The book of Jubilees at Qumran.

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Ben C. Smith
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The book of Jubilees at Qumran.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Sat Oct 03, 2020 11:26 am

I have no special comment on these passages right now; just putting them out there for ease of reference.

The scrolls refer to the book of Jubilees explicitly by title:

CD-A, column 16, lines 1b-5: 1b Therefore, one will impose upon ‹him›self to return to 2 the law of Moses, for in it all is defined. ~ And the exact interpretation of their ages about the blindness 3 of Israel in all these matters, behold, it is defined in “The Book of the Divisions of the Periods 4 According to Their Jubilees and Their Weeks” [ספר מחלקות העתים ליובליהם ובשבועותיהם]. And on the day on which one has imposed upon himself to return 5 to the law of Moses, the angel Mastema will turn aside from following him, should he keep his words.

4Q271, fragment 4, column 2, lines 3b-7a: 3b [Therefore one will impose upon himself] 4 to return t[o] the law of Moses, {for} for in it all is def[ined. And the exact interpretation of their ages about the blindness of] 5 Israel in all these matters, behold, [it is defi]ned in “The Book [of the Divisions of the Periods According to Their Jubilees and Their Weeks.”] 6 ~ And on the day on which [one] has imposed upon himself to re[turn to the law of] Moses, [the ang]el [Ma]stema will turn aside 7 from following him, should he keep [his words.]

4Q228, fragment 1, columns 1-2, lines 1-14, 1-13: 1.1 [....] 2 [... divisi]ons of the times 3 [...] you(r), that you know 4 [...] before him the division of his time, and all 5 [...] ... in the judgment of times of injustice 6 [...] a blazing fire, consuming at the foundation of wickedness 7 [...] in the division of its time he will find it 8 [...] snares of destruction and the angel of his peace [...] 9 [...] everlasting. For thus is written in “The Division/s/ 10 [of the Periods” ...] ... will walk [...] all the 11 [...] he will strengthen you [...] ... 12-14 [...] .... 2.1 .... [...] flesh and not 2 the race of the nation[s ...] 3 [...] they will do, and the upright of [...] 4 time (?) with (?) your erring ones (?). 5-13 ~

4Q265 has been argued to be a rewritten version of (part of) Jubilees:

Aharon Shemesh, “4Q265 and the Authoritative Status of Jubilees at Qumran,” in Enoch and the Mosaic Torah, pages 249-250: 249-250 The fragment may be divided into four parts. The first unit, consisting of lines 1-6, contains the remains of some halakic rulings. They are phrased in the abstract style characteristic of the Damascus Document laws. The second unit, lines 7-10, has a clear sectarian nature. It mentions the “council of the Community” twice: in line 7 and in line 8, and in line 10 there appears the phrase “periods of iniquity,” which is typical of the sectarian vocabulary. The third part (ll. 11-14) is a retelling of the Genesis story of the creation of Eve from Adam’s rib and God’s placing them in paradise. The fourth part (ll. 15-17) is again halakic in nature, dealing with the laws of impurity after childbirth. Now, the easiest parts to identify as to background are parts 3 and 4. Baumgarten had already pointed out that these two subjects — the story of the Garden of Eden and the laws of purification after childbirth — are joined together in Jub 3, and that the text of these units of 4Q265 is actually a shorter version of the same tradition. According to Jubilees, Adam was created in the first week and Eve in the second. God brought Adam to the Garden of Eden forty days after his creation, and he joined Eve to him forty days later at the eightieth day of his creation. Then, in what is known to be a unique characteristic of Jubilees, the composition’s editor associates the law of childbirth to this narrative: “And therefore the command was written in the heavenly tablets for one who bears, ‘If she bears a male, she shall remain seven days in her impurity like the first seven days. And thirty-three days she shall remain in the blood of her purity. And she shall not touch anything holy. And she shall not enter the sanctuary until she has completed these days which are in accord with (the rule for) a male (child). And that which is in accord with (the rule for) a female is two weeks — like the two first weeks — in her impurity. And sixty-six days she shall remain in the blood of her purity. And their total will be eighty days’” (3:10-11).

Aharon Shemesh, “4Q265 and the Authoritative Status of Jubilees at Qumran,” in Enoch and the Mosaic Torah, page 252: 252 To recall, the last part of our passage (which deals with the story of the Garden of Eden and the laws of impurity after childbirth) parallels Jub 3. Is it surprising that the subject of chap. 2 is the Shabbat, just like in our document?! In what follows I hope to establish that 4Q265 is a rewritten version of Jubilees, as evident from the structure of frg. 7. As a result, the connection between other fragments of the scroll may also be discerned.

4Q265, fragment 7, column 2, lines 1-17: 1 [...] on the [Sabbath] day [...] 2 [... on the] Sabbath [day]. And not [...] 3 [N]o one from the seed of Aaron may sprinkle on [the Sabbath day, and also they should not wash nor] 4 [bat]he [on] the great fasting [d]ay, on the day [of Atonement ...] 5 [wi]th animals shall walk two thousand cubi[ts ...] 6 [the te]mple, thirty stadia. Do not rem[ove ....] 7 [When] there are in the community council fifte[en men ...] 8 [the pr]ophets, the commun[ity] council will be [firmly] established [... those chosen of] 9 (his) will, and it shall be an aroma of a pleasant fragrance to atone for the land (cleansing it) from [its] g[uilt ...] 10 shall end in the judgment of the times of injustice and [....] 11 ~ In the fir[st] week [Adam was created ... be]fore 12 he was brought into the garden of Eden. ~ And bone [from his bones ...] 13 [w]as for her before she was brought to his side [in the second week ...] 14 [for] holy is the garden of Eden. And every shoot which is in its middle, is holy. “Therefo[re a woman who conceives and bears a male child] 15 shall be impure for seven days; as in the days of her menstrual impurity, she shall be impure. And th[irty-three days she shall remain in the blood of] 16 her purification. ~ But if she gives birth to a baby girl, she shall be impure [for two weeks, as in her menstruation, and sixty-six days] 17 [she shall rem]ain in the blood of her purification” (= Leviticus 12.2-5). [No] holy thing [shall she touch ....]

