Establishing Peter's Priority

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Joseph D. L.
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Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by Joseph D. L. » Tue Mar 17, 2020 4:21 am

This will be a rough comparison between the Gospel of Peter, and the Passion and Resurrection narratives as found in the Synoptics, Marcion, and John.

The translations below are Raymond Brown's translation of Gospel of Peter found on Early Christian Writings, and the ASV translation of the New Testament.

Texts in GREEN are similarities between Gospel of Peter and the other four texts. Texts in RED are likely later additions. Text in BLUE are possible later additions that are similar to Gospel of Peter. Text HIGHLIGHTED denote time markers. Text HIGHLIGHTED are differences between the five in comparison between Gospel of Peter, etc.

Note: those are general similarities between content found therein, not necessarily similarities in wording. Like I said, a rough comparison.

Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Luke/Marcion
Gospel of John
But of the Jews none washed his hands, neither Herod nor one of his judges. And since they did not desire to wash, Pilate stood up. And then Herod the king orders the Lord to be taken away, having said to them, 'What I ordered you to do, do.'But Joseph, the friend of Pilate and of the Lord, had been standing there; and knowing they were about to crucify him, he came before Pilate and requested the body of the Lord for burial. And Pilate, having sent to Herod, requested his body. And Herod said: 'Brother Pilate, even if no one had requested him, we would have buried him, since indeed Sabbath is dawning. For in the Law it has been written: The sun is not to set on one put to death.'

And he gave him over to the people before the first day of their feast of the Unleavened Bread. But having taken the Lord, running, they were pushing him and saying, 'Let us drag along the Son of God now that we have power over him.' And they clothed him with purple and sat him on a chair of judgment, saying: 'Judge justly, King of Israel.' And a certain one of them, having brought a thorny crown, put it on the head of the Lord. And others who were standing there were spitting in his face, and others slapped his cheeks. Others were jabbing him with a reed; and some scourged him, saying, 'With such honor let us honor the Son of God.' And they brought two wrongdoers and crucified the Lord in the middle of them. But he was silent as having no pain. And when they had set the cross upright, they inscribed that THIS IS THE KING OF ISRAEL. And having put his garments before him, they divided them up and threw as a gamble for them. But a certain one of those wrongdoers reviled them, saying: 'We have been made suffer thus because of the wrong that we have done; but this one, having become Savior of men, what injustice had he done to you?' And having become irritated at him, they ordered that there be no leg-breaking, so that he might die tormented. But is was midday, and darkness held fast all Judea; and they were distressed and anxious lest the sun had set, since he was still living. [For] it is written for them: Let not the sun set on one put to death. And someone of them said: 'Give him to drink gall with vinegary wine.' And having made a mixture, they gave to drink. And they fulfilled all things and completed the sins on their own head. But many went around with lamps, thinking that it was night, and they fell. And the Lord screamed out, saying: 'My power, O power, you have forsaken me.' And having said this, he was taken up.

And at the same hour the veil of the Jerusalem sanctuary was torn into two. And they drew out the nails from the hands of the Lord and placed him on the earth; and all the earth was shaken, and a great fear came about. Then the sun shone, and it was found to be the ninth hour. And the Jews rejoiced and gave his body to Joseph that he might bury it, since he was one who had seen the many good things he did. And having taken the Lord, he washed and tied him with a linen cloth and brought him into his own sepulcher, called the Garden of Joseph.

Then the Jews and the elders and the priests, having come to know how much wrong they had done themselves, began to beat themselves and say: 'Woe to our sins. The judgment has approached and the end of Jerusalem.' But I with the companions was sorrowful; and having been wounded in spirit, we were in hiding, for we were sought after by them as wrongdoers and as wishing to set fire to the sanctuary. In addition to all these things we were fasting; and we were sitting mourning and weeping night and day until the Sabbath.

