An order of lifelong Nazirites?

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Ben C. Smith
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An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by Ben C. Smith » Tue Aug 13, 2019 6:02 pm

We are doubtless all familiar with the Nazirite vow, a time of consecration limited to a certain number of days:

Numbers 6.1-21: 1 Again Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 2 "Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, 'When a man or woman makes a special vow, the vow of a Nazirite, to dedicate himself to Yahweh, 3 he shall abstain from wine and strong drink; he shall drink no vinegar, whether made from wine or strong drink, nor shall he drink any grape juice nor eat fresh or dried grapes. 4 All the days of his separation he shall not eat anything that is produced by the grape vine, from the seeds even to the skin. 5 All the days of his vow of separation no razor shall pass over his head. He shall be holy until the days are fulfilled for which he separated himself to Yahweh; he shall let the locks of hair on his head grow long. 6 All the days of his separation to Yahweh he shall not go near to a dead person. 7 He shall not make himself unclean for his father or for his mother, for his brother or for his sister, when they die, because his separation to God is on his head. 8 All the days of his separation he is holy to Yahweh. 9 But if a man dies very suddenly beside him and he defiles his dedicated head of hair, then he shall shave his head on the day when he becomes clean; he shall shave it on the seventh day. 10 Then on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest, to the doorway of the tent of meeting. 11 The priest shall offer one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering, and make atonement for him concerning his sin because of the dead person. And that same day he shall consecrate his head, 12 and shall dedicate to Yahweh his days as a Nazirite, and shall bring a male lamb a year old for a guilt offering; but the former days will be void because his separation was defiled. 13 Now this is the law of the Nazirite when the days of his separation are fulfilled, he shall bring the offering to the doorway of the tent of meeting. 14 He shall present his offering to Yahweh: one male lamb a year old without defect for a burnt offering and one ewe-lamb a year old without defect for a sin offering and one ram without defect for a peace offering, 15 and a basket of unleavened cakes of fine flour mixed with oil and unleavened wafers spread with oil, along with their grain offering and their drink offering. 16 Then the priest shall present them before Yahweh and shall offer his sin offering and his burnt offering. 17 He shall also offer the ram for a sacrifice of peace offerings to Yahweh, together with the basket of unleavened cakes; the priest shall likewise offer its grain offering and its drink offering. 18 The Nazirite shall then shave his dedicated head of hair at the doorway of the tent of meeting, and take the dedicated hair of his head and put it on the fire which is under the sacrifice of peace offerings. 19 The priest shall take the ram's shoulder when it has been boiled, and one unleavened cake out of the basket and one unleavened wafer, and shall put them on the hands of the Nazirite after he has shaved his dedicated hair. 20 Then the priest shall wave them for a wave offering before Yahweh. It is holy for the priest, together with the breast offered by waving and the thigh offered by lifting up; and afterward the Nazirite may drink wine.' 21 This is the law of the Nazirite who vows his offering to Yahweh according to his separation, in addition to what else he can afford; according to his vow which he takes, so he shall do according to the law of his separation."

This vow requires a priest at the "tent of meeting" (or the tabernacle or, later, the temple) to consummate. What I am wondering is whether this temporary vow might not merely be a watered down version of the lifelong status said to belong to Samson:

