Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

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Ben C. Smith
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Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Mon Oct 14, 2019 5:59 pm

For the sake of convenience, as well as for my own edification, I have collected most/all of the references to the Teacher of Righteousness from the Dead Sea scrolls and from the Damascus Document:

1Q14, fragments 8-10, lines 3-11: 3 [.... «What are the high places of Judah? Is it not Je]rusa[lem? I will reduce Samaria] 4 [to a country ruin, to a plot of vines» (= Micah 1.5b-6a). ~] Its interpretation concerns the Spreader of the Lie 5 [who has misdirected the] simple. ~ «What are the high places of Judah? 6 [Is it not Jerusalem?» Its interpretation con]cerns the Teacher of Righteousness who 7 [teaches the law to] his [council] and to a[l]l those volunteering to join the chosen of 8 [God, observing the law] in the council of the Community, those who will be saved from the day of 9 [judgment ...] .... [....] 10 [.... «As for what he says, I will reduce Samaria to] a country ruin» (= Micah 1.6) 11 [....] .... [....]

1Q14, fragment 11, lines 1-6: 1 [«...and I will wail» (= Micah 1.8). Its interpretation concerns the priests of Jeru]sa[le]m, who misdirect [...] 2 [...] his enemies. ~ «Barefoot and na[ked, ...] 3 [... has reached as] far as the gate of my people, as far [as Jerusalem» (= Micah 1.8-9)....] 4 [Its interpretation concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, who will] judge [his] enemies [....] 5 [....] he will act treacherously [....] 6 [....] .... [....]

1QpHab, columns 1-2, lines 10-5a & 1-17: 1.10 [....] «For the Law falls into abeyance» (= Habakkuk 1.4a). 11 [The interpretation of this ...] that they have rejected the Law of God. 12 [«And justice does not emerge as the winner, for the evildoer accos]ts the upright man» (= Habakkuk 1.4bc). ~ 13 [Its interpretation: the evildoer is the Wicked Priest and the upright man] is the Teacher of Righteousness. 14 [.... «This] is why justice emerges 15 [distorted» (Habakkuk 1.4d). The interpretation of this ...] and not [...] 16 [.... «Look, traitors, and behold,] 17 [be astonished, shocked, for in your time a work is done which you would not believe if] 2.1 it was reported» (= Habakkuk 1.5). ~ [.... The interpretation of the word concerns] the traitors with the Man of 2 the Lie, since they do not [believe in the words of] the Teacher of Righteousness from the mouth of 3 God; and (it concerns) the traito[rs of the] new [covenant] si[n]ce they did not 4 believe in the covenant of God [and dishonoured] his holy na[me]. 5 Likewise: ~ The interpretation of the word [concerns the trai]tors in the last 6 days. They are violator[s of the coven]ant who will not believe 7 when they hear all that is going [to happen t]o the final generation, from the mouth of 8 the Priest whom God has placed wi[thin the Commun]ity, to foretell the fulfilment of all 9 the words of his servants, the prophets, [by] means of whom God has declared 10 all that is going to happen to his people Is[rael]. «For see, I will mobilize 11 the Chaldaeans, a cruel [and deter]mined people» (= Habakkuk 1.6). ~ 12 Its interpretation concerns the Kittim, wh[o ar]e swift and powerful 13 in battle, to slay many [...] in the kingdom of 14 the Kittim; they will take possession [of many countries] and will not believe 15 in the precepts of [Go]d [.... «They go across the earth] 16 to [take possession of dwellings not theirs» (= Habakkuk 1.6). Its interpretation ...] 17 [....]

1QpHab, column 5, lines 8b-12a: 8b «Why do you stare, traitors, and remain silent when 9 a wicked person consumes someone more upright than himself» (= Habakkuk 1.13b)? ~ Its interpretation concerns the House of Absalom 10 and the members of their council, who kept silent when the Teacher of Righteousness was rebuked, 11 and did not help him against the Man of the Lie, ~ who rejected 12a the Law in the midst of their whole Council.

