Kings & Isaiah

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
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Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Mon Nov 16, 2020 10:13 am

Isaiah 37:9
he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make war with thee. And when he heard it, he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying,
וַיִּשְׁמַ֗ע עַל־תִּרְהָ֤קָה מֶֽלֶךְ־כּוּשׁ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יָצָ֖א לְהִלָּחֵ֣ם אִתָּ֑ךְ וַיִּשְׁמַע֙ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח מַלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר

ἐξῆλθεν Θαρακα βασιλεὺς Αἰθιόπων πολιορκῆσαι αὐτόν καὶ ἀκούσας ἀπέστρεψεν καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους πρὸς Εζεκιαν λέγων

2 Kings 19:9
when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying
וַיִּשְׁמַ֗ע אֶל־תִּרְהָ֤קָה מֶֽלֶך־כּוּשׁ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּ֥ה יָצָ֖א לְהִלָּחֵ֣ם אִתָּ֑ךְ וַיָּ֨שָׁב֙ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח מַלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר

καὶ ἤκουσεν περὶ Θαρακα βασιλέως Αἰθιόπων λέγων ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν πολεμεῗν μετὰ σοῦ καὶ ἐπέστρεψεν καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους πρὸς Εζεκιαν λέγων

I going to assume Isaiah and Kings are unoriginal and both a drawing from a Q source. The Septuagint version of Isaiah is so distant compared to the Hebrew. l, it appears Septuagint is translating from an unknown version of Isaiah.

The Greek Isaiah as ἀπέστρεψεν, a common reading for וישב which is absent in Isaiah but present in Kings.

Greek Isaiah as πολιορκῆσαι αυτόν, an infinitive aorist verb meaning "to besiege, to be blocked" that grammatically matches להלחם and Kings as πολεμεῗν, a dative, the ה suggests a preposition, cf. ἐκπολεμέω.

The word כוש is interpreted as Ethiopia in both Greek texts.

Σκυθία = כוש : Scythia
Σκυθιας : a name for Delos
The Scythian rivers (נהרי כוש); the Euphrates and Tigris
Σκυθών = כושן
Σκυθιας = כשית
Last edited by Ethan on Mon Nov 16, 2020 11:56 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Mon Nov 16, 2020 11:55 am

Isaiah 37:25
I have digged, and drunk water; and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of the besieged places
אֲנִ֥י קַ֖רְתִּי וְשָׁתִ֣יתִי מָ֑יִם וְאַחְרִב֙ בְּכַף־פְּעָמַ֔י כֹּ֖ל יְאֹרֵ֥י מָצֹֽור

καὶ ἔθηκα γέφυραν καὶ ἠρήμωσα ὕδατα καὶ πᾶσαν συναγωγὴν ὕδατος

2 Kings 19:24
I have digged and drunk strange waters, and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of besieged places
אֲנִ֣י קַ֔רְתִּי וְשָׁתִ֖יתִי מַ֣יִם זָרִ֑ים וְאַחְרִב֙ בְּכַף־פְּעָמַ֔י כֹּ֖ל יְאֹרֵ֥י מָצֹֽור

ἐγὼ ἔψυξα καὶ ἔπιον ὕδατα ἀλλότρια καὶ ἐξηρήμωσα τῷ ἴχνει τοῦ ποδός μου πάντας ποταμοὺς περιοχῆς

The only difference between the Hebrew, is that Kings as the adjectival, זרים read as ἀλλότρια in the Greek.

זרים also translates into ψυχρός 'cold, freq. of water' else ξένος 'foreign.

γέφυρα ; a dyke, dam or mound to bar a stream, in pl., Il.; the phrase πολέμοιο γεφύραι seems to mean the ground between two lines of battle, = μεταίχμιον

The initial verse in KJV begins "I have digged" where as Greek versions as τίθημι/ψυχω.

