Kings & Isaiah

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Fri Nov 20, 2020 8:27 pm

Jer 26:18 — Micah the Morasthite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah

So accordingly Micah prophesied in the days of Hezekiah, same time as Isaiah, however Isaiah is not mentioned in Jeremiah and Micah is not mentioned in Isaiah or parts of Kings & Chronicles that deal with Hezekiah

In Jeremiah, Micah (מיכה) is written מיכיה and is titled "the Morasthite" (מורשתי) that seems to refer to an unknown place, Micah 1:14 reads Moreshethgath (מורשת גת) and Septuagint translates מורשת into κληρονομίας "inheritances", thus מורשת would be homologue with παραδόσιμος.

If the office of "Prophet" is held by one person at a time, then it would conclude that Isaiah, Micah and Hosea are all the same person. Thus מיכיה is an epithet meaning μάντις Διός "Prophet of Zeus".

מורשת גת; inheritances of Scythia

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Fri Nov 20, 2020 8:53 pm

Hosea 6:11 concludes with "when I returned the captivity of my people". Ref. Isaiah 45:13/61:1 that directly mention Cyrus outside the so called chronological period of Hezekiah.

The opening of Isaiah and Micah concludes they were prophesying between 783 to 687 BCE but why emphasize the Achaemenid Period. These anachronistic duplicate prophets are perhaps all based on Ctesias. The physician and historian of Artaxerxes II who had access to the Assyrian recorded needed to produce historical propaganda. The prophets paint the Persians as saviours of a fictitious captivity.

Hosea 6:11 בשובי שבות עמי

The word שבה is a compound and of ζωός and ἀγρέω, litterly "taken alive" hence captive. Thus שבות be ζωγρία, note the feminine ending i.e captīvitās (noun sg fem nom). c/ש. The ρ drops out in the Latin and Greek.

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Fri Nov 20, 2020 10:22 pm

Micah 1:16 כי גלו ממך
for they are gone into captivity from thee.

Another reference to the captivity, but a different verb, גלו means ἐξελαύνω; expel from a place. The noun גלה be ἔλασις; driving away, banishing.

Micah 2:12 I will surely assemble (אאסף) O Jacob, all of thee. I will gather (אקבץ) the remnant (שארית) of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah (בצרה)

The word שאר is σάρξ; flesh, portion of meat, venison Lt. caro
and. the verb קבץ from κομίζω; bring-together, collect. Bozrah (בצרה) definable from φραγμός; fencing, railing of the bridge over the Hellespont.

אסף ἀθροίζω; to gather together, to muster forces, to gather the Trojans together

Genesis concludes that Israel & Jacob interchange but are mentioned separately in Isaiah, Micah and Deuteronomy (Isaiah wrote Deuteronomy).

Isaiah 10:20 .And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; but shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.

Deuteronomy 33:10 They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law: they shall put incense before thee, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thine altar.

Mic 5:8 the remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles (Greeks?)

.

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sat Nov 21, 2020 10:56 am

Deu 33:10
Jacob thy judgments משפתיך _ δίκαιον σου
Israel thy law תורתך _ ἐντολή σου

By deriving Torah (תורת) from ἐντολή then the verb ירה would equate with ἐντέλλω; command by word of mouth i.e teach. The word למד matches μανθάνω (ΜΝΘ = למד) "learn" thus תלמיד is a μαθητής 'learner' and תלמוד "Talmud" is a μάθησις 'Instruction'.

1 Corinthians 7:19 ἐντολῶν θεοῦ תורת האלהים

Isa 1:2 Hear, O heavens שמעו שמים ἄκουε οὐρανέ
Mic 1:2 Hear, all ye people שמעו עמים ἀκούσατε λαοί

These openings also similar suggesting a common author. In Greek Isaiah, ακουε (שמעה) should be ακούσατε and why does Isaiah address שמים "the heavens" and not עמים "the people"

Psalms 49:1 as שמעו זאת כל העמים "Hear this all the people" Greek as "all the nations'.

Deu 32:1 — Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth.
— πρόσεχε οὐρανέ καὶ λαλήσω καὶ ἀκουέτω γῆ ῥήματα ἐκ στόματός μου

More evidence that Isaiah wrote Deuteronomy. The initial part is האזינו in KJV reads "give hear" and Sept produces the imperative verb πρόσεχε "to hold to, offer". a matching verb is perhaps ὠτακουστέω 'to hearken to, listen'. אזן/ωτός, ους.

Isa 44:23 — Sing, O ye heavens רנו שמים

The verb רנו also imperative, meaning θρηνέω; sing a dirge, to wail, of birds i.e the nightingale.

Revelation 12:12 reads εὐφραίνεσθε οἱ οὐρανοὶ "rejoice, ye heavens" copying the Septuagint version of Isaiah 44:23 εὐφράνθητε οὐρανοί for רנו שמים.