1QpHab, column 7, lines 1-5a: 1 And God told Habakkuk to write what was going to happen to 2 <to> the last generation, but he did not let him know the consummation of the era. 3 ~ And as for what he says: «So that /may run/ the one who reads it» (= Habakkuk 2.2). 4 Its interpretation concerns the Teacher of Righteousness, to whom God has made known 5 all the mysteries of the words of his servants, the prophets.

1QpHab, columns 7-9, lines 17, 1-13, & 1-12a: 7.17 [.... «But the righteous man will live because of their loyalty to him» (= Habakkuk 2.4b).] 8.1 Its interpretation concerns all observing the Law in the House of Judah, whom 2 God will free from the house of judgment on account of their toil and of their loyalty 3 to the Teacher of Righteousness. «Surely wealth will corrupt the boaster, and not 4 will he last, he who widens his throat like the abyss, and he, like death can not be satisfied. 5 All the peoples ally against him, all the nations come together against him. 6 Are they not all going to chant verses against him, explaining riddles at his expense? 7 They shall say, "Ah, one who amasses the wealth of others! How long will he load himself 8 with debts"» (= Habakkuk 2.5-6)? ~ Its interpretation concerns the Wicked Priest, who 9 was called loyal at the start of his office. However, when he ruled 10 over Israel his heart became proud, he deserted God and betrayed the laws for the sake of 11 riches. And he robbed and hoarded wealth from the violent men who had rebelled against God. 12 And he seized public money, incurring additional serious sin. 13 And he performed re[pul]sive acts by every type of defiling impurity. «Will not suddenly 14 your cre[di]tors get up, and those who shake you wake up? You will be their prey. 15 Since you pillaged many peoples all the rest of the nations will pillage you.» 16 ~ The in[terpretation of the word] concerns the Priest who rebelled 17 [...] the precepts of [God ...] ... [...] 9.1 afflicting him with the punishments of sin; the horrors of 2 terrifying maladies they have acted upon him, as well as vengeful acts on his fleshly body. And what 3 it says: «Since you pillaged many peoples all the 4 rest of the nations will pillage you» (= Habakkuk 2.8a). ~ Its interpretation concerns the last priests of Jerusalem, 5 who will accumulate riches and loot from plundering the nations. 6 However, in the last days their riches and their loot will be given into the hands 7 of the army of the Kittim. ~ For they are «the rest of the nations» (= Habakkuk 2.8a). 8 «For the human blood (spilt) and the violence (done) to the country, the city and all /who dwell/ in it» (= Habakkuk 2.8b). ~ 9 Its interpretation concerns the [Wi]cked Priest, whom, for the wickedness against the Teacher of 10 Righteousness and the members of his council, God delivered into the hands of his enemies to disgrace him 11 with a punishment, to destroy him with bitterness of soul for having acted wickedly 12a against his elect.

1QpHab, column 10, lines 5b-13: 5b «Woe 6 to him who builds a city with blood and founds a town on wickedness! Does 7 this not stem from YHWH of Hosts that the nations wear themselves out for fire 8 and the peoples are exhausted for nothing» (= Habakkuk 2.12-13)? ~ 9 The interpretation of the word concerns the Spreader of the Lie, who has misdirected many, 10 building a useless city with blood and erecting a community with deceit 11 for his own glory, wearing out many by useless work and teaching them 12 a[c]ts of deceit, so that their labours are for nothing; so that 13 those who derided and insulted God’s chosen will go to the punishment of fire.

