benedictus > beedict > beerict > berik (ברך)
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Sat Sep 14, 2019 12:43 pm

Exodus 3:2 - מלאך יהוה "Angel of the Lord" (Sept. ἄγγελος κυρίου)
Iliad 2.90 - Διὸς ἄγγελος "messenger of Zeus"

Iliad 2.90
In their midst blazed forth Rumour, messenger of Zeus, urging them to go; and they were gathered.

However, ἄγγελος and מלאך are not homologues, instead, מלאך is οὑργάτης, ἐργάτης (ergátēs) and ἔργμα

מלאך, ἐργάτης
1. workman, one who works the soil, husbandman
2. one who practises an art
3. Hermes, messenger of the gods.
* ἐργάτης was associated with Hermes and occasionally served as a substitute for his proper name

מלאכה, ἔργμα
1. work, deed, business
Genesis 39:11 - מלאכת, ἔργματα "business".

אגר, ἀγείρω "gather together, of things, to get together, collect, gather"

מלך, ἀρχόν, ϝἅναξ
1. ruler, commander
2. chief, king
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
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Re: Exodus 4:24

Post by Ethan » Sat Sep 14, 2019 2:31 pm

Since the מ is a prefix, then מלאך is לאך hence lăbos > lăbor cf. Labourer, this accounts the א.
Since מלאך, ἐργάτης is a name for Hermes, this is Mercŭrĭus.


Genesis 19:15
- The angels hastened (ויאיצו המלאכים) (Sept. ἐπεσπούδαζον οἱ ἄγγελοι )

ויאיצו - ἐθόαζον
1.move quickly, ply rapidly
2 dispatch it quickly
3.move quickly, rush, dart

Isaiah 49:4
- I have laboured יגעתי, laboravi, ἐκοπίασα

יגעתי - ἔεργμαι, εἴργασμαι, ἔργω (> ἔρω)
1. to work, labour, properly of husbandry,
2. trans. to work at, make, build
3. the perf. pass. εἴργασμαι is used in act. sense, to be made or built, to be done

Ecclesiastes 2:11
- I had laboured to do. ובעמל שעמלתי לעשות, ἐν μόχθῳ ᾧ ἐμόχθησα τοῦ ποιεῗν

עמלתי, πένομαι
1. to work for one's daily bread; generally, to toil, work, labour
2. to be poor or needy
3. trans. to work at, prepare, get ready

Isaiah 58:3 עצבי "Labours"

עצבי, ὀδύνας
1. pain of body, pain of mind, grief, distress

Psalm 14:4 פעלי "Workers"

פעלי, ποιῆται
1. maker, craftsman, painter, one who makes.

אפעל :ποιέω, ποιήσω "I make, I shall make"
פעלתי: πεποίηκα "I have made"
ואפעל: ἐποίησα "I made"
מפעל: ποίημα "that which is made, a poem, a deed.
תפעל: ποίησις "a creation, poetry, poetic composition, adoption, fabrication".

אעשה :τεύχω, τεύξω " I will fashion, prepare, cause, produce"
עשהתי: τέτευχα "I have prepared, fashioned, produced"
ואעשה: ἔτευξα" "I cause, produce"
מעשה: τεῦγμα "that which is made, a work.
תעשה: τεῦξις "attainment"

That's the words associated with working and labouring.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

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