ψυχω; make cold, make dry
ψύχος קר cold
Ψυχρός קר cold
ψυχρά קרה cold
ψυχροτης קרי, קרות coldness

πους פעם foot, both of men and beast
ερημοω חרב strip bear, desolate, lay waste

כל יארח מצור
1. πᾶσαν συναγωγὴν ὕδατος
2 πάντας ποταμοὺς περιοχῆς

Greek Isaiah reads "bring-together all the waters" and Kings
as "all the rivers of the enclosing"

The word for the waters is יארי which is the word for the Egyptian river in Genesis and Exodus.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Tue Nov 17, 2020 5:50 pm

2 Kings 20:1 .In those days was Hezekiah sick unto death ... for thou shalt die, and not live
8. Hezekiah said unto Isaiah, What shall be the sign that the LORD will heal me

This is mystery in Isaiah,. Hezekiah was sick and close to death and mentions the Lord would heal him. Yet it's not recorded in Isaiah if he lived or died.

Isaiah 39:8
Then said Hezekiah to Isaiah, Good is the word of the LORD which thou hast spoken. He said moreover, For there shall be peace and truth in my days.

After this verse, Hezekiah is never mentioned again in Isaiah

Isaiah 39 is near the same as 2 Kings 20 accept 2 Kings 20:21 is absent in Isaiah, however 2 Kings 21 mentions Hephzibah, consort of Hezekiah that appears in Isaiah 62:4.

2Ki 21:1
Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign, and reigned fifty and five years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hephzibah

Isa 62:4
Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be called Hephzibah and thy land Beulah: for the LORD delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married.

The city be called Hephzibah and the land Beulah.

ἀγαπητή ~ חפץ
Beloved cf. דוד

βουλή ~ בעולה
Counsel, μῆτις

The word desolate is שממה meaning ψάμμος "Sand"
adj. ψαμαθώδης "Sandy"


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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Wed Nov 18, 2020 6:22 pm

Shebna (שבנא) the scribe appears in both Kings & Isaiah and in the Septuagint the name is rendered Σομνας. The ב exchanges with μ and there is a terminal ν.

ὁ γραμματεὺς הספר

The term ספר seems to stem from συγγραφεύς
συγγραφεύς, συγγράφω
I. one who collects and writes down historic facts, an historian, Xen.: generally, an author, a prose-writer, Ar., Plato
II. συγγραφεῖς, οἱ, at Athens (in the 21st year of Pelop. war) commissioners appointed to draw up measures for altering the constitution

As for שבנא, similar too שבנה, שבניה and צפניה (Zepheniah), seems to mean Διός εφηβος or ζαμενής.

Isa 36:22 יֹואָ֨ח בֶּן־אָסָ֧ף הַמַּזְכִּ֛יר
Joah, the son of Asaph, the recorder
Ιωαχ ὁ τοῦ Ασαφ ὁ ὑπομνηματογράφος

2Ki 18:18 יֹואָ֥ח בֶּן־אָסָ֖ף הַמַּזְכִּֽיר
Ιωας υἱὸς Ασαφ ὁ ἀναμιμνῄσκων

memoir-writers or historians.
recorder, name of a great official in the Egyptian king's household, and the corresponding official in the office of the minister of finance (διοικητής)

The verb σώζω that means "save, keep" with prepositions also means "keep in mind, remember" also σώζω suffixes with -ιζω i.e σωΐζω thus the corresponding Hebrew be in Hiphil, i.e הזכיר or הושיע.

διασῴζω; of things, preserve, maintain, keep in memory
ἀποσῴζω; keep them in mind, remember

Διός ηιθεος יואח

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Wed Nov 18, 2020 7:15 pm

Isa 36:6 / 2 Kings 18.22
.thou trustest in the staff (משענת) of this broken reed, on Egypt; whereon if a man lean (יסמך)

The verbal form of משען is written נשען, in the נפעל (Niphal), the passive reflective, explained through Greek.