And, of course, there are about 15 different scrolls containing the text of Jubilees itself:

1Q17 (1QJuba/1QJubileesa), fragment 1, lines 1-6: 1 [...] ~ [...] 2 [And Jacob left Beersheba to g]o to Haran in the first [year of the second week of the forty-fourth Jubilee] 3 [and reached Luz wh]ich is on the mountain — it is Bethel — [on the first (day) of the first month of this week.] 4 [And he reached the pl]ace [in the eve]ning and he moved off the path, to the rig[ht, that night and spent the night there,] 5 [because the sun had set. And he to]ok one of the stones of that place [and pla]ced [it as a pillow under the tree ...] 6 [... for he] trav[elled] alone. [....] (= Jubilees 27.19-21).

1Q18, (1QJubb/1QJubileesb), fragment 1, lines 1-4: 1 [... wi]th me about your death. ~ [....] 2 [And she fled to Isaac and said to him: One reque]st I a[s]k of you. Make Esau swear that 3 [he will] n[ot harm Jacob, his brother and that he will not persecute him] with enmity, for you k[no]w Esau’s inclination, which i[s] 4 [evil from his youth, and you know all that he has do]ne from the day on which [his brother J]acob we[nt] to Haran [right until today] (= Jubilees 35.8-10; 4Q223-224, unit 2, column 1).

2Q19 (2QJuba/2QJubileesa), fragment 1, lines 1-5: 1 [... And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him in the cave of Ma]chpelah ne[xt to Sara, his wife.] 2 [And for him wept] for forty days all the me[n of his household, and Isaac and Ishmael and all their sons and all the sons of Keturah] 3 [in their places.] ~ [And the mourning ended,] 4 [the lament for Abra]ham. He had lived for three Jubilees and fo[ur weeks of years, one hundred and seventy-five years, and he ended] 5 [the days of his life] old and replete with days. [...] (= Jubilees 23.7-8; 3Q5, fragment 3).

2Q20 (2QJubb/2QJubileesb), fragment 1, lines 1-4: 1 [... And they were very fruitful] 1 [and multiplied greatly during ten] wee[ks of] years, a[ll the days of Joseph’s life.] 2 [And he had neither rival nor any evil] all the d[ay]s of Joseph’s life wh[ich he lived after] 3 [his father Jacob, for all Egypt] paid ~ hono[r to Jacob’s sons] 4 [all the days of Joseph’s life. And Joseph died at the] ag[e of] one hundred and [ten years] (= Jubilees 46.1-3).

3Q5 (3QJub/3QJubilees), fragments 3 & 1, lines 1-4, 1-3:[/b] 3.1 [... and this] was heard in [Abraham’s house. ~ ] 2 [And Ishmael his son got up and] went to A[braham his father. And he wept for Abraham] 3 [his father, he and all the me]n of the house(hold) of A[braham; they wept a great deal. And] 4 [Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him] in the cave of Mach[pelah next to Sara, his wife] (= Jubilees 23.6-7; 2Q19). 1.1 [...] they [will say] about him, “He has lived long, [but most of his days were pain,] 2 [labor, and dis]tress without peace, for blow upon blow, confu[sion upon confusion,] 3 [distre]ss upon distress, and bad news upon [bad] news [...”] (= Jubilees 23.12-13).

4Q176a (4QJubi/4QJubileesi), fragments 19-21, lines 1-4, 1-5: 19-20.1 [...and they will invoke the great name, (but) not in trut]h nor in justice; 2 [and they will defile the Holy of Holies with impu]rity, with the cor[ruption of their contaminations.] And there will be great anger against the deeds of [that] generation 3 [on the part of the Lord. And he will deliver the]m to the sword, to judgment, [to captivity,] to pillage and to be devoured. [And] he will rouse against them 4 [the sinners of the nations, who have neither mercy nor com]passion towards them, and [who h]ave n[o] regard for a[n]y person, nor.... (= Jubilees 23.21-23). 21.1 And [those who] h[ate them] will see [all their judgment] 2 in all [their] curse. [And their bones will rest in the earth,] 3 and their spirits will [rejoice exceedingly, and they will know that] 4 there is a God who performs [judgment and shows mercy] 5 to [thousand]s and to t[ens of thousands, to all that love him] (= Jubilees 23.30-31).

