Nehemiah

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Ethan
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Nehemiah

Post by Ethan » Sun Sep 22, 2019 11:06 pm

2 Maccabees 18
Since we shall be celebrating the purification of the temple on the twenty-fifth day of the month Kislev, we thought it right to inform you, that you too may celebrate the feast of Booths and of the fire that appeared when Nehemiah, the builder of the temple and the altar, offered sacrifices.

19
For when our ancestors were being led into captivity in Persia, devout priests at the time took some of the fire from the altar and hid it secretly in the hollow of a dry cistern, making sure that the place would be unknown to anyone.

20
Many years later, when it so pleased God, Nehemiah, commissioned by the king of Persia, sent the descendants of the priests who had hidden the fire to look for it.

22
Nehemiah ordered the priests to sprinkle the wood and what lay on it with the liquid.
This was done, and when at length the sun, which had been clouded over, began to shine, a great fire blazed up, so that everyone marveled.

1. Captivity in Persia
2. Nehemiah, builder of the temple.
3. Zoroastrian Fire

Nehemiah
1.1; Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah (נחמיה בן־חכליה)
1.11; For I was the king's cupbearer (אני הייתי משקה למלך)
2.1; I took up the wine, and gave it unto the king

How did Nehemiah become the King's cupbearer, a very high Persian honor.

Herodotus 3.34
Prexaspes, whom he held in particular honor, who brought him all his messages, whose son held the very honorable office of Cambyses' cup-bearer

The Spartans had a very close relationship with Persian Kings.

Herodotus 7.3
While Darius delayed making his decision, it chanced that at this time Demaratus son of Ariston had come up to Susa, in voluntary exile from Lacedaemonia after he had lost the kingship of Sparta. Learning of the contention between the sons of Darius, this man, as the story goes, came and advised Xerxes to add this to what he said: that he had been born when Darius was already king and ruler of Persia, but Artobazanes when Darius was yet a subject; therefore it was neither reasonable nor just that anyone should have the royal privilege before him. At Sparta too (advised Demaratus) it was customary that if sons were born before their father became king, and another son born later when the father was king, the succession to the kingship belongs to the later-born. Xerxes followed Demaratus advice, and Darius judged his plea to be just and declared him king. But to my thinking Xerxes would have been made king even without this advice, for Atossa held complete sway.

Herodotus 7.104
To this Demaratus answered, “O king I knew from the first that the truth would be unwelcome to you. But since you compelled me to speak as truly as I could, I have told you how it stands with the Spartans. You yourself best know what love I bear them: they have robbed me of my office and the privileges of my house, and made me a cityless exile; your father received me and gave me a house and the means to live on.

Herodotus 7.237
Achaemenes,” Xerxes answered, “I think that you speak well, and I will do as you counsel. Despite the fact that your advice is better than his, Demaratus does say what he supposes to be most serviceable to me, for assuredly I will never believe that he is no friend to my cause. I believe this of him because of all that he has already said and by what is the truth, namely, that if one citizen prospers, another citizen is jealous of him and shows his enmity by silence, and no one, (except if he has attained the height of excellence; and such are seldom seen) if his own townsman asks for counsel, will give him what he thinks to be the best advice. If one stranger prospers, however, another stranger is beyond all men his well-wisher and will, if he is asked, impart to him the best counsel he has. It is for this reason that I bid you all to refrain from maligning Demaratus, seeing that he is a stranger and a friend.”

Genesis 17:8
I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger

Genesis 23:4
I am a stranger and a sojourner with you

Leviticus 19:34
But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

Deuteronomy 10:19
Love ye therefore the stranger: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Psalm 39:12
Hear my prayer, O LORD, and give ear unto my cry; hold not thy peace at my tears: for I am a stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were.

Psalm 69:8
I am become a stranger unto my brethren, and an alien unto my mother's children.

Psalm 119:19
I am a stranger in the earth: hide not thy commandments from me.

Obadiah 1:12
But thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy brother in the day that he became a stranger;

Λάκαιναν χώρην : Laconian land

Demetrius > Procles > Nehemiah
οἰκός τοῦ Δημητρίου : אפרתה בית לחם
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Nehemiah

Post by Ethan » Mon Sep 23, 2019 8:28 am

Greeks words that are transliterated into Hebrew, often r is dropped, more likely the accent at the time was non-rhotic so a name like Demetrius was perhaps vocalized, Demetius and vowel-consonant is common. Δημη > Δηημ > Ληημ hence לחם or into Νηημ hence נחם in נחמיה transliterated Νεεμια and יה is not a deity but part of the ending -ιος rather then the genitive -Διός (of Zeus).

Δημη > Δηημ > Ληημ (לחם) - a name for bread.
www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=Δη ... ek#lexicon

Δημάρητος ὁ Ἀρίστωνος : נחמיה בן־חכליה
Ἀρίστων > Ἀρίστωλ > Ἀίσταλ > Ἀίχαλ (חכל) Sept. Αχαλια
Demetrius was an ancestor of Εὐρυπῶν (Eurypon). Abraham?