σκάπτον משען : staff or stick, used by the lame or aged

This stems from the verb σκήπτω "prop, stay" but in the Pass and Med voice, "prop oneself or lean upon a staff, of an aged beggar" hence נשען.

κλίνω שמך to make to bend, slope, or slant, Lat. inclinare, .to lean or stay oneself upon or against a thing.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Wed Nov 18, 2020 8:35 pm

Isa 36:8
וְעַתָּה֙ הִתְעָ֣רֶב נָ֔א אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֖י הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֑וּר
νῦν μείχθητε τῷ κυρίῳ μου τῷ βασιλεῗ Ἀσσυρίων
Now therefore pledges, I pray thee, to my master the king of Assyria

2Ki 18:23
וְעַתָּה֙ הִתְעָ֣רֶב נָ֔א אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֖י אֶת־מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֑וּר
καὶ νῦν μιχθητε δὴ τῷ κυρίῳ μου βασιλεῗ Ἀσσυρίων
Now therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord the king of Assyria

The Greek versions uses the verb μιγνυμι "to mix" for ערב translated "pledge" but the true homologue verb is ἐρύω also cognates Latin Servare, ע exchanges with s. The noun is ῥύσιον 'surety, pledge' i.e מערב confused with another מערב meaning φύρμα 'mixture' and another מערב meaning φόρημα "freight", the initial מ exchanging with -ιον/-μα.

Τhe English inserts "I pray thee" that doesn't need to be there and is absent in the Greek. The Hebrew נא is an adverb i.e νυ "Νοw" in Ep. mostly as a particle of emphasis, in commands or entreaties.

The title אדני is used to address the Assyrian King i.e δυνάστης, δυνατός Lt. optimatos, the chief men in a state.
~bŏnus, dŭonus, optimus

The initial א exchanges with op- in optimus, from -δυ, cf. νυ=נא. vowel consonont metathesis and the terminal י because an adjectival thus אדני cognates bŏnus, dŭonus bonitās.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Thu Nov 19, 2020 2:10 pm

Isa 44:1 (KJV) — Yet now hear, O Jacob my servant (עבדי); and Israel, whom I have chosen (בחרתי)

Septuagint often reads עבד as παις 'child, III. in relation to Condition, slave, servant, man or maid (of all ages), Παϝις, cf. παῦρος, Lat. puer. παις exchanges with בן/בת and בר.

The word עבד is pronounced with the vowels of ὀπαδός/ὀπηδός 'attendant.

The verb בחרתי is written in the perfect tense, which reveals the homologue as αἱρέω 'take, in pf. to be chosen, ᾕρημαι Ion. “ἀραίρημαι”. The ב exchanges with the spiritus.

The verbal noun is מבחר/במחיר which is ἀφαίρεμα 'that which is taken away as the choice part'. The adjective is מחיר = αἱρετός 'chosen, elected.

Isa 44:2 (KJV) — Thus saith the LORD that made thee (עשך), and formed thee (צרך) from the womb (בטן), which will help thee; Fear not, O Jacob, my servant; and thou, Jesurun, whom I have chosen.

τεύχω = עשה ; make, of natural phenomena. actions, events, etc., cause, bring to pass,

κεραμεύω ~ צור, נצר potter
ὕπτιος בטן; belly, the under parts

The Greek reads ישרון as Ισραήλ,. the epithet seems to stem from Ὀρθωσία, Jupiter Stator, epithet of Artemis.

stător , ōris, m. sto,
I.a magistrate's attendant, servant, messenger, orderly-man (since Augustus there were centuriae statorum Augusti): “statores mittere

The Temple of Jupiter Stator ("Jupiter the Sustainer")[1] was a sanctuary on the slope of the Capitoline Hill.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Thu Nov 19, 2020 5:35 pm

Isa 44:4 They they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the water courses (הערבים על יבלי-מים)

This translation depends on the Septuagint reading of ערבים as Ιτέα 'willows. The word ערבים comes from ὄροφος

A.reed used for thatching houses, described as λαχνήεις, Il.24.451 : distd. fr. κάλαμος, etc., Arist.Fr.268.