4Q216 (4QJuba/4QJubileesa), columns 1-2, lines 1-17, 1-17: 1.1-2 [...] 3 [Sinai, when he went up to] re[ceive the stone tablets, the Torah and the statute] by the word of YHWH [according to which he told him:] 4 [“Go up] to the top of the moun[tain.” In the first year] of the son[s of Israel] leaving 5 [Egypt, in] the thir[d mon]th, [the sixteenth of] this [month,] YHWH spoke t[o] 6 [Moses, saying, “Come up to me] on the mountain [and I will give you the two tablets of] stone, the La[w] 7 [and the statute which I have written in order to te]ach [them.” And Moses climbed the mountain of YHWH and the gl]ory of YH[WH settled] 8-10 [....] 11 [... And he showed him the di]visions [of the per]iods for the La[w] 12 [and for the testimony. And he said to him, “Pay attention to all the wo]rds which I tell you 13 [on this mountain and write them in a book so that] their generations [may kn]ow that I have not forsaken them 14 [for all the evil which they did by breaking the covenant which] I set up today between me and you 15 [for their generations on Mount Sinai. And when] all [these] things [happ]en to th[em] 16 [they will know that I have been just with them in all] their [judgments] and [in all] their curses and they will know 17 [that in truth I was with them. And you, write al]l these [wo]rds (= Jubilees 1.1-2, 4-7) 2.1 [...] 2 in the l[a]nd [which I promised to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Ja]c[ob,] 3 saying, ‘To [your] offspring [I will give a land which flows with milk and ho]ney.’ They will eat and ‹be replete›, [but they will turn] 4 after other gods [who did not save them from any tr]oubles. And the [testimony] will reply [to] 5 this testimony; bec[ause they will forget all my statutes, all that I] command you and they will g[o after] 6 [the nat]ions and [after their dis]gr[ace and after] their [shame]. And they will serve [their] g[ods who to them will be a hindrance,] 7 trouble, [affliction] and [trap. Man]y [will be destroyed.] They will be captured and fall [into the hand of the enemy for] 8 [they have forsaken] my laws and [my statutes, the festival]s of my covenant [and my Sabbaths and my holy things] 9 which they have dedicated to me in [their] mid[st and my tent and my] sanctuary [which I made holy for myself in the midst of] 10 the earth in order to place [my name] on it [and reside there. They made for themselves burial mounds, sacred woods and idols] 11 and bowed down in front of a[ll the wor]ks of [their] error. [And they will sacrifice their sons to the devils and to all the works of the error of their heart.] 12 I shall send to [them] witnesses to [testify against them, but they will not listen and will kill the witnesses.] 13 They will pursue those who study [the] Law [and they will alter everything and will start to do what is evil] 14 in my eyes. And I shall hid[e] my [face] from them and will gi[ve them into the hand of the people]s for cap[tivity,] 15 [for devas]tation [and so they can be consumed. I will remove them from the midst of the land and] scatter them among all the people[s.] 16 [They will forget all my laws and all my statutes] and all my teachings and they will for[get the month, the Sabbath,] 17 [the feast, the Jubilee, and the covenant. After this they will come back] to me from among the people[s...”] (= Jubilees 1.7-15).

4Q216 (4QJuba/4QJubileesa), column 4, lines 1-17: 1-2 [...] 3 [... the first and the] last 4 [and what will come in all the divisions of the periods for the La]w and for the testimo[ny] 5 [and for the weeks and the Jubilees for ever until I come down] and stay wi[th them] 6 [for all the centuries of centuries. And he told the angel of the] presence to dictate 7 [to Moses from the beginning of creation unti]l my sanctuary is built 8 [in their midst for all the centuries of the centuries. YHWH will reveal himself to the eyes of] everyone and they will [all] know 9 [that I am the God of Israel and the father of all the sons of Ja]cob and king 10 [on Mount Zion for all the centuries of centuries. And Zion and Jerusa]l[em will be holy] 11-17 [...] (= Jubilees 1.26-28).

4Q216 (4QJuba/4QJubileesa), column 5, lines 1-17: 1 [And the angel of the presence told Moses at God’s command: “Write all the wo]rds of the creation, h[ow] 2 [on the sixth day YHWH God finished all his works and all that he had created] and rested on the [seventh] day 3 [and made it holy for all the centuries and placed it as a sign for all] his works.” ~ 4 [~ For on the first day he created the] upper [heaven]s, the ear[th,] 5 [the waters and all the spirits who serve before him: the angels of] the presence, the angels of ho[liness,] 6 the an[gels of the spirits of fire, the angels of the spirits of the current]s [and] the angels of the spirits of the [clouds], 7 of dark[ness, ice, frost, dew, snow, hail, and hoar]frost; and the angels of thunder[s] 8 and the angels of the [storm]winds [and the angels of the winds of cold and of] heat, of winter and of summer, [all] 9 the spirits of his creatures [which he made in the heavens and which he made in the ear]th and in everything, the aby[sses,] 10 darkness, dawn, [light, the dusk which he prepared with] his [know]ledge. Then we saw his deeds and [blessed him] 11 on account of all his [d]eeds and [we praised him in his presence because] he ma[de seven] great works [on the first day.] 12 And on the [second] da[y he made the vault in the midd]le of the [water]s, [and the waters were separated on that day. Half] 13 went up on to[p of the vault and half went down below the vault which was in its midst, on top of the face of all] 14 the earth [...] 15-17 [...] (= Jubilees 2.1-4).