1QpHab, columns 11-12, lines 2b-17 & 1-10: 2b «Woe to anyone making his companion drunk, spilling out 3 his anger, or even making him drunk to look at their festivals» (= Habakkuk 2.15)! 4 ~ Its interpretation concerns the Wicked Priest who 5 pursued the Teacher of Righteousness to consume him with the heat 6 of his anger in the place of his banishment. In festival time, during the rest 7 of the day of Atonement, he appeared to them, to consume them 8 and make them fall on the day of fasting, the sabbath of their rest. «You are more glutted 9 with disgrace than with glory. Drink up also and stagger! 10 The cup of YHWH’s right hand will turn against you and disgrace come 11 upon your glory» (= Habakkuk 2.16). ~ 12 Its interpretation concerns the Priest whose disgrace exceeded his glory 13 because he did not circumcise the foreskin of his heart and has walked on paths of 14 excessiveness to slake his thirst; but the cup of 15 [Go]d’s anger will consume him, increasing [...] his [dis]grace. And the pain 16 [....] 17 [«For the violation of Lebanon will cover you, and the destruction of animals] 12.1 will appal you, owing to the human blood and the violence (done to) the country, the city and all who dwell there» (= Habakkuk 2.17). 2 The interpretation of the word concerns the Wicked Priest, to pay him the 3 reward for what he did to the poor. Because Lebanon is 4 the Council of the Community and the animals are the simple folk of Judah, those who observe 5 the Law. God will sentence him to destruction, ~ 6 exactly as he intended to destroy the poor. And as for what he says: «Owing to the blood 7 of the city and the violence (done to) the country» (= Habakkuk 2.17), its interpretation {is} the city is Jerusalem 8 in which the /Wicked/ Priest performed repulsive acts and defiled 9 the Sanctuary of God. The violence (done to) the country are the cities of Judah which 10 he plundered of the possessions of the poor.

4Q163, fragments 4-6, column 1, lines 6-7: 6 [.... «And YHWH has cut off from Israel head and tail, reed and ru]sh in one day» (= Isaiah 9.14; refer to verse 15, as well). The old 7 and of radiant face, he is the head; and the prophet, the Teacher of Lies,] he is the tail.

4Q163, fragment 21, lines 1-8: 1 [...] «Per[haps, in a very little while,] 2 [will the Lebanon turn into] an orchard, and will the orchard] seem like [a wood» (= Isaiah 29.17)?] The Le[b]anon a[re] 3 [...] into an orchard and they will turn into [...] 4 [...] by the sword. And what [it says ...] 5 [....] .... [....] 6 [....] .... [....] the Teacher of [... as it is written:] 7 [«It was annulled on that day, and] thus the most helpless of the flock which [were watching me knew] 8 [that] it [was in fact the word of YHWH» (= Zechariah 11.11).] ~ [....]

4Q163, fragments 23 & 25, lines 15-20 & 1-4: 15 [«F]or (you) a people [living] in Zion, [in Jerusalem, will no longer need to weep; he will have pity on you at the sound of] 16 your cry; when he hea[rs it, he will answer you. Even though the Lord has given you measured bread and rationed water,] 17 no lo[nger] will he hide [your Teacher, and your eyes will see your Teacher.] 18 Your ears will h[ear a word behind you which says: This is the path, walk on it,] 19 when you need to go to the rig[ht or to the left» (= Isaiah 30.19-21). The interpretation of the word, for the last days,] 20 concerns the sin of [...] 25.1 [...] the king of Babylon [...] 2 [...] with tambourines and zith[ers ...] 3 [... downpour and] hailstorm, implements of war, they are [....] 4 [....] ~ [....]

4Q165, fragments 1-2, lines 15-17: 1 .... [....] .... 2 and Jerusalem [...] ~ And what is written: [«He carries them on his chest and leads the sucklings» (= Isaiah 40.11).] 3 The interpretation of the word [concerns the Teacher of Righteousness who] reveals j[ust] teaching [.... «Who has measured the sea in fistfuls,] 4 or [charted] the sky in [palm breadths, or seized the dust] of the earth [in bushels,] weighed [the mountains on the balance or the hills in the scales» (= Isaiah 40.12)?]

4Q171, column 3, lines 14-26: 14 «For by YHW[H the steps of a man] are secure; he delights in his [pa]th: even though he stumbles he will not 13 fall, for Y[HWH supports his hand» (= Psalm 37.23-24)]. Its interpretation concerns the Priest, the Teacher of [Righteousness, whom] 16 God [ch]ose to stand [....] he installed him to found the congregation [of his chosen ones of the truth] for him, 17 [and] straightened out his [pa]th, in truth. «I have [been young] and am old now; yet [I have] not [seen a just person] 18 deserted or his offspring begging for bre[ad. Daily] he has compassion and lends, and [his] off[spring is blessed» (= Psalm 37.25-26). The interpretation] 19 of the word concerns the Teac[her of Righteousness who ...] .... [....] 20 and [....] 21-26 [....]