Herodotus 7.3
Demaratus son of Ariston had come up to Susa (Σοῦσα).

Nehemiah 1:1, Esther 1:2
I was in the city of Susa

Nehemiah 1 writes "In the 20th year", Demetrius enters the scene towards the end of the reign of Darius I, 486 and present during the reign of Xerxes I whom ruled 21 years, his 20th year would be 466 BCE else he lived through the reign of Artaxerxes I onto 445 BCE.

First Maccabees 12:20
"Arius, king of the Spartans, sends greetings to Onias, the chief priest. It has been found in a writing concerning the Spartans and Jews, that they are a kinsmen, and that they are descended from Abraham. Now since we have learned this, please write us about your welfare. We for our part write you that your cattle and property are ours and ours are yours. So we command them to report to you to this effect."

Antiquities of the Jews 12:4:10
Areus, King of the Lacedemonians, to Onias, sendeth greeting ... we have discovered that both the Jews and the Lacedemonians (Spartans) are of one stock, and are derived from the kindred of Abraham ... This letter is four-square; and the seal is an eagle, with a dragon in his claws"
The Book, Sparta, by A.H.M. Jones, a Professor of Ancient History at Cambridge University, noted several things about Sparta. He states the Spartans worshipped a "great law-giver" who had given them their laws in the "dim past" (page 5 of his book). This law-giver may have been Moses.
Professor Jones also noted the Spartans celebrated "the new moons" and the "seventh day" of the month" (page 13). Observing new moons was an Israelite calendar custom, and their observance of "a seventh day" could originate with the Sabbath celebration. Prof. Jones also notes, as do other authorities, that the Spartans were known for being "ruthless" in war and times of crisis


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycurgus_of_Sparta
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Nehemiah

Post by Ethan » Wed Sep 25, 2019 1:43 pm

The magical fire in Nehemiah is explained in Strabo and Plutarch

Strabo 16.1
The liquid asphaltus, which is called naphtha, is found in Susa; the dry kind, which can be made solid, in Babylonia. There is a spring of it near the Euphrates. When this river overflows at the time of the melting of the snow, the spring also of asphaltus is filled, and overflows into the river, where large clods are consolidated, fit for buildings constructed of baked bricks. Others say that the liquid kind also is found in Babylonia. With respect to the solid kind, I have described its great utility in the construction of buildings. They say that boats (of reeds) are woven, which, when besmeared with asphaltus, are firmly compacted. When it is brought near the fire, the fire catches it; and if a body smeared over with it is brought near the fire, it burns with a flame, which it is impossible to extinguish, except with a large quantity of water; with a small quantity it burns more violently, but it may be smothered and extinguished by mud, vinegar, alum, and glue. It is said that Alexander, as an experiment, ordered naphtha to be poured over a boy in a bath, and a lamp to be brought near his body. The boy became enveloped in flames, and would have perished if the bystanders had not mastered the fire by pouring upon him a great quantity of water, and thus saved his life.


Plutarch, Alexander 35

As he traversed all Babylonia, which at once submitted to him, he was most of all amazed at the chasm from which fire continually streamed forth as from a spring, and at the stream of naphtha, so abundant as to form a lake, not far from the chasm. This naphtha is in other ways like asphaltum, but is so sensitive to fire that, before the flame touches it, it is kindled by the very radiance about the flame and often sets fire also to the intervening air.

[2] To show its nature and power, the Barbarians sprinkled the street leading to Alexander's quarters with small quantities of the liquid; then, standing at the farther end of the street, they applied their torches to the moistened spots; for it was now getting dark. The first spots at once caught fire, and without an appreciable interval of time, but with the speed of thought, the flame darted to the other end, and the street was one continuous fire.

[3] Now, there was a certain Athenophanes, an Athenian, one of those who were accustomed to minister to the person of the king when he bathed and anointed himself, and to furnish suitable diversion for his thoughts. This man, one time when there was standing by Alexander in the bath-room a youth who had a ridiculously plain countenance, but was a graceful singer (his name was Stephanus), said, ‘Wilt thou, O King, that we make a trial of the liquid upon Stephanus? For if it should lay hold of him and not be extinguished, I would certainly say that its power was invincible and terrible.’

[4] The youth also, strangely enough, offered himself for the experiment, and as soon as he touched the liquid and began to anoint himself with it, his body broke out into so great a flame and was so wholly possessed by fire that Alexander fell into extreme perplexity and fear; and had it not been by chance that many were standing by holding vessels of water for the bath, the youth would have been consumed before aid reached him.

[5] Even as it was, they had great difficulty in putting out the fire, for it covered the boy's whole body, and after they had done so, he was in a sorry plight.
It is natural, then, that some who wish to bring fable into conformity with truth should say that this naphtha is the drug which Medeia used, when, in the tragedies, she anoints the crown and the robe. For it was not from these objects themselves, they say, nor of its own accord, that the fire shot up, but a flame was placed near them, which was then so swiftly drawn into conjunction with them that the senses could not take cognisance of it.