But the scribes and Pharisees and elders, having gathered together with one another, having heard that all the people were murmuring and beating their breasts, saying that 'If at his death these very great signs happened, behold how just he was,' feared (especially the elders) and came before Pilate, begging him and saying, 'Give over soldiers to us in order that we may safeguard his burial place for three days, lest, having come, his disciples steal him, and the people accept that he is risen from the death, and they do us wrong.' But Pilate gave over to them Petronius the centurion with soldiers to safeguard the sepulcher. And with these the elders and scribes came to the burial place. And having rolled a large stone, all who were there, together with the centurion and the soldiers, placed it against the door of the burial place. And they marked it with seven wax seals; and having pitched a tent there, they safeguarded it. But early when the Sabbath was dawning, a crowd came from Jerusalem and the surrounding area in order that they might see the sealed tomb.

But in the night in which the Lord's day dawned, when the soldiers were safeguarding it two by two in every watch, there was a loud voice in heaven; and they saw that the heavens were opened and that two males who had much radiance had come down from there and come near the sepulcher. But that stone which had been thrust against the door, having rolled by itself, went a distance off the side; and the sepulcher opened, and both the young men entered. And so those soldiers, having seen, awakened the centurion and the elders (for they too were present, safeguarding). And while they were relating what they had seen, again they see three males who have come out from they sepulcher, with the two supporting the other one, and a cross following them, and the head of the two reaching unto heaven, but that of the one being led out by a hand by them going beyond the heavens. And they were hearing a voice from the heavens saying, 'Have you made proclamation to the fallen-asleep?' And an obeisance was heard from the cross, 'Yes.'

And so those people were seeking a common perspective to go off and make these things clear to Pilate; and while they were still considering it through, there appear again the opened heavens and a certain man having come down and entered into the burial place. Having seen these things, those around the centurion hastened at night before Pilate (having left the sepulcher which they were safeguarding) and described all the things that they indeed had seen, agonizing greatly and saying: 'Truly he was God's Son.' In answer Pilate said: 'I am clean of the blood of the Son of God, but it was to you that this seemed [the thing to do].' Then all, having come forward, were begging and exhorting him to command the centurion and the soldiers to say to no one what they had seen. 'For,' they said, 'it is better for us to owe the debt of the greatest sin in the sight of God than to fall into the hands of the Jewish people and be stoned.' And so Pilate ordered the centurion and the soldiers to say nothing.

Now at the dawn of the Lord's Day Mary Magdalene, a female disciple of the Lord (who, afraid because of the Jews since they were inflamed with anger, had not done at the tomb of the Lord what women were accustomed to do for the dead beloved by them), having taken with her women friends, came to the tomb where he had been placed. And they were afraid lest the Jews should see them and were saying, 'If indeed on that day on which he was crucified we could not weep and beat ourselves, yet now at his tomb we may do these things. But who will roll away for us even the stone placed against the door of the tomb in order that, having entered, we may sit beside him and do the expected things? For the stone was large, and we were afraid lest anyone see us. And if we are unable, let is throw against the door what we bring in memory of him; let us weep and beat ourselves until we come to our homes.' And having gone off, they found the sepulcher opened. And having come forward, they bent down there and saw there a certain young man seated in the middle of the sepulcher, comely and clothed with a splendid robe, who said to them: 'Why have you come? Whom do you seek? Not that one who was crucified? He is risen and gone away. But if you do not believe, bend down and see the place where he lay, because he is not here. For he is risen and gone away to there whence he was sent.' Then the women fled frightened.

Now it was the final day of the Unleavened Bread; and many went out returning to their home since the feast was over. But we twelve disciples of the Lord were weeping and sorrowful; and each one, sorrowful because of what had come to pass, departed to his home. But I, Simon Peter, and my brother Andrew, having taken our nets, went off to the sea. And there was with us Levi of Alphaeus whom the Lord ...
And straightway in the morning the chief priests with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering saith unto him, Thou sayest. And the chief priests accused him of many things. And Pilate again asked him, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they accuse thee of. But Jesus no more answered anything; insomuch that Pilate marvelled.

Now at the feast he used to release unto them one prisoner, whom they asked of him. And there was one called Barabbas, lying bound with them that had made insurrection, men who in the insurrection had committed murder. And the multitude went up and began to ask him to do as he was wont to do unto them. And Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews? For he perceived that for envy the chief priests had delivered him up. But the chief priests stirred up the multitude, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them. And Pilate again answered and said unto them, What then shall I do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews? And they cried out again, Crucify him. And Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out exceedingly, Crucify him. And Pilate, wishing to content the multitude, released unto them Barabbas, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.