4Q216 (4QJuba/4QJubileesa), column 6, lines 1-17: 1 [...] 2 [...and the po]ols and all the d[ew of the earth,] 3 [the seed for sowing with its seed, every shoot and tree that gives fruit, the] woods and the garden of E[de]n [in Eden,] 4 [for pleasure and for eating. These four great kinds] he made <he made> on the thi[rd] day. 5 [~ On the fourth day YHWH made the s]un, the moon, and the stars. [He placed] 6 [them in the vault of the sky so that they could give light to the whole earth,] to regulate day and night and to separ[ate] 7 [light and darkness. And he placed the sun as a gre]at [sign above the earth] for the day[s], the [sa]bbaths, the [months], 8 [the feasts, the years, the weeks of years, and the Jubi]lees, and for all the cyc[les of the years.] 9 [It separates light from darkness and is the vitality by which everything that] sprouts and grows in the ea[rth prospers.] 10 [These three great kinds he made on the fourth day.] ~ 11 [On the fifth day he created the gre]at [sea serpents] in the co[re of the abyss]es of the wa[ters, for these] 12 [were the first works of flesh by his hands, and everything that moves in the] waters, fish [and] all, <and al[l> the birds] 13 [which fly and all their species. The sun shone over them for] vigor, and ov[er everything] there was on the ea[rth, everything] 14 [that sprouted from the earth and every tree that yields fruit and all flesh. These] thr[ee] gre[at kinds] 15 [he made on the fifth day. ~] 16-17 [~] (= Jubilees 2.7-12).

4Q216 (4QJuba/4QJubileesa), column 7, lines 1-17: 1 [On the] sixth [da]y [he made] all the anim[als of the earth and all the cattle and everything that creeps over the earth. After all these] 2 he made man; male and fem[ale he made them and gave them control over everything there is on the earth and in the seas, and over everything that flies,] 3 over the animals, and over all the creeping animals that [creep over the earth, and the cattle, and over all the earth. Over all these he gave them control.] 4 He made these [four] kinds on [the sixth day. And in all there were twenty-two kinds. And he finished all his works on the sixth day, everything] 5 there is in the heavens and on the earth [and in the waters and in the abysses, in the light and in the darkness and in everything. And he gave us a huge sign, the day of] 6 the Sabbath on which he rested [from doing all the works which he had created over the six days ...] 7 they were made in six days. [...] 8 and we observe the Sabbath on the sev[enth] day [(refraining) from all work. For we, all the angels of the presence and all the angels of holiness — these] 9 two kinds — he comman[ded us to observe the Sabbath with him in the heavens and on the earth. And he said to us, “I am going to isolate for myself] 10 a nation among my nations. And [they will keep the Sabbath and I will consecrate them as my people and I will bless them. They will be my people and I will be their God.”] 11 And he chose the descendants of Jacob among [all those I saw. And I registered them for me as the firstborn son and consecrated them to me] 12 for ever and ever. The [seventh] day [I will teach them so that they keep the Sabbath on it above all. For I blessed them and consecrated them as an exceptional people] 13 among all the peoples so that together [with us] they keep [the Sabbath. And he lifted up his statutes like a pleasant perfume which is acceptable in his presence] 14 every day. ~ [There are twenty-two patriarchs] 15 from Adam to him and twenty ‹two› ki[nds of works were done up to the seventh day. One is blessed and holy and the other is blessed] 16 and holy. One and the other were made together for holiness [and for blessing. To this one was granted to be blessed and holy forever.] 17 And this is the testimony and the fir[st] Law. [...] (= Jubilees 2.13-24).

4Q217 (4QpapJubb/4QpapJubileesb?), fragment 2, lines 1-6: 1 [...] the divisions of the times, for the law and for [the testimony ...] 2 [...] for all the y[ears of] eternity, from the crea[tion ...] 3 [...] and all [that is] created until the day [...] 4 [... Jer]usalem [...] 5 [...] all [...] 6 [...] ... [....]

4Q218 (4QJubc/4QJubileesc), fragment 1, lines 1-4: 1 sanc[tify it, not to do any work on it, and not to defile it, for] 2 it is holier [than] all the days. Anyone [who desecrates it, shall certainly die] 3 [and any]one who does work on it shall be cut off [for ev]er, in order [th]at 4 [the Israelites observe] thi[s] day, [throughout] their [generation]s and not be cut off from the ea[rth] (= Jubilees 2.26-27).

4Q219 (4QJubd/4QJubileesd), column 1, lines 1-38: 1-10 [....] 11 [And in the sixth year, in] the seventh [week] of [this Jubilee, Abraham called Isaac, his son,] 12 and commanded him, saying, [“I am] ol[d and I do not know the day of my death, for I have completed] 13 my days. Behold, I am [one hundred and seventy-]two [years, and throughout all the days of my life I have been remembering] 14 our [G]od always, and [I] sought [him with all my heart ....] 15-31 [... upon] 32 the alta[r with the finest flour of its offering mixed with oil and its libation. And you will burn everything upon] 33 the [altar, a fire offering with a pleasant fragrance before God. And the fat of the thanksgiving sacrifice you will of]fer 34 [on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is upon the belly, and al]l the [f]at 35 [which is upon the entrails, and the kidneys and] all the fat which is upon them, and that wh[ich] 36 [is on the loins and the appendix of the] liver with the kidneys you shall remove. You shall offer 37 [the whole for a pleasant fragrance before Go]d, with its of[fer]ing and its libation [for a pleasant (fragrance), the] br[ead] 38 [of the fire offering to YHWH. You are to eat its flesh the] same [day] and the following mor[ning, and (the sun) will not set upon it” (= Jubilees 21.1-2, 7-10; 4Q220, fragment 1).]