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sat Nov 21, 2020 12:09 pm

Isa 44:27 That saith to the deep (צולה) be dry (חרבי), and I will dry up (אוביש) thy rivers. (נהרתיך).

They are two distinct Hebrew words translating into "Dry" and the word translated into "deep" is not the same Hebrew in Gen 1:2 translated into deep. This a problem with the English translations, different words translated the same and the distinct meaning is lost.

The word צולה is homologue with ἁλός in which the spiritus exchanges with the צ. This is evident in Latin in which ἁλ "hál" becomes sāl.

ἅλς; sea, generally of shallow water near shore

ἅλμη; sea-water, brine
through prefix-suffix metathesis becomes מצולה

Micah 7:19 במצלות-ים
thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea

Illiad 1.314 ἀπελυμαίνοντο καὶ εἰς ἅλα λύματα βάλλον
And they purified themselves, and cast the defilement into the sea

It mentions rivers (pl) be dried (יבש/διψάω). It is known Cyrus diverted the Euphrates.

Revelation 16:12 reads, . the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared

The Euphrates river is not mentioned in Isaiah, thus what source is Revelation referring too. The river name פרת from θήρ "Lion" cf. αἴλουρος τίγρης (חדקל).

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sat Nov 21, 2020 12:49 pm

Isaiah 22:22
The key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.

Revelation 3:7
he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth; (Cyrus did).

Isaiah 45:1
Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut


The word Key in Isaiah 22:22 is מפתח and the verb in Isaiah 45:1 is אפתח
אפתח being the verb πετάννυμι then the noun must be πέταλον 'a leaf of metal' or πέτασμα

This was plagiarised into Revelation 3:7; he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;

Revelation 18:2
λέγων Ἔπεσεν ἔπεσεν Βαβυλὼν
לאמר נפלה נפלה בבל

Isaiah 21:9
ויאמר נפלה נפלה בבל
εἶπεν πέπτωκε Βαβυλὼν

Jeremiah 51:8
נפלה בבל
Ἔπεσεν Βαβυλὼν

The duplication of נפלה נפלה represents ἐπεπτώκει "Babylon had fallen" (pluperfect), note the duplication in ἐπεπτώκει.

Herodotus 1.191 says that the combined Median and Persian army entered the city via the channel of the Euphrates river, the river having been diverted into trenches that Cyrus had dug for the invasion, and that the city was unprepared because of a great festival that was being observed

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sat Nov 21, 2020 2:49 pm

Isaiah 56:7 זבחיהם לרצון על מזבחי
their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar

The word רצון derives from the compound προδέχομαι; take, accept, receive. Cf. πρόσδεξις; acceptance.

This is proven in Ezekiel 20:41 in which ארצה אתכם in Greek version is προσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς "I will accept you".

The noun צבחי is the same as θυσίαι/θῦμα thus the verbal זבח is θύω; offer by burning meat or drink to the gods. Thus also מצנח is a θυσιαστήριον "an altar"..

Isa 56:8 נאם אדני יהוה מקבץ נדחי ישראל
— The Lord GOD which gathereth the outcasts of Israel
εἶπεν κύριος ὁ συνάγων τοὺς διεσπαρμένους Ισραηλ

The initial verb נאם is φημί, the initial נ represents the -μι also in Doric dialect it is φαμι and when it incorporates the preposition προ- the Hebrew verb is modified into נבא i.e πρόφημι > προφήτης "Prophet".

κομίζων מקבץ; bring together

The word נדחי begins with the MV " נ " for the verb is ὠθίζομαι; push against one another, jostle, struggle. See also ὠθέω; thrust, push; mostly of human force. מדחה/ὠθισμόi

Isaiah 11:12 shall assemble the outcasts of Israel

Consistent language throughout Isaiah proving one author. Also Isaiah 11:12 translated into future tense "shall assemble" and Isaiah 56:7 in a perfect tense as if the events already happened.

Isaiah fulfills its own prophecies.

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sat Nov 21, 2020 7:17 pm

Isaiah 57:14 stumblingblock מכשול

σφάλλω—to make to fall, throw down, overthrow, properly by tripping up, to trip up in wrestling
σφάλμα—trip, stumble, false step.

Psalms 91:12 lest thou dash thy foot against a stone
פֶּן־תִּגֹּ֖ף בָּאֶ֣בֶן רַגְלֶֽךָ׃
μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου

προσκόπτω; strike, intr., stumble or strike against.

The verb תגף is a compound i.e προσκόπτω and is confirmed through the New Testament.

1 Peter 2:8 — a stone of stumbling (λίθος προσκόμματος)

Isaiah 8:14
stone of stumbling אבן נגף; LXX. λίθου προσκόμματι .
rock of offence צור מכשול ; LXX πέτρας πτώματι

The noun πτῶμα in Hebrew is מפלה, for the verb πίπτω is נפל
whereas מכשול is σφάλμα.