Judges 13.1-25: 1 Now the sons of Israel again did evil in the sight of Yahweh, so that Yahweh gave them into the hands of the Philistines forty years. 2 There was a certain man of Zorah, of the family of the Danites, whose name was Manoah; and his wife was barren and had borne no children. 3 Then the angel of Yahweh appeared to the woman and said to her, "Behold now, you are barren and have borne no children, but you shall conceive and give birth to a son. 4 Now therefore, be careful not to drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing. 5 For behold, you shall conceive and give birth to a son, and no razor shall come upon his head, for the boy shall be a Nazirite [Masoretic: נְזִ֧יר; OG: Ναζιρ; Alexandrinus: Ναζιραῖον; Vulgate: Nazaraeus] to God from the womb; and he shall begin to deliver Israel from the hands of the Philistines." 6 Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, "A man of God came to me and his appearance was like the appearance of the angel of God, very awesome. And I did not ask him where he came from, nor did he tell me his name. 7 But he said to me, 'Behold, you shall conceive and give birth to a son, and now you shall not drink wine or strong drink nor eat any unclean thing, for the boy shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death.'" 8 Then Manoah entreated Yahweh and said, "O Lord, please let the man of God whom You have sent come to us again that he may teach us what to do for the boy who is to be born." 9 God listened to the voice of Manoah; and the angel of God came again to the woman as she was sitting in the field, but Manoah her husband was not with her. 10 So the woman ran quickly and told her husband, "Behold, the man who came the other day has appeared to me." 11 Then Manoah arose and followed his wife, and when he came to the man he said to him, "Are you the man who spoke to the woman?" And he said, "I am." 12 Manoah said, "Now when your words come to pass, what shall be the boy's mode of life and his vocation?" 13 So the angel of Yahweh said to Manoah, "Let the woman pay attention to all that I said. 14 She should not eat anything that comes from the vine nor drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing; let her observe all that I commanded." 15 Then Manoah said to the angel of Yahweh, "Please let us detain you so that we may prepare a young goat for you." 16 The angel of Yahweh said to Manoah, "Though you detain me, I will not eat your food, but if you prepare a burnt offering, then offer it to Yahweh." For Manoah did not know that he was the angel of Yahweh. 17 Manoah said to the angel of Yahweh, "What is your name, so that when your words come to pass, we may honor you?" 18 But the angel of Yahweh said to him, "Why do you ask my name, seeing it is wonderful?" 19 So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering and offered it on the rock to Yahweh, and He performed wonders while Manoah and his wife looked on. 20 For it came about when the flame went up from the altar toward heaven, that the angel of Yahweh ascended in the flame of the altar. When Manoah and his wife saw this, they fell on their faces to the ground. 21 Now the angel of Yahweh did not appear to Manoah or his wife again. Then Manoah knew that he was the angel of Yahweh. 22 So Manoah said to his wife, "We will surely die, for we have seen God." 23 But his wife said to him, "If Yahweh had desired to kill us, He would not have accepted a burnt offering and a grain offering from our hands, nor would He have shown us all these things, nor would He have let us hear things like this at this time." 24 Then the woman gave birth to a son and named him Samson; and the child grew up and Yahweh blessed him. 25 And the Spirit of Yahweh began to stir him in Mahaneh-dan, between Zorah and Eshtaol.

Judges 16.15-17: 15 Then she said to him, "How can you say, 'I love you,' when your heart is not with me? You have deceived me these three times and have not told me where your great strength is." 16 It came about when she pressed him daily with her words and urged him, that his soul was annoyed to death. 17 So he told her all that was in his heart and said to her, "A razor has never come on my head, for I have been a Nazirite to God from my mother's womb. If I am shaved, then my strength will leave me and I will become weak and be like any other man."

This state of being apparently requires no priest, though it does require the mother to abstain from strong drink (good advice anyway for a pregnant woman) and from unclean things.

This state of being a Nazirite seems to pop up in one of the prophets, as well:

Amos 2.6-16: 6 Thus says the Lord, “For three transgressions of Israel and for four I will not revoke its punishment, because they sell the righteous for money and the needy for a pair of sandals. 7 These who pant after the very dust of the earth on the head of the helpless also turn aside the way of the humble; and a man and his father resort to the same girl in order to profane My holy name. 8 On garments taken as pledges they stretch out beside every altar, and in the house of their God they drink the wine of those who have been fined. 9 Yet it was I who destroyed the Amorite before them, though his height was like the height of cedars and he was strong as the oaks; I even destroyed his fruit above and his root below. 10 It was I who brought you up from the land of Egypt, and I led you in the wilderness forty years that you might take possession of the land of the Amorite. 11 Then I raised up some of your sons to be prophets and some of your young men to be Nazirites [Masoretic: לִנְזִרִים; OG: εἰς ἁγιασμόν; Vulgate: Nazaraeos]. Is this not so, O sons of Israel?” declares the Lord. 12 “But you made the Nazirites [Masoretic: הַנְּזִרִים; OG: τοὺς ἡγιασμένους; Vulgate: Nazaraeis] to drink wine, and you commanded the prophets saying, ‘You shall not prophesy!’ 13 Behold, I am weighted down beneath you as a wagon is weighted down when filled with sheaves. 14 Flight will perish from the swift, and the stalwart will not strengthen his power, nor the mighty man save his life. 15 He who grasps the bow will not stand his ground; the swift of foot will not escape, nor will he who rides the horse save his life. 16 Even the bravest among the warriors will flee naked in that day,” declares the Lord.