The word יבלי is φορᾷ; rapid motion, a rush, Lat. impetus. Thus in the Latin the p exchanges with ב and t with ל.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Fri Nov 20, 2020 5:13 pm

Isa 43:3 — I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

נתתי כפרך מצרים כוש וסבא תחתיך

LXX ἐποίησά σου ἄλλαγμα Αἴγυπτον καὶ Αἰθιοπίαν καὶ Σοήνην ὑπὲρ σοῦ

Both versions are very different, the initial verb in the G is "He made" followed by σου (-ך)

ἄλλαγμα; that which is given or taken in exchange.
This word appears in Deuteronomy 23:18 as a translation of מחיר = ἀγορασμός 'purchase, freq. of auctions'.

The word כפר is ἄποινα, the כ exchanges with the spiritus.

ἄποινα , τά, (by haplology for ἀπό-ποινα ποινή,) cf. A.“ἀπετίνυτο ποινήν”
Hom. (only in Il.), ransom or price paid, whether to recover one's freedom when taken prisoner. II. generally, atonement, compensation, penalty. 2. in good sense, recompense, reward

كَفَّارَة • (kaffāra) penance, atonement

Exo 21:30 If there be laid on him a sum of money (כפר), then he shall give for the ransom (פדיו) of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.

The Septuagint translates both פדיו and כפר into λύτρα. פדיו perhaps from ἀποδίδωμι; render what is due, pay, as debts, penalties, ἀπόδοσις.

ποινή - bloodmoney, were-gild, fine paid by the slayer to the kinsmen of the slain, personified, the goddess of vengeance.
Avestan: kaēnā

כפר καθαιρω; In religious sense, purify, by fumigation with sulphur, purify one from blood, also of menstruation, of the things removed by purification, purge away, wash off.

There is no conjunction between מצרים כוש and סבא is Σοηνην elsewhere Σάβα.

סבא caba' is an unknown location the word defined as 'drink thou' translated into drunkard and winebibbers.

σπάω, συμβολοκοπέω, Σάμος?

Isa 45:14
merchandise of Cush
ἐμπορία Αἰθιόπων

Sabeans, men of stature
סבאים אנשי מדה
οἱ Σεβωιν ἄνδρες ὑψηλοὶ

סחר αγορά market-place, Lt. Forum

This part of Isaiah the Greeks gives a different transliteration for סבא and describes the people as "tall men".

The Hebrew מדה here be μόδιος; a measure of length, = 200 ὀργυιαί, 1 fathom or 6 feet tall. Thus אנשי-מדה means "6 feet tall men". If this the average height it matches that of Eastern European around the Caucasian mountain.

Thus perhaps סבא means Caucas or Kavkasos Gk. Καύκασος for כוש means Σκυθία "Scythia.

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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Fri Nov 20, 2020 7:52 pm

Hosea 1:1
The word of the LORD that came unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel.

Micah 1:1
The word of the LORD that came to Micah the Morasthite in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem.

Isaiah 1:1 — The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

The openings of these verses are near identical, Isaiah starts with חזון ישעיהו. The noun חזון is οψανον = ὄψις from the verb ὄψομαι, the future of ὁράω/ורא also cognating "Vision" from Lt videō. The Sept renders ὅρασις. 2 Chronicles 26:5 as "ראת האלהים" visions of God. ראת, ראות, ראי, תאר ορασις.

2 Chronicles 32:32 the vision of Isaiah;. The Septuagint reads ἐν τῇ προφητείᾳ Ησαιου for בחזון ישעיהו.

ὄψις, οψανον
subjective, power of sight or seeing, vision, ὄψει τινὰ ἰδεῖν, ἐσιδεῖν, Il.20.205, Od.25.94

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