4Q171, column 4, lines 7-10a: 7 «The wicked person spies on the just person and tries [to kill him. YH]WH [will not relinquish him into his hand,] n[or] let him be condemned {and} when he is judged» (= Psalm 37.32-33). 8 Its interpretation concerns the Wicked [Pri]est, who sp[ie]s on the ju[st man and wants to] kill him [...] and the law 9 which he sent him; but God will not re[linquish him] nor [let him be condemned when] he is judged. But [God will] pay [him] his reward, delivering him 10a into the hands of ruthless nations so that they can carry out [vengeance] upon him.

4Q171, column 4, lines 13-16a: 13 «I [saw] a ruthless wicked man, who displ[ayed] himself [like a leafy tree.] I passed by his p[la]ce and he [no longer existed;] I [looked for him] but he could not 14 [be found» (= Psalm 37.35-36). Its interpretation] concerns the [M]an of Lies [who ...] ... [...] against God’s cho[sen and tr]ied to end 15 [....] .... [....] to carry out ... judgment [ag]ainst him [....] he acted impertinently with an arrogant hand 16a [....] ....

4Q171, column 4, lines 24b-27: 24b «My he[art] [over]flows with a good theme, 25 [I] re[cite my verses to the king» (= Psalm 45.1ab). Its interpretation ...] holy ..., for 26 [...] books [....] ~ «And my tongue is the pen of 27 [a skilled scribe» (= Psalm 45.1c). Its interpretation] concerns the Teach[er of Righteousness ... befo]re God with the reply of the tongue....

4Q173, fragments 1-2, lines 1-6 and 1-2: 1.1-2 [....] .... [....] 3 [... w]ho looked for [...] 4 [...] the warnings (?) of the Teacher of Righteousness [...] 5 [... pri]est in the final e[ra ....] 6 [...] ~ [....] 7 [....] and fever; the inheritance [....] 2.1 [...] ~ The interpretation of the wo[rd ...] 2 [... the Te]acher of Right[eousness ....]

CD-A, column 1, lines 1-18a: 1 ~ And now, listen, all those who know justice, and understand the actions of 2 God; for he has a dispute with all flesh and will carry out judgment on all those who spurn him. 3 For when they were unfaithful in forsaking him, he hid his face from Israel and from his sanctuary 4 and delivered them up to the sword. But when he remembered the covenant with the forefathers, he saved a remnant 5 for Israel and did not deliver them up to destruction. And at the period of wrath, three hundred and 6 ninety years after having delivered them up into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 7 he visited them and caused to sprout from Israel and from Aaron a shoot of the planting, in order to possess 8 his land and to become fat with the good things of his soil. And they realised their iniquity and knew that 9 they were guilty {men}; but they were like blind persons and like those who grope for a path 10 over twenty years. And God appraised their deeds, because they sought him with an undivided heart, 11 and raised up for them a Teacher of Righteousness, in order to direct them in the path of his heart. ~ And he made known 12 to the last generations what he had done for the last generation, the congregation of traitors. 13 These are the ones who stray from the path. This is the time about which it has been written: «Like a stray heifer 14 so has Israel strayed,» when «the scoffer» arose (= Hosea 4.16), who poured out over Israel 15 waters of lies and made them stray into a wilderness without path, causing the everlasting heights to sink down, diverging 16 from tracks of justice and removing the boundary with which the forefathers had marked their inheritance, so that 17 the curses of his covenant would adhere to them, to deliver them up to the sword carrying out the vengeance 18a of the covenant.