This passage does not make it sound as if the Nazirites are merely under a temporary vow; they are paralleled with prophets, for one thing, and it comes across as if being a Nazirite was the destiny of some of Israel's young; one is reminded in this connection of young Samuel, for example:

1 Samuel 1.9-11: 9 Then Hannah rose after eating and drinking in Shiloh. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the temple of the Lord. 10 She, greatly distressed, prayed to the Lord and wept bitterly. 11 She made a vow and said, “O Lord of hosts, if You will indeed look on the affliction of Your maidservant and remember me, and not forget Your maidservant, but will give Your maidservant a son, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and a razor shall never come on his head.”

Notice that Samuel's parents, Elkanah and Hannah, hail from "the hill country of Ephraim" (1 Samuel 1.1), and that Amos was prophesying specifically about Israel (Amos 2.6), and that Samson is a Danite hero; all of these long term Nazirites, as it were, are from the north, not from the south, which is interesting given that Joseph, father to Ephraim — the eponymous patriarch of the north — is also called a Nazir (or "consecrated one"):

Genesis 49.22-26: 22 "Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a spring; its branches run over a wall. 23 The archers bitterly attacked him, and shot at him and harassed him; 24 but his bow remained firm, and his arms were agile, from the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob (from there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), 25 from the God of your father who helps you, and by the Almighty who blesses you With blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lies beneath, blessings of the breasts and of the womb. 26 The blessings of your father have surpassed the blessings of my ancestors up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills; may they be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of the one consecrated among his brothers [Masoretic: וּלְקָדְקֹד נְזִיר אֶחָיו; LXX: καὶ ἐπὶ κορυφῆς ὧν ἡγήσατο ἀδελφῶν; Vulgate: et in vertice Nazarei inter fratres suos]."

Deuteronomy 33.13-17: 13 Of Joseph he said, "Blessed of Yahweh be his land, with the choice things of heaven, with the dew, and from the deep lying beneath, 14 and with the choice yield of the sun, and with the choice produce of the months; 15 and with the best things of the ancient mountains, and with the choice things of the everlasting hills, 16 and with the choice things of the earth and its fullness, and the favor of Him who dwelt in the bush. Let it come to the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of the one consecrated among his brothers [Masoretic: וּלְקָדְקֹד נְזִיר אֶחָיו; LXX: καὶ ἐπὶ κορυφῆς δοξασθεὶς ἐν ἀδελφοῖς; Vulgate: et super verticem Nazarei inter fratres suos]. 17 As the firstborn of his ox, majesty is his, and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he will push the peoples, all at once, to the ends of the earth. And those are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and those are the thousands of Manasseh."

There is one possible reference to Nazirites as a possibly permanent order from the south:

Lamentations 4.7: 7 Her consecrated ones [Masoretic: נְזִירֶיהָ; OG: Ναζιραῖοι; Vulgate: Nazarei] were purer than snow; they were whiter than milk; they were more ruddy in body than corals; their polishing was like lapis lazuli.

But it is not clear here that Nazirites are properly in view in this verse, since there is nothing about refraining from wine or haircuts, and many translations render this word as "princes," "dignitaries," "leaders," or "nobles," probably in agreement with the following comment:

R. B. Salters, Commentary on Lamentations 4.7: That the author is referring here to the Nazirites seems unlikely. The passages which allude to Nazirites (Num 6.2-8, 13, 18-21; Judg 13.5-7; 16.17; Amos 2.11f.) never speak of their beauty but only of their abstinence from wine, their avoidance of corpses and their vows to allow their hair to grow freely.