Isaiah 8:15
shall stumble (כשלו) and fall (נפלו)

The Septuagint correctly renders נפלו into πεσοῦνται but incorrectly translates כשלו into ἀδυνατήσουσιν.

In Judges 14:8, את מפלה האריה in Septuagint is τὸ πτῶμα τοῦ λέοντος "carcase of the lion" thus proving Hebrew is Greek and מפלה is a genuine homologue of πτῶμα

πτῶμα מפלה; fallen body, corpse, carcase, freq. with gen (LSJ).

Also Judges 14:8 is a satire on a Greek dialect in which θηρίον=אריה sounds like κηρίον "honeycomb".

Judges 14:8 reads "behold, there was a swarm of bees" and the noun for swarm is עדת that is the same word translated into congregation. This is because the word comes from ἔθνος, also the word for a swarm of bees in Homer.

ἔθνος
A.number of people living together, company, body of men
of animals, ἔ. μελισσάων (of bees), ὀρνίθων, μυιάων, swarms, flocks, etc., Il.2.87,459,469;

The Hebrew word for bee (דבורה) "Deborah" also from Greek language.

ξουθόπτερος (דבורה); with nimble (or perh. humming) wings, “μέλισσα" (bees).

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... a&la=greek
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:04 pm

Isaiah 62:3 — Thou shalt also be a crown of glory (עטרה תפארת) in the hand of the LORD, and a royal diadem (צניף) in the hand of thy God.

κίδαρις φαντασίας (עטרה תפארת)

κίδαρις
Persian head-dress, prob. = τιάρα, κυρβασία —also κίταρις
2. turban of Jewish high priest, LXX Ex.28.4

τιάρα
A.tiara, the Persian head-dress, esp. on solemn occasions, Hdt.1.132, 3.12 (v. πῖλος), 7.61, 8.120; worn by the great king, A. Pers.661 (lyr.); whose tiara was upright, X.An.2.5.23, Cyr.8.3.13, Phylarch.22J., Luc.Pisc.35

στέφανος צניף
crown, wreath, chaplet, crown of victory at the public games

στεφάνωμα מצנפת
that which surrounds, a crown or wreath

διάδημα
A.band or fillet: esp. band round the τιάρα worn by the Persian king

Xenophon, Cyropaedia 8.3.13
Next after these Cyrus himself upon a chariot appeared in the gates wearing his tiara upright, a purple tunic shot with white (no one but the king may wear such a one), trousers of scarlet dye about his legs, and a mantle all of purple. He had also a fillet about his tiara, and his kinsmen also had the same mark of distinction, and they retain it even

ἐπὶ δὲ τούτοις ἤδη αὐτὸς ἐκ τῶν πυλῶν προυφαίνετο ὁ Κῦρος ἐφ᾽ ἅρματος ὀρθὴν ἔχων τὴν τιάραν καὶ χιτῶνα πορφυροῦν μεσόλευκον (ἄλλῳ δ᾽ οὐκ ἔξεστι μεσόλευκον ἔχειν), καὶ περὶ τοῖς σκέλεσιν ἀναξυρίδας ὑσγινοβαφεῖς, καὶ κάνδυν ὁλοπόρφυρον. εἶχε δὲ καὶ διάδημα περὶ τῇ τιάρᾳ: καὶ οἱ συγγενεῖς δὲ αὐτοῦ τὸ αὐτὸ τοῦτο σημεῖον εἶχον, καὶ νῦν τὸ αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἔχουσι.


Ethan
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Re: Kings & Isaiah

Post by Ethan » Sun Nov 22, 2020 6:36 pm

Isa 60:9 — Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish (Athens) first, to bring thy sons from far.

איים יקוו — isles shall wait.
γᾶι προσδοκησουσι

The verb קוה is a compound of προσδοκάω; expect for, whether in hope or fear, wait for. Thus in Psalm 62:5 תקותי means "my expectation". The initial ת as an abstract noun, hence תקותי = προσδοκία μου

expectavi te קויתיך "I wait on thee"

Isaiah 42:4 reads "Isles shall wait" (איים ייחילו). Note the different verb, the Sept gives ἐλπιοῦσιν.

ἐλπίζω; to hope for, look for, expect
ἔλπω, ἐλπίζω, ἔλπομαι, ἐέλπομαι — יחל
ἐλπίς — תוחלת 'hope, expectation'

1.תרשיש θρασώ (θαρσώ); the genitive of which is θράσους (θάρσους), name for Athena. They are two cities of that name, Athens and عدن (Aden).

2.תרשיש θρᾳκίας (sc. λίθος) stone said to take fire in water

3.תרשיש ταρσός; a type of ship equipped with a bank or banks or oarsmen

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