4Q219 (4QJubd/4QJubileesd), column 2, lines 1-38: 1-6 [....] 7-8 [...] ... [...] 9-10 [...] 11 [“...and the aroma of its fragrance goes up to] heaven. ~ Ke[ep] 12 [this commandment and carry it out, my son, so that you will be up]right in all your works. 13 [And at every time be pure in your flesh and wash yourself with water before] going to offer 14-16 [....] 17 [You are not to eat blood any more] because the blood is [the life, and you are not to eat any blood. You are not to accept] 18 [a bribe for any blood of] men which is poured out [for no reason, without judgment, because the blood which is poured out] 19 [defiles the earth, and the] earth cannot be [purified from the human blood except with the blood] 20 [of the one who shed it. Do not take a br]ibe ~ or atonement for [human blood: blood for blood, and it will be acceptable] 21 [before YHW]H, God Most High. His guardianship will be ov[er the good, so that you will keep yourself from every] 22 [evil, and He will pro]tect you [from] every pestilence. ~ [...] 23 [My son, I see that all the] wor[ks of the sons of] man [are evil and sinful, and all] 24 [their works are uncleanness, abominatio]n, and filth, and there is no truth with them. ~ Be[ware of walking] 25 [in their ways, and] tread in their paths and get guilty of a deadly guilt [in front of God Most High] 26 [and He hide his face] from you, give you into the hands of your offenses, and cut you off [from the earth] 27 [and your progeny from] beneath the sky. ~ And your name and the memory of you will vanish from the who[le earth.] 28 [Refrain from all] their [w]orks and from all their abominations, and [ke]ep the obser[vance of God] 29 [Most High, and do] His will, and you will be successful in everything. He will bless you in all your works, and [will raise] 30 [from you a plant of] truth in the earth for all the generations of the earth. And he will not bring to an end [my name] 31 [and your name from benea]th the sky for all the days. ~ Be upright, my son, in pea[ce. May he strengthen] 32 [you, the God Mo]st High, my God and your ‹God›, to perform his will and to [bless your offspring] 33 and the [remnant of] your [offsp]ring for all the eternal generations with all blessings [of truth, so that you might become] 34 a blessing [in all the ea]rth.” ~ And he went out from him rejoicing. ~ [...] 35 [~ ] In the first week of the fo[rty-]third [Jubilee, in its] 36 [second year, which is] the year in which Abraham died, [Isaac and Ishmael] came 37 [...] ... [...] 38 [...] (= Jubilees 21.14-16, 21.18-22.1; 4Q221, fragment 1).

4Q220 (4QJube/4QJubileese), fragment 1, lines 1-11: 1 [“...his precepts, his] decrees, [and his judgments; do not go af]ter idols or after [images or after] 2 [cast effigies. And] do not [eat any blo]od of an animal, cattle, or any bird which [flies in the sky.] 3 [If you sacri]fice (as) a burnt offering a peace offe[ring], according to (his) will you shall [sac]rifice it and pour the blood over the alt[ar.] 4 [And all] the meat of the burnt offering you shall offer upon the al[tar] with the finest flour of its offering mixed with [o]i[l], 5 [with its libation. You] shall offer everything upon the altar, a fire offering with a pleasant fragrance before God. [The fat of] 6 [the pe]a[c]e [offering] you shall offer on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat [which is on] 7 [the intestines and] the [f]at which is on the entrails and the kidneys [and] the [fat which is upon them] 8 [and that which is on the loins] and the appendix of the liver with the kidneys you shall remove, [and you shall offer] 9 [it all as a pleasant fragrance before G]od with its offering and its libation for the ‹plea[sant› fragrance, bread of the fire offering] 10 [for God. Eat its flesh the] same [day] and the following morning and not should s[et the sun on it].” 11 [...] ... [...] (= Jubilees 21.5-10; 4Q219, column 1).

4Q221 (4QJubf/4QJubileesf), fragment 1, lines 1-9: 1 [“ their ways and tread in] their [paths] and get guilty of [a deadly guilt in front of God Most High] 2 [and He hi]de his [fa]ce from you, give you [into the hands of your offences] 3 [and cut you off from the earth] and your progeny [from benea]th the sky. [~ ...] 4 [... And] your name [and] the memory of you will vanish from the whole earth. [Refrain from all] 5 [their works and from all their [abo]minations; keep the observance [of God] Most High, [and do] 6 [His will, and you will be successful in everything.] {...and from all their abominations; keep [the observance of God Most High,] 7 [and do his will, and you will] be successful in everything.} He will bless you in all [your works, and will raise from you] 8 [a plant of truth in the ear]th for all the generation[s of the ear]th. And [he will] no[t bring and end to my name and your name] 9 [from beneath the sky for al]l the da[ys” ...] (= Jubilees 21.22-24; 4Q219, column 2).

4Q221 (4QJubf/4QJubileesf), fragment 1, lines 1-10: Frag. 4 1 [“...written] a second time, [(= Jubilees 32:12-15)Cursed is he who sleeps with the wife of] his father, for he has uncover[ed] 2 the skirt of his father.’ [And all the holy ones of YHWH said, ‘Ame]n, amen!’ And you, 3 command the children of [Israel to keep thi]s [word], for the penalty 4 is death [and] it is a disgrace, and there is no atonement to at]one for 5 the man who doe[s this evil forever. Bu]t 6 one has to kill him and to sto[ne him, and to kill him with stones, and to cut him off from the midst of the nation,] 7 [fo]r one may not live {...} [one day in the land, any man] 8 [wh]o does it in Israel, [for it is an abomination and a disgrace.] 9 [And they should not] say, ‘Reuben was granted [life and atonement after he slept] 10 [with the concu]bine of his father [Jacob’” ...] (= Jubilees 33.12-15).