And the soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they call together the whole band. And they clothe him with purple, and platting a crown of thorns, they put it on him; and they began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews! And they smote his head with a reed, and spat upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him. And when they had mocked him, they took off from him the purple, and put on him his garments. And they lead him out to crucify him. And they compel one passing by, Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. And they offered him wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not. And they crucify him, and part his garments among them, casting lots upon them, what each should take. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. And the superscription of his accusation was written over, the King of the Jews. And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ha! thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself, and come down from the cross. In like manner also the chief priests mocking him among themselves with the scribes said, He saved others; himself he cannot save. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reproached him.

And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elijah. And one ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let be; let us see whether Elijah cometh to take him down. And Jesus uttered a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. And the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top to the bottom. And when the centurion, who stood by over against him, saw that he so gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God. And there were also women beholding from afar: among whom were both Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; who, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him; and many other women that came up with him unto Jerusalem.

And when even was now come, because it was the Preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, there came Joseph of Arimathaea, a councillor of honorable estate, who also himself was looking for the kingdom of God; and he boldly went in unto Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. And when he learned it of the centurion, he granted the corpse to Joseph. 46 And he bought a linen cloth, and taking him down, wound him in the linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb which had been hewn out of a rock; and he rolled a stone against the door of the tomb. And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.

And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. And very early on the first day of the week, they come to the tomb when the sun was risen. And they were saying among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the tomb? and looking up, they see that the stone is rolled back: for it was exceeding great. And entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, arrayed in a white robe; and they were amazed. And he saith unto them, Be not amazed: ye seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who hath been crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold, the place where they laid him! But go, tell his disciples and Peter, He goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. And they went out, and fled from the tomb; for trembling and astonishment had come upon them: and they said nothing to any one; for they were afraid.

Now when he was risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons. She went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. And they, when they heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, disbelieved. And after these things he was manifested in another form unto two of them, as they walked, on their way into the country. And they went away and told it unto the rest: neither believed they them. And afterward he was manifested unto the eleven themselves as they sat at meat; and he upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them that had seen him after he was risen. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to the whole creation. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that disbelieveth shall be condemned. And these signs shall accompany them that believe: in my name shall they cast out demons; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall in no wise hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken unto them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. And they went forth, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word by the signs that followed. Amen.
Now when morning was come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: and they bound him, and led him away, and delivered him up to Pilate the governor.

Then Judas, who betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood. But they said, What is that to us? see thou to it. And he cast down the pieces of silver into the sanctuary, and departed; and he went away and hanged himself. And the chief priests took the pieces of silver, and said, It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood. And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in. Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was priced, whom certain of the children of Israel did price; and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord appointed me.

Now Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest. And when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. Then saith Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? And he gave him no answer, not even to one word: insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly. Now at the feast the governor was wont to release unto the multitude one prisoner, whom they would. And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ? For he knew that for envy they had delivered him up. And while he was sitting on the judgment-seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that righteous man; for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the multitudes that they should ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. But the governor answered and said unto them, Which of the two will ye that I release unto you? And they said, Barabbas. Pilate saith unto them, What then shall I do unto Jesus who is called Christ? They all say, Let him be crucified. And he said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out exceedingly, saying, Let him be crucified. So when Pilate saw that he prevailed nothing, but rather that a tumult was arising, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this righteous man; see ye to it. And all the people answered and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. Then released he unto them Barabbas; but Jesus he scourged and delivered to be crucified.

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered unto him the whole band. And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe. And they platted a crown of thorns and put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! And they spat upon him, and took the reed and smote him on the head. And when they had mocked him, they took off from him the robe, and put on him his garments, and led him away to crucify him.