CD-A, column 6, lines 1-11a: 1 ... of the holy anointed ones. They prophesied deceit in order to divert Israel from following 2 God. But God remembered the covenant of the forefathers. ~ And he raised from Aaron men of knowledge and from Israel 3 wise men, and made them listen. And they dug the well, «a well which the princes dug, which 4 the nobles of the people delved with the staff» (= Numbers 21.18). The well is the law. And those who dug it ~ are 5 the converts of Israel, who left the land of Judah and lived in the land of Damascus, 6 all of whom God called princes, for they sought him, and their renown has not been repudiated 7 in anyone’s mouth. ~ And the staff is the interpreter of the law, of whom 8 Isaiah said: «He produces a tool for his labor» (= Isaiah 54.16). ~ And the nobles of the people are 9 those who came to dig the well with the staves that the sceptre decreed, 10 to walk in them throughout the whole age of wickedness, and without which they will not obtain it, until there arises 11a he who teaches justice at the end of days.

CD-B, columns 19-20, lines 33b-35 & 1-2: 19.33b Thus, all the men who entered the new 34 covenant in the land of Damascus and turned and betrayed and departed from the well of living waters, 35 shall not be counted in the assembly of the people, they shall not be inscribed in their lists, from the day of the gathering in {of the Teacher} 20.1 {...} of the unique Teacher until there arises the Messiah out of Aaron and Israel. ~ And thus is the judgment 2 of everyone who enters the congregation of the men of perfect holiness and is slack in the fulfilment of the instructions of the upright.

CD-B, column 20, lines 13b-15a: 13b And from the day 14 of the gathering in of the unique teacher, until the end of all the men of war who turned back 15a with the man of lies, there shall be about forty years.

CD-B, column 20, lines 27b-34: 27b But all those who remain steadfast in these regulations, [co]ming 28 and going in accordance with the law, and listen to the Teacher’s voice, and confess before God: «Assuredly 29 have we sinned, both we and our fathers, walking contrary to the ordinances of the covenant; just[ice] 30 and truth are your judgments against us,» and they do not raise their hand against his holy regulations and his just 31 judgment[s] and his truthful stipulations, and they are instructed in the first ordinances, 32 in conformity with which the men of the Unique One were judged, and they lend their ears to the voice of the Teacher of Righteousness and do not reject 33 the just regulations when they hear them, these shall exult and rejoice and their heart will be strong, and they shall prevail 34 over all the sons of the world. And God will atone for them, and they shall see his salvation, for they have taken refuge in his holy name.

4Q266, fragment 2, lines 6b-21a: 6b And now, listen, all those of you who know 7 [ju]stice, and [understand the actions of God; for he has a dispute with] all flesh and will carry out judgment 8 on all those who spu[rn him. For when they were unfaithful in forsaking him,] he hid his fa[ce from I]srael and from his sanctuary 9 and deliv[ered them up to the sword. But when he remembered the covenant with the forefathers, he saved a remnant] for Israel and did not 10 deliver them up to [destruction. And at the period of wrath,] thr[ee hundred and ninety] years after having delivered them up into the hand 11 of Neb[uchadne]zzar, kin[g] of Babylon, he visited them [and caused to sprout from Israel] and from Aa[ro]n a shoot 12 [of the plan]ting, in order to possess [his land and to become fat with the good things of his soil. And they realised] their [iniqu]ity and knew 13 that they were guilty; [but they were like blind persons and like those who grope] for a path over twen[ty] years. 14 And God appraised [their] deed[s, because they sought him with a undivided heart and raised up for them a Teacher of Righteousness,] 15 in order to direct them /in the [p]ath of [his] heart/. [~ And he made known to the last generations what] 16 he had done to the [l]ast gener[ation], [the congregation of traitors. These are the ones who stray from the path. This is the time] 17 about which it has been [writ]ten: [~ «Like a stray heifer so has Israel strayed,» 18 when «the scof[fer» arose (= Hosea 4.16), who poured out over Israel waters of lies] and made them stray into a wilderness 19 without path, causing the everlasting [heights] to sink down, [diverging from tracks of justice and] removing the boundary 20 with which the forefa[thers] had marked [their inheritance, so that the cur]ses of his covenant [would adhere to them,] 21a to deliver them up to the swo[rd carrying out the vengeance of the covenant.