Of course, the same can be said of Joseph in the patriarchal blessings pronounced upon him and his tribe by Jacob and by Moses; but, whether we include or exclude those blessings, and whether we include or exclude the verse from Lamentations, it seems that there may well have been, at least in the north (and only possibly in the south), a tradition of lifelong "consecrated ones" dedicated to serving God in some special way. This lifelong obligation seems to have been offered to the more common folk, at least in the south (and probably in the north by sheer availability of the temple rites to any practicing Israelite or Jew, as well), in the form of a temporary vow for which a priest was required.

Could such an order of "consecrated ones" have survived into century I as Nazarenes or Nazoraeans? The requirements were not genealogical, at least, and perhaps they changed over time, as well. Perhaps Jesus the Nazarene was Jesus the Nazir, Jesus the member of an order dedicated to God in some way. It has long been pointed out that Jesus does not seem to have refrained from wine, at least from the sources that we have on the matter, but (A) Samson may not have abstained from it either (he hosts a מִשְׁתֶּה, literally a drinking party, OG πότος, in Judges 14.10) and (B) our sources may be tendentious on this topic (possibly in a way outlined by Robert M. Price in his essay, "Was Jesus John the Baptist Raised from the Dead?").

At any rate, the several mentions of the Nazirites which either indicate or imply a lifelong commitment to God call for comment. I suggest that an order of "consecrated ones" existed, and that the origin of the later Nazarenes or Nazoraeans in that order is at least as likely as, if not more so than, their origin in the town of Nasareth or in the "branch" prophecy of Isaiah 11.1.

Ben.
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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by andrewcriddle » Tue Aug 13, 2019 8:15 pm

There are rabbinic references to the possibility of a life long Nazirite vow. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/artic ... 5-nazarite
This appears to be regarded as a personal choice rather than membership of a group of lifelong Nazirites and may not be relevant.

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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by theeternaliam » Sat Aug 31, 2019 9:35 am

One of the first groups I found after I came to accept the Lord Jesus Christ was the Order of Nazorean Essenes, a modern gnostic group still active last I heard. They have a wide range of beliefs, but are especially modern day manichaeans. They believe Jesus Christ, who they call Yeshua ha Messiach was a Nazirite who abstained from wine and meat and the passages in the gospels that claim he (and john the baptist) drink and ate meat are twisted by later scribes inspired by Paul's ilk.
Over the years I have grown a lil more "orthodox" in my understanding of scripture but I still think Jesus Christ could have been a Nazirite. And even if the passages about wine are true I don't think they necessarily imply Jesus drank the wine. Or he could have lived as a Nazirite most his life but after baptism and the indwelling of the holy spirit was made free so as not to be bound by the letter of the law, but lived by the Spirit.

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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by Ben C. Smith » Mon Sep 02, 2019 7:10 am

theeternaliam wrote:
Sat Aug 31, 2019 9:35 am
One of the first groups I found after I came to accept the Lord Jesus Christ was the Order of Nazorean Essenes, a modern gnostic group still active last I heard. They have a wide range of beliefs, but are especially modern day manichaeans. They believe Jesus Christ, who they call Yeshua ha Messiach was a Nazirite who abstained from wine and meat and the passages in the gospels that claim he (and john the baptist) drink and ate meat are twisted by later scribes inspired by Paul's ilk.
You may be interested in a recent post of mine, then.
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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by Secret Alias » Mon Sep 02, 2019 9:16 am

FWIW Ben I think you have found a layer of the early Christian puzzle. I think this might have something to do with the emergence of a Christian sect in the Near East called the Nazarenes or something like it. I think it might explain why Against Marcion has a long digression about the Nazarites in Book Four. Thank you
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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by Secret Alias » Mon Sep 02, 2019 9:56 am