[6] For the rays and emanations of fire which come from a distance impart to some bodies merely light and warmth; but in those which are dry and porous, or which have sufficiently rich moisture, they collect themselves together, break into fierce flame, and transform the material. There has been much discussion about the origin of 1
.... or whether rather the liquid substance that feeds the flame flows out from a soil which is rich and productive of fire.

[7] For the soil of Babylonia is very fiery, so that grains of barley often leap out of the ground and bound away, as if its inflammation made the ground throb; and the inhabitants, during the hot season, sleep on skins filled with water.

[8] Harpalus, moreover, when he was left as overseer of the country and was eager to adorn the royal gardens and walks with Hellenic plants, succeeded with all except ivy; this the soil would not support, but always killed it. The plant could not endure the temper of the soil, for the soil was fiery, while the plant was fond of coolness. However, if such digressions are kept within bounds, perhaps my impatient readers will find less fault with them.

2 Maccabees 36[/u]
Nehemiah and his companions called the liquid nephthar (νεφθαρ) , meaning purification, but most people named it naphtha (νεφθαι)

The Song of the Three Jews (Daniel 3:46) (LXX only)
Now the king’s servants who threw them in kept stoking the furnace with naphtha, pitch, tow, and brushwood. 47 And the flames poured out above the furnace forty-nine cubits, 48 and spread out and burned those Chaldeans who were caught near the furnace. 49 But the angel of the Lord came down into the furnace to be with Azariah and his companions, and drove the fiery flame out of the furnace, 50 and made the inside of the furnace as though a moist wind were whistling through it. The fire did not touch them at all and caused them no pain or distress.

*liquid asphaltus, which is called naphtha, is found in Susa
ἄσφαλτος (Asphalt), ὑγρὰ (Liquid) νάφθαν (Nafta)
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Nehemiah

Post by Ethan » Wed Oct 02, 2019 6:09 am

The similarity between the Old Testament and Herodotus as being noted by many, an interesting parallel is with the naming of Demaratus.

Herodotus 6.63
In this way Ariston married his third wife, after divorcing the second one. But his new wife gave birth to Demaratus too soon, before ten lunar months had passed.

When one of his servants announced to him as he sat in council with the ephors that he had a son, Ariston, knowing the time of the marriage, counted up the months on his fingers and swore on oath, “It's not mine.” The ephors heard this but did not make anything of it. When the boy grew up, Ariston regretted having said that, for he firmly believed Demaratus to be his own son.

He named him Demaratus because before his birth all the Spartan populace had prayed that Ariston, the man most highly esteemed out of all the kings of Sparta, might have a son. Thus he was named Demaratus, which means “answer to the people's prayer.”

The two key words are πανδημεί and ἀρὴν, so Herodotus derives his name from δημοῦ ἀρήν, this in the Ionic dialect, but this would be δάμου ἀρᾶν and ἀρᾶν or ἀρήν is a variant of the Lacedaemonian term, εἴρην or ἰρήν that are the Biblical prefixes and suffixes found among names, אל־ or ־אל. The naming of Demaratus in Herodotus is identical to how Samuel was named, from δάμου ἀρήν "Asked of the people, prayed of the people"

1 Samuel 1:20 - Valled his name Samuel, saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD.
The verb "I have asked" is שאלתי translates ἠρώτηκα as in Δημ-άρητον, same as Ἄρητος or Ἄρατός (Aratus)

The verbs that are stressed in the Samuel narrative are שאלתי and the other is התפללתי , also a Greek word, from ἀντεβόλησε (ἀντιβολέω), this relates to the Hebrew word for prayer, תפלת from ἀντιβόλησις "an entreaty, prayer", yet none of the verbs match שמואל, but they do if the character was named Shealtiel (father of Zĕrubbabel) written שאלתיאל, this verb contains the perfect verb שאלתי is that stressed in the naming of Samuel and synonymous with the name, Δημάρητον.

Is thus Zĕrubbabel the son of Demaratus, is perhaps Nehemiah, in fact both Zĕrubbabel and Nehemiah where the Satraps of Judea (Hag 1:14) and very common for the son of inherit the position.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

Ethan
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Feb 13, 2018 1:15 pm
Location: England

Re: Nehemiah

Post by Ethan » Wed Oct 02, 2019 8:52 am

In Herodotus 7.3, Demaratus becomes the kingmaker, his advise made Xerxes I, a King, instead of Artobazanes, the eldest son of Darius 1, the function of Samuel also a Kingmaker, for both Saul and David.

Saul is introduced in 1 Samuel 9:1 and hints the meaning of his name, שאול means Ἅίτας 'a beloved youth, favourite', this is proven with the homonym, שאול meaning Ἅιδας "Hades".
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

1 Samuel 9:2 - Saul, a choice young man

בחור/κουρόσυνος "youthful" cf. αἱρετός, ἀφαιρετός, ἠίθεος, κορός.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

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