The text is from the Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition edited by Florentino García Martínez & Eibert Tigchelaar, somewhat reformatted for presentation on this forum. I am not completely certain I have collected every single reference, so if any are missing I am happy to add them if someone can give me a solid lead. I also tried to find as many references as I could to the Wicked Priest and the Spreader/Man of the Lie, but my search methods were even less comprehensive with those figures than with the Teacher.

I am not actually one of those researchers who thinks that the Teacher of Righteousness is Jesus Christ, full stop, but I have noticed a few strange parallels between the Teacher and Jesus which have piqued my interest, and my most recent brand of interpretation concerning the matter of the historical Jesus involves a him being a purportedly messianic figure whose human career was so obscure that later believers had to guess at his human identity (John the Baptist being one of the Christian guesses, and a certain Jesus ben Stada being one of the Jewish guesses). This same obscurity could have led to the careers of other individuals being attached to Jesus instead: Jesus ben Ananus, for example, or (in the case at hand) the Teacher of Righteousness himself. I am sure I will have more to say about this topic sooner or later; but, for now, I wanted to make the passages at issue as accessible as possible.

Ben.

ETA: Of related interest:

4Q169, fragments 3-4, column 1, lines 1b-8a: 1b «Where a lion went to go into it, a lion cub 2 [without anyone confining him» (= Nahum 2.12). ~ Its interpretation concerns Deme]trius, king of Yavan, who wanted to enter Jerusalem on the advice of the those looking for easy interpretations, 3 [but he did not enter, for God had not given Jerusalem] into the hand of the kings of Yavan from Antiochus up to the appearance of the chiefs of the Kittim. But later, it will be trampled 4 [....] ~ «The lion catches enough for his cubs [and] strangles prey for his lionesses, 5 [and fills his cave with prey, and his den with spoil» (= Nahum 2.13). The interpretation of the word] concerns the Angry Lion who struck with his nobles and the men of his counsel 6 [the simple folk of Ephraim. And concerning what he says: «He fills] his cave [with prey] and his den with spoils» (= Nahum 2.13), ~ its interpretation concerns the Angry Lion 7 [who filled his cave with a mass of corpses, carrying out rev]enge against those looking for easy interpretations, who hanged living men 8a [from the tree, committing an atrocity which had not been committed] in Israel since ancient times, for it is [hor]rible for the one hanged alive from the tree.

Josephus, Wars 1.4.6 §96-98: 96 However, the rest of the multitude did not lay aside their quarrels with him, when the auxiliaries were gone; but they had a perpetual war with Alexander, until he had slain the greatest part of them, and driven the rest into the city Berneselis; and when he had demolished that city, he carried the captives to Jerusalem. 97 Nay, his rage was grown so extravagant, that his barbarity proceeded to the degree of impiety; for when he had ordered eight hundred to be crucified [ἀνασταυρώσας] in the midst of the city, he had the throats of their wives and children cut before their eyes; and these executions he saw as he was drinking and lying down with his concubines. 98 Upon which so deep a surprise seized on the people, that eight thousand of his opposers fled away the very next night, out of all Judea, whose flight was only terminated by Alexander's death; so at last, though not till late, and with great difficulty, he, by such actions, procured quiet to his kingdom, and left off fighting any more.