The passage I am thinking of is the one in which Luke 4 has:
In the synagogue there was a man possessed by a demon, an impure spirit. He cried out at the top of his voice, 34 “Go away! What do you want with us, Jesus Nazarene (Ναζαρηνέ)? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God!”
The text of the gospel in the hands of the author of Against Marcion reads:
On the same occasion the spirit of the demon cries out, What have we to do with thee, Jesus? Thou art come to destroy us. I know who thou art, the Holy One of God. Here I shall not discuss whether even this appellation was at all appropriate to one who had no right even to the name of Christ unless he belonged to the Creator. I have fully discussed his titles in another place.
Clearly at this layer of the composition the specific identifier Ναζαρηνέ is not present. But in a puzzling fashion there is a strong argument made that Jesus was a Nazarene.
According to the prophecy, the Creator's Christ was to be called a Nazarene.a For that reason, and on his account, the Jews call us by that very name, Nazarenes. For we are also those of whom it is written, The Nazarenes were made whiter than snow,b having previously of course been darkened with the stains of sin, and blackened with the darkness of ignorance. But to Christ the appellation of Nazarene was to apply because of his hiding-place in infancy, for which he went down to Nazareth, to escape from Archelaus, the son of Herod.c My reason for not leaving this out is that Marcion's Christ ought by rights to have forsworn all association even with the places frequented by the Creator's Christ, since he had all those towns of Judaea, which were not in the same way conveyed over to the Creator's Christ by the prophets. But Christ has to be the Christ of the prophets,
wherever it is that he is found to accord with the prophets. Even at Nazareth there is no indication that his preaching was of anything new, though for all that, by reason of one single proverb, we are told that he was cast out.
The point here is that obviously the author has in his possession or is arguing over a text WHICH DOES NOT HAVE 'NAZARENE' in Luke 4:34 (or Mark 1:24 or its equivalent) but that he is laying the groundwork for its inclusion in a future text. I have argued consistently that this is one of about a half dozen examples which leads me to believe that our canonical Luke gathered up arguments made by this (lost) original author about 'proofs' that Jesus was from the prophets and led to the alteration of the canonical gospels. In other words, Mark, Matthew, Luke were refashioned after the dictates of this author.

One might make the argument that the original author understood 'Holy One of God' to be 'Nazarite' or Nazarene in his original gospel. But then it was added to future manuscripts of Mark and Luke as Ναζαρηνέ. It is taken as a proof that Jesus was from Nazareth which I think is false. But we shouldn't necessarily leave it at that. The effort to make Jesus of Nazareth was related to the addition of Ναζαρηνέ to the MSS. It seems they fought over this section of text - i.e. the Marcionite, proto-orthodox and the orthodox.
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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by MrMacSon » Sat Sep 14, 2019 10:35 pm

The Catholic Encyclopedia has "Her Nazarites were whiter than snow" for Adv Marc. IV,4.

And Nazarite/Nazirite gets a mention at the end of chapter 23 of Adv Marc. IV - implicitly in the first instance in both the Catholic Encyclopedia and the Ernest Evans' versions, and explicitly in the second instance in the Catholic version but just implicitly in that second instance in the Evans' version, -

.
For even at that time the Lord said to Elias, "He was not in the fire, but in the still small voice" [1 Kings 19:12]. Well, but why does this most humane and merciful God reject the man who offers himself to Him as an inseparable companion? [Luke 9:57-58] If it were from pride or from hypocrisy that he had said, I will follow You wherever You go,' then, by judicially reproving an act of either pride or hypocrisy as worthy of rejection, He performed the office of a Judge. And, of course, him whom He rejected He condemned to the loss of not following the Saviour. For as He calls to salvation him whom He does not reject, or him whom He voluntarily invites, so does He consign to perdition him whom He rejects.