4Q221 (4QJubf/4QJubileesf), fragment 5, lines 1-7: 1 [... and they said to] their [father, “Go out, lead them. Otherwise we will kill you.” And he became filled with wrath and anger] 2 at the moment [th]at he saw that his sons for[ced him to go out first, to lead them against his brother, and he remembered] 3 all the evil thoughts which we[re hidden in his heart against his brother Jacob,] 4 but he did not remember the oath which [he had sworn to his father and mother, that he would not all his days seek evil] 5 against Jacob. And while all this happened, [Jacob] did not kno[w that they were coming against him for battle, for he] 6 was mourning for his wife, until [they had drawn near to him, near the fortification, with four thousand] 7 heroes of war. And [the men of Hebron] sent [him] (the message)...] (= Jubilees 37.11-15).

4Q222 (4QJubg/4QJubileesg), fragment 1, lines 1-7: 1 [...all] the days of my life [I will] not [take for myself a wife from the daughters of Canaan, and I will not commit evil by doing like] 2 my brother Esau [did]. Do not fear, mother, and be reassured, [for I will do your will, will walk in uprightness,] 3 [and] will [no]t corrupt my ways ever. ~ Then [she] lifted [her face to heaven, stretched out the fingers of] 4 her [ha]nds, opened her mouth, blessed God Most High, [creator of heaven and earth, gave him] 5 [than]ks and praise, and said:, “Blessed is YHWH, God, [and blessed is his name for everlasting] 6 [cen]turies, for he has given to me Ja[cob, a pure son and a holy offspring, for to you] 7 he [belongs,] and to you [will] belong [his offspring” ...] (= Jubilees 25.9-12).

4Q223-224 (4QpapJubh/4QpapJubileesh), unit 2, column 1, lines 1-53: 1-3 [....] 4-5 [...] ... 6-44 [...] 45 [...] illness 46 [had not touched her all the days of her life. Then Jacob said to her, “I will be fortunate,] my [mother,] if my [years approach] the years of [your] life 47 [and my strength stays in me like your strength. You will not die, for you speak without reason with me about] your death.” But she fle[d to Isa]ac 48 [and said to him, ~ “One request I ask from you: Make E]sau [swear] that he will no[t] harm Jacob 49 [and will not persecute him with enmity, for you know Esau’s inclination, which is ev]il from his youth, and uprightness is n[ot] with him, for 50 [he wants to kill him after your death. And you know all he di]d with us since the day of [the] departure of his brother 51 [Jacob to Haran, up to this very day, for with his whole heart he has forsaken us and has act]ed wickedly with us. He has led away your flocks, and all 52 [your possessions he has stolen from you. And whenever we tried to question him about what belonged to us, he aga]in [act]ed mischievously, like someone 53 [who has compassion for us. And he has been bitter against you, because you blessed Jacob, your perfect and upright son, for there] is no evil with him” (= Jubilees 35.7-12; 1Q18).

4Q223-224 (4QpapJubh/4QpapJubileesh), unit 2, column 2, lines 1-53: 1-2 [....] 3 [...] ~ “I, too, kno[w and see the behavior of Jacob towards us, for with his whole heart] 4 he honors us and does our will. [At first I loved] Esau much [more than Jacob, after he was born,] 5 but now I love Jacob more [than Esau, for] he has acted [ver]y wickedly, and [truth is not in him. For] 6 [al]l his ways are vi[ol]ence and wickedness, and there is no [truth] in [him, around] him. And now, [my] heart [...] 7 [...] 8 [...and he and his sons have gone after the impurity of the wo]men, and after the error of the wo[men. You said] 9 [to me that I should make him swear not to kill his brother Ja]c[ob]. If he swears, he will not maintain, and not d[o] 10 [good, but evil. And if he tries to kill Jacob] his brother, /he will be given/ into the hand of ~ Jacob. 11 [And he will not escape from his hand, but shall go down by his hand. But yo]u, do not worry [about Jaco]b, for the guardian of Ja[co]b is greater and mightier, 12 [more glorious and praised, than the guardian of Es]au, for like dust befor[e the wind, th]us are all the guardians of Esau before the God of 13 [Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of J]acob, [my perfect and pre]cious son. Truly, I lo[ve the one who do]es our will 14 [...] my sister, in peace.” And R[ebecca] sent and called [...] 15-22 [...] ... [...] 23-47 [...] 48-53 ... [...] ... [...] (= Jubilees 35.13-18).

4Q223-224 (4QpapJubh/4QpapJubileesh), unit 2, column 3, lines 1-54: 1-2 [....] 3-8 [...] ... [...] 9 [...] ... [... be]tween them. And [they departed from] 10 [his] si[de. And they rested and slept that day. And Isaac slept on his bed] that [da]y, rejoicing, and he slept [the eternal] sl[eep] 10 and [died at the age of one hundred] and eighty [years, and he had completed tw]enty-[five] weeks of years [and five] years 11 and [his two sons, Esau and Jacob] bu[ried him. And] Esau [went] to the land of [the mountain of] Seir, and lived 12 there. [And Jacob lived in the mountainland of Hebron, in the fortress,] in the land of Canaan, in the lan[d of A]braham [...] 14-19 ... [...] 20-54 [...] (= Jubilees 36.17-20).