And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to go with them, that he might bear his cross. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, The place of a skull, they gave him wine to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted it, he would not drink. And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments among them, casting lots; and they sat and watched him there. And they set up over his head his accusation written, This is Jesus the King of the Jews. Then are there crucified with him two robbers, one on the right hand and one on the left. And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself: if thou art the Son of God, come down from the cross. In like manner also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others; himself he cannot save. He is the King of Israel; let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe on him. He trusteth on God; let him deliver him now, if he desireth him: for he said, I am the Son of God. And the robbers also that were crucified with him cast upon him the same reproach.

Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? And some of them that stood there, when they heard it, said, This man calleth Elijah. And straightway one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. And the rest said, Let be; let us see whether Elijah cometh to save him. And Jesus cried again with a loud voice, and yielded up his spirit. And behold, the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake; and the rocks were rent; and the tombs were opened; and many bodies of the saints that had fallen asleep were raised; and coming forth out of the tombs after his resurrection they entered into the holy city and appeared unto many. Now the centurion, and they that were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God. And many women were there beholding from afar, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

And when even was come, there came a rich man from Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple: this man went to Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded it to be given up. And Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed. And Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre.

Now on the morrow, which is the day after the Preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said while he was yet alive, After three days I rise again. Command therefore that the sepulchre made sure until the third day, lest haply his disciples come and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: and the last error will be worse than the first. Pilate said unto them, Ye have a guard: go, make it as sure as ye can. So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, the guard being with them.

Now late on the sabbath day, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled away the stone, and sat upon it. His appearance was as lightning, and his raiment white as snow: and for fear of him the watchers did quake, and became as dead men. And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye; for I know that ye seek Jesus, who hath been crucified. He is not here; for he is risen, even as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go quickly, and tell his disciples, He is risen from the dead; and lo, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you. And they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to bring his disciples word. And behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and took hold of his feet, and worshipped him. Then saith Jesus unto them, Fear not: go tell my brethren that they depart into Galilee, and there shall they see me.

Now while they were going, behold, some of the guard came into the city, and told unto the chief priests all the things that were come to pass. And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave much money unto the soldiers, saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. And if this come to the governor’s ears, we will persuade him, and rid you of care. So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying was spread abroad among the Jews, and continueth until this day.

But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, unto the mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him, they worshipped him; but some doubted. And Jesus came to them and spake unto them, saying, All authority hath been given unto me in heaven and on earth. Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded you: and lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world.
And the whole company of them rose up, and brought him before Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ a king. And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, Thou sayest. And Pilate said unto the chief priests and the multitudes, I find no fault in this man. But they were the more urgent, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Judaea, and beginning from Galilee even unto this place.

But when Pilate heard it, he asked whether the man were a Galilaean. And when he knew that he was of Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him unto Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem in these days. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was of a long time desirous to see him, because he had heard concerning him; and he hoped to see some miracle done by him. And he questioned him in many words; but he answered him nothing. And the chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. And Herod with his soldiers set him at nought, and mocked him, and arraying him in gorgeous apparel sent him back to Pilate. And Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day: for before they were at enmity between themselves. And Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, and said unto them, Ye brought unto me this man, as one that perverteth the people: and behold, I, having examined him before you, found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him: no, nor yet Herod: for he sent him back unto us; and behold, nothing worthy of death hath been done by him. I will therefore chastise him, and release him.

But they cried out all together, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas:— one who for a certain insurrection made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison. And Pilate spake unto them again, desiring to release Jesus; but they shouted, saying, Crucify, crucify him. And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath this man done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him and release him. But they were urgent with loud voices, asking that he might be crucified. And their voices prevailed. And Pilate gave sentence that what they asked for should be done. And he released him that for insurrection and murder had been cast into prison, whom they asked for; but Jesus he delivered up to their will.

And when they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, and laid on him the cross, to bear it after Jesus. And there followed him a great multitude of the people, and of women who bewailed and lamented him. But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For behold, the days are coming, in which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the breasts that never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do these things in the green tree, what shall be done in the dry? And there were also two others, malefactors, led with him to be put to death. And when they came unto the place which is called The skull, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand and the other on the left. And Jesus said, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And parting his garments among them, they cast lots. And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also scoffed at him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if this is the Christ of God, his chosen. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, offering