When, however, He answers the man, who alleged as an excuse his father's burial, "Let the dead bury their dead, but go and preach the kingdom of God" [Luke 9:59-60], He gave a clear confirmation to those two laws of the Creator — that in Leviticus, which concerns the sacerdotal office, and forbids the priests to be present at the funerals even of their parents. "The priest", says He[/it], "shall not enter where there is any dead person; and for his father he shall not be defiled"; as well as that in Numbers, which relates to the (Nazarite) vow of separation; for there he who devotes himself to God, among other things, is bidden not to come at any dead body, not even of his father, or his mother, or his brother [Numbers 6:6-7]. Now it was, I suppose, for the Nazarite and the priestly office that He intended this man whom He had been inspiring to preach the kingdom of God. ... http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/03124.htm


Evans has for that last sentence, -

I suppose it was for the <nazirite> vow and for the priesthood that he intended this man whom he had begun to prepare for preaching the kingdom of God. http://www.tertullian.org/articles/evan ... k4_eng.htm


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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by Ben C. Smith » Sat Sep 14, 2019 10:53 pm

MrMacSon wrote:
Sat Sep 14, 2019 10:35 pm
The Catholic Encyclopedia has "Her Nazarites were whiter than snow" for Adv Marc. IV,4.
This is a quotation of Lamentations 4.7.
And Nazarite/Nazirite gets a mention at the end of chapter 23 of Adv Marc. IV - implicitly in the first instance in both the Catholic Encyclopedia and the Ernest Evans' versions, and explicitly in the second instance in the Catholic version but just implicitly in that second instance in the Evans' version....
The term is implicit in both instances; it does not appear in the Latin, but the reference to the vow in Numbers makes clear what is being referred to.
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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by MrMacSon » Sat Sep 14, 2019 11:00 pm

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Sat Sep 14, 2019 10:53 pm
MrMacSon wrote:
Sat Sep 14, 2019 10:35 pm
The Catholic Encyclopedia has "Her Nazarites were whiter than snow" for Adv Marc. IV,4.
This is a quotation of Lamentations 4.7.
Yes (and Lamentations 4 is otherwise so dark).

Ben C. Smith wrote:
Sat Sep 14, 2019 10:53 pm
The term is implicit in both instances; it does not appear in the Latin, but the reference to the vow in Numbers makes clear what is being referred to.
Cheers.

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Re: An order of lifelong Nazirites?

Post by MrMacSon » Sat Sep 14, 2019 11:07 pm

Chapter 3 of both versions of Adv Marc V have Nazarites explicitly, -

Accordingly, the false brethren who were the spies of their Christian liberty must be thwarted in their efforts to bring it under the yoke of their own Judaism before that Paul discovered whether his labour had been in vain, before that those who preceded him in the apostolate gave him their right hands of fellowship, before that he entered on the office of preaching to the Gentiles, according to their arrangement with him. He therefore made some concession, as was necessary, for a time; and this was the reason why he had Timothy circumcised [Acts 16:3] and the Nazarites* introduced into the temple [Acts 21:23-26]* which incidents are described in the Acts. Their truth may be inferred from their agreement with the apostle's own profession, how to the Jews he became as a Jew, that he might gain the Jews, and to them that were under the law, as under the law, — and so here with respect to those who come in secretly —and lastly, how he became all things to all men, that he might gain all.

* even though the couple of english versions of Acts 21 I looked at did not explicitly have Nazarite/Nazirite; just
23b ... We have four men who are under a vow. 24 Join these men, go through the rite of purification with them, and pay for the shaving of their heads. Thus all will know that there is nothing in what they have been told about you, but that you yourself observe and guard the law. 25 But as for the Gentiles who have become believers, we have sent a letter with our judgment that they should abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from fornication.” 26 Then Paul took the men, and the next day, having purified himself, he entered the temple with them, making public the completion of the days of purification when the sacrifice would be made for each of them. [NRSV]

and, chapter 18 of the Catholic Encyclopedia version has Nazarite as a qualifier for 'the consecrated' -

(The apostle says further:) 'Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess' [Ephesians 5:18] — a precept which is suggested by the passage (of the prophet), where the seducers of the consecrated (Nazarites) to drunkenness are rebuked: 'You gave wine to my holy ones to drink' [Amos 2:12]. This prohibition from drink was given also to the high priest Aaron and his sons, 'when they went into the holy place' [Leviticus 10:9]. The command, to 'sing to the Lord with psalms and hymns' [Ephesians 5:19] comes suitably from him who knew that those who 'drank wine with drums and psalteries' were blamed by God [Isaiah 5:11-12].


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