4Q223-224 (4QpapJubh/4QpapJubileesh), unit 2, column 4, lines 1-54: Unit 2 col. iv 1 [....] 2 [...] you [sinned] against the oath 3 [and at the time when you swore to your father you were judged. Then Esau answered and said to him:] “Neither the sons of m[an] 4 [nor sn]akes have a tru[stworthy] oath [which they swear for ever, but every day they seek, the o]nes against the others, 5 [evi]l, how [to kill one’s enemy and oppressor. And you, you hate me and] my sons f[or] 6 [eve]r, and with you I can not behave [as a brother. Listen to these words of mine which I] speak to you: 7 [“If] the wild boar changes [its] sk[in, and makes its hair] soft [like wool], and [ho]rns rise up on [its] head, like the horns of a r[am] 8 [or shee]p, then I will behave with you [as a brother. The breasts have been separated from their mother, for no]t have you been a brother [to me. And if] 9 [/the/ wolve]s make peace with /the/ lambs, [not] to [eat and oppress them, and if] their heart is [intent to do good] 10 [towards th]em, then there will be in my heart [peace towards you. And if the lion becomes] a companion and confidant [of] the bull, [and is bound together] 11 [with him, and] plows (with) one yoke, th[en I will make peace with you. And if] the ravens [become white] like a pelican, [then] know that 12 [I love you, and will make peace with you. But you, be cut off, and] your sons are [cut] off, and yo[u will ha]ve no peace.” 13 [And when Jacob saw that out of his heart and out of all his soul Esau was evilminded towards him,] intent to kill him, and was coming and thrusting 14 [like a wild boar that comes to the spear which pierces and kills it, but not shrinks back] from it, th[en] he told his sons 15 [and his servants to attack him and all his companions. And after that Judah spoke to Jac]ob his father 16 [saying: “Draw, father, your bow, shoo]t your arrow, [fell the oppressor, kill the ene]my. May 17 [you have strength, for we will not kill your brother, because] he is your brother, and he [is similar to you], and like you he is 18 [honoured by us.” Then Jacob draw his bow,] shot [the first arrow, hit] Esau 19 [his brother on the right breast, and killed him. And he sh]ot a second arrow, [hit Adurim, the Ara]mean 20 [on the left breast, threw him back and killed him. Then] the sons of Jaco[b went out, they and their servants, divi]ded to the four 21 [sides of the fortress. Judah went out] first, and [with him] Naphtali and Gad, [and their fifty with] them, to the south] 22 [of the fortress. And they killed all they found before them,] and no one, [not even one] could escape from them. [And Levi,] Dan and Asher 23 [went out to the east of the fortress and their fifty wi]th them, and they killed the he[roes of Moab and Ammon.] And Reuben went out, 24 [as well as Issachar and Zebulon to the north of the fortress, and] their [fi]fty with them and they ki[lled the heroes of] Philistia. 25 [And Simeon, Benjamin, and Enoch, the son of Reuben went out to the west of the fortress, and their fifty with them, and] killed of Ed[om] 26-33 [...] ... [...] 34-54 [...] (= Jubilees 37.17-38.8).

4Q482 (4QpapGen/4QGenesis or 4QpapJub/4QpapJubilees?), fragment 1, lines 1-5: 1 [... Go]d Most Hig[h ...] 2 [... what belongs to] you, and [not ...] 3 [... and Ma]mre, they [...] 4 [...] born from a wom[an ...] 5 [...] ... [...] (= Genesis 14.22-23 = Jubilees 13.29?).

4Q483 (4QpapGen/4QGenesis or 4QpapJub/4QpapJubilees?), fragment 1, lines 1-3: 1 [...] and subdue [it ...] 2 [... o]n the earth [...] 3 [...] ... [...] (= Genesis 1.28 = Jubilees 2.14?).

11Q12 (11QJub/11QJubilees), fragment 1, lines 1-11: 1 [...] we [report] when [we] c[ome] 2 [before YHWH our God all the sins] which are done in [heaven] 3 [and on earth, and in the light and in the darkness and everywhere. And] Adam and his wife [mourn]ed 4 [for Abel four weeks long. ~ And] in the fourth (year) of the fi[fth] week 5 [they rejoiced, and Adam knew his wife once again,] and she gave birth to a son for him, and he named [him Seth,] 6 [for he said, “YHWH has raised up] another [seed for us in the] earth, in place of Abel, since [Cain] killed him.” 7 [In the sixth week he became the father of Azu]ra, his daughter. And Cain took [his] sister 8 [Awan as his wife and she gave birth to Enoch for him at the end of the] fourth [Jubi]lee. ~ 9 [In the first year of the first week of the fi]fth [Jubilee] houses were built on the ear[th,] 10 [and Cain built a city and gave it the name of] his [s]on Enoch. And Ada[m] 11 [knew his wife Eve and she gave birth to nine more children. And in] the fi[fth] [wee]k... (= Jubilees 4.6-11).

There are also some scrolls containing a text which has been dubbed pseudo-Jubilees:

4Q225 (4QpsJuba/4QPseudo-Jubileesa), fragment 1, lines 1-12: 1 [...] from the guilt of immorality ... [...] 2 [...] he ... [...] 3 [...] ... and he struck them with ... [...] 4 [... the covenant which] was made with Abraham. And he circumcised [...] 5 [...] Egypt, /and/ God /sold/ them [...] 6 [....] ~ And you, Moses, when I speak with [...] 7 [...] the creation until the [new] creation [...] 8 [...] standing, and he took vengeance (?) ... [...] 9 [...] and on the day which ... [...] 10 [... o]n the shore of the [...] ... [...] 11-12 [...] ... [....]