Josephus, Antiquities 13.14.2 §379-383: 379 Now as Alexander fled to the mountains, six thousand of the Jews hereupon came together [from Demetrius] to him out of pity at the change of his fortune; upon which Demetrius was afraid, and retired out of the country; after which the Jews fought against Alexander, and being beaten, were slain in great numbers in the several battles which they had; 380 and when he had shut up the most powerful of them in the city Bethome, he besieged them therein; and when he had taken the city, and gotten the men into his power, he brought them to Jerusalem, and did one of the most barbarous actions in the world to them; for as he was feasting with his concubines, in the sight of all the city, he ordered about eight hundred of them to be crucified [ἀνασταυρῶσαι]; and while they were living, he ordered the throats of their children and wives to be cut before their eyes. 381 This was indeed by way of revenge for the injuries they had done him; which punishment yet was of an inhuman nature, though we suppose that he had been never so much distressed, as indeed he had been, by his wars with them, for he had by their means come to the last degree of hazard, both of his life and of his kingdom, while they were not satisfied by themselves only to fight against him, but introduced foreigners also for the same purpose; 382 nay, at length they reduced him to that degree of necessity, that he was forced to deliver back to the king of Arabia the land of Moab and Gilead, which he had subdued, and the places that were in them, that they might not join with them in the war against him, as they had done ten thousand other things that tended to affront and reproach him. 383 However, this barbarity seems to have been without any necessity, on which account he bare the name of a Thracian among the Jews whereupon the soldiers that had fought against him, being about eight thousand in number, ran away by night, and continued fugitives all the time that Alexander lived; who being now freed from any further disturbance from them, reigned the rest of his time in the utmost tranquility.

Last edited by Ben C. Smith on Wed Nov 13, 2019 11:17 am, edited 5 times in total.
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StephenGoranson
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by StephenGoranson » Tue Oct 15, 2019 2:04 am

I'm not at home with my books; I may check later.
I can say that in an old article I argued that the Teacher of Righteousness was Judah the Essene. Though that article is not perfect (for example, the page one reference to Josephus, Antiquities should be corrected to read Ant. 13.xi.2; #311), I still think the TR was Judah.
Available here:
http://people.duke.edu/~goranson/jannaeus.pdf
Some propose that some Hodayot (Thanksgiving Hymns) were written by the TR, and, if so, provide some info on him. For some fictionalized speculation (with many end notes) along those lines: Michael O. Wise, The First Messiah (1999).
Though I don't have it at hand, Morton Smith's article, "Two Ascended to Heaven--Jesus and the Author of 4Q491" (published twice, secondly in his Studies in the Cult of Yahweh) may (or may not) refer to the TR; in any case, not all (iirc) accept his proposal.

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Ben C. Smith
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Tue Oct 15, 2019 5:25 am

StephenGoranson wrote:
Tue Oct 15, 2019 2:04 am
I'm not at home with my books; I may check later.
I can say that in an old article I argued that the Teacher of Righteousness was Judah the Essene. Though that article is not perfect (for example, the page one reference to Josephus, Antiquities should be corrected to read Ant. 13.xi.2; #311), I still think the TR was Judah.
Available here:
http://people.duke.edu/~goranson/jannaeus.pdf
Some propose that some Hodayot (Thanksgiving Hymns) were written by the TR, and, if so, provide some info on him. For some fictionalized speculation (with many end notes) along those lines: Michael O. Wise, The First Messiah (1999).
Though I don't have it at hand, Morton Smith's article, "Two Ascended to Heaven--Jesus and the Author of 4Q491" (published twice, secondly in his Studies in the Cult of Yahweh) may (or may not) refer to the TR; in any case, not all (iirc) accept his proposal.
Thank you very much!
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Joseph D. L.
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Joseph D. L. » Wed Oct 16, 2019 10:58 am

For what it's worth, for a long time I have considered Ezra to be the Teacher, and Sanballat to be the Wicked Priest.

Also, ben Stada doesn't seem likely as he was a late first, early second century figure.
Last edited by Joseph D. L. on Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:26 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:02 am

Joseph D. L. wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 10:58 am
Also, ben Stada doesn't seem likely as he was a late first, early second century figure.
Also, ben Stada does not seem likely as... what, exactly?
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Joseph D. L.
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Joseph D. L. » Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:26 am

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:02 am
Joseph D. L. wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 10:58 am
Also, ben Stada doesn't seem likely as he was a late first, early second century figure.
Also, ben Stada does not seem likely as... what, exactly?
That ben Stada was the Teacher, which is a proposal I've encountered before. But the two occupy two distinctive periods. Unless I've misunderstood what you meant when you mentioned him.

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Ben C. Smith
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:29 am

Joseph D. L. wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:26 am
Ben C. Smith wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 11:02 am
Joseph D. L. wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 10:58 am
Also, ben Stada doesn't seem likely as he was a late first, early second century figure.
Also, ben Stada does not seem likely as... what, exactly?
That ben Stada was the Teacher, which is a proposal I've encountered before. But the two occupy two distinctive periods. Unless I've misunderstood what you meant when you mentioned him.
Right. I was not suggesting ben Stada as the Teacher. I was saying that ben Stada was one of the Jewish guesses (in the Talmud) for the identity of Jesus, which seems noncontroversial to me, as we actually have the Talmudic passages making the equivalence.

ETA: I was also suggesting that perhaps there were others who guessed (in antiquity, not just in modernity) the Teacher of Righteousness as the/an identity for Jesus, since there are a couple of interesting parallels. Perhaps, though, it is just an overlap of common motifs. Not sure yet.
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Joseph D. L.
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Joseph D. L. » Wed Oct 16, 2019 2:04 pm

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Right. I was not suggesting ben Stada as the Teacher. I was saying that ben Stada was one of the Jewish guesses (in the Talmud) for the identity of Jesus, which seems noncontroversial to me, as we actually have the Talmudic passages making the equivalence.
Okay. I misunderstood it then. My bad.

If it means anything, I see ben Stada as a Paul equivalent figure.
ETA: I was also suggesting that perhaps there were others who guessed (in antiquity, not just in modernity) the Teacher of Righteousness as the/an identity for Jesus, since there are a couple of interesting parallels. Perhaps, though, it is just an overlap of common motifs. Not sure yet.
That I can't say as the Teacher seems to be localized with the Qumran community/DDSs. Unless we can determine that the Teacher was called something else by other groups. That's one reason I consider the Teacher to be Ezra.

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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Wed Oct 16, 2019 7:34 pm

Joseph D. L. wrote:
Wed Oct 16, 2019 10:58 am
For what it's worth, for a long time I have considered Ezra to be the Teacher, and Sanballat to be the Wicked Priest.
How would Ezra work with counting the 390 years (CD-A, column 1, lines 5-6) from the time of the Babylonian captivity? I know that ancient chronologies can be sloppy and inexact, but to squeeze 390 years into a century and a half or thereabouts seems pretty extreme to me.
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Re: Passages relating to the Teacher of Righteousness.

Post by Ethan » Wed Oct 16, 2019 8:03 pm

Teacher of righteousness does not appear in the Old Testament, but the terminology alludes too former rain and latter rain and alludes in Deuteronomy 11:14, Hosea 6:3, Joel 2:23, Zechariah 10:1, Jeremiah 5:23.

He reserves unto us the appointed weeks of the harvest. (Jeremiah 5:24)
Ask the LORD for rain in the spring (Zechariah 10:1)
את־המורה לצדקה/τὰ πρώϊμα εἰς δικαιοσύνην (Sept) (Joel 2:23)
מורה/θεώρημα ' 'sight, spectacle, festival' Lt. praeceptum 'teach'

Joel 2:23 - Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in the LORD your God: for he hath given you the former rain moderately, and he will cause to come down for you the rain, the former rain, and the latter rain in the first month.

Hosea 6:3 (rain god)
He (יהוה) shall come unto us as the rain, as the latter and former rain unto the earth.

James 5:7
Behold, the husbandman (אכר) waits for the precious fruit of the earth and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain.

This the function of the teacher of righteousness, to determine or predict the times of Harvest and rains, its all about the economy and agriculture, the teacher of righteousness was someone appointed yearly, this obviously nothing to do with the hell fire cult of Christianity who destroyed the original cultures of Judea.

All the times and dates in Bible all to do with Phoenician agriculture, where-as lazy Christians buy food in supermarket and pray to god thanking for food they never harvested, thus they don't understand.
https://vivliothikiagiasmatos.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/joseph-yahuda-hebrew-is-greek.pdf

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