4Q225 (4QpsJuba/4QPseudo-Jubileesa), fragment 2, column 1, lines 1-14: 1 [...] that p[erson] shall be cut off 2 [from the midst of] his [na]tion. [... liv]ed in Haran twenty years. 3 [And A]braham [said] to God: “My Lord, see that I am going ch[ildle]ss, and Eli[ezer] 4 is [the son of my house], and he will inherit me.” ~ 5 [The Lo]rd [said] to A[b]raham: “Lift up, observe the stars, and see 6 [and count] {it all} the sand on the shore of the sea, and the dust of the earth, whether 7 these [can be coun]ted, or not. Thus your offspring shall be.” And [Abraham] tr[usted] 8 Go[d], and righteousness was accounted to him. And af[ter] this a son was born 9 [to Abraha]m, And [he] called him Isaac, and the Prince of A[ni]mosity came 10 [to G]od and accused Abraham with regard to Isaac. And [G]od said 11 [to Abra]ham, “Take your son, Isaac, [your] only one, [whom] 12 you [love], and offer him to me as a burnt offering on one of the [high] mountains 13 [which I will tell] you.” And he ar[ose, and we]n[t] from the wells up to [...] 14 [...] and Ab[raham] lifted....

4Q225 (4QpsJuba/4QPseudo-Jubileesa), fragment 2, column 2, lines 1-14: Frag. 2 col. ii 1 [...] ... [...] 2 [and] Isaac [said] to Abraham, [“...] 3 for the [bur]nt offering?” And Abraham said to [..., “...] 4 for himself.” Isaac said to his father, [“....” ...] 5 the angels of holiness were standing weeping above [...] 6 his sons from the earth. And the angels of the An[imosity ...] 7 were rejoicing and saying: “Now he will come to an end.” And [... whether] 8 he would be found untruthful, and whether he would not be found faithful [...] 9 “Abraham, Abraham.” And he said: “Here am I.” And he said: “N[ow I know ...] 10 he will not be loving.” And God YHWH blessed Isa[ac all the days of his life. And he begot] 11 Jacob, and Jacob begot Levi, a [third] ge[neration. ~ And all] 12 the days of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Lev[i were ...] 13 and the Prince of Animosity ~ Bind [...] 14 the Prince of An[im]osity, and Belial listened to [...] (= 4Q226, fragment 7).

4Q226 (4QpsJubb/4QPseudo-Jubileesb), fragments 1 & 7, lines 1-8, 1-8: 1.1 [...] ... [...] 2 [...] in a flame of fire from the mi[dd]le of [...] 3 [... commanding] you to go down to Egypt, and to bring [out ...] 4 [...] ... the signs I [ga]ve to you, and you stayed [...] 5 [...] ... years you spent from the week [...] 6 [...] this Jubilee, for it is holy [...] 7 [...] holy a[n]gels [in eter]nity of eternities [...] 8 [...] ... [....] 7.1 Abraham was found faithful to [G]o[d ...] 2 acceptable. And YHWH blessed [Isaac all the days of] 3 his life. ~ And he begot J[acob, and Jacob begot] 4 Levi, a th[ird] generation. [~ And all the days of] 5 Abraham, Isaac, Ja[cob, and Levi were ....] 6 And the holy angels [...] 7 to the prince (?) ~ Fast (?) there [...] 8 [...] ... [...] (= 4Q225, fragment 2, column 2).

4Q227 (4QpsJubc/4QPseudo-Jubileesc), fragments 1-2, lines 1-6, 1-6: 1.1 [...] all the righteous [...] 2 [...] before Moses [...] 3 [...] all the days of [...] 4 [...] ~ [...] 5 [...] ... years [...] 6 [...] ... [....] 2.1 [... E]noch, after /we/ had taught him 2 [...] six Jubilees of years 3 [... of the ea]rth, among the sons of men and he gave witness against them all 4 [...] and also against the Watchers and he wrote everything 5 [... of the he]avens and the paths of their armies and [the mont]hs 6 [... so t]hat the j[ust] would not stray [....]

It has been argued that Jubilees uses the so called Aramaic Levi Document, as well, and this is one of the kinds of arguments employed for that directionality of usage:

Esther Eshel, “The Aramaic Levi Document, the Genesis Apocryphon, and Jubilees: A Study of Shared Traditions,” in Enoch and the Mosaic Torah, page 86: 86 Here I focus on what appears to be a mistake in Jubilees: where ALD has עא משחא, “oleaster,” the parallel in Jubilees reads “olive wood.” Since משח means “oil,” עא משחא was mistakenly understood as “olive wood,” while “olive tree” is זיתא in Aramaic. The prohibition in rabbinic halakah of the use of olive wood on the altar (m. Tamid 2:3) implies that ALD has preserved the original reading. Supporting this supposition is the fact that Jubilees’ priestly halakah is generally stricter than rabbinic halakah; it is therefore unlikely that Jubilees would permit the use of olive wood on the altar. This suggests that in the process of copying the list from ALD, the original version was corrupted.

Any other references to Jubilees at Qumran? Any other scrolls containing passages of it which I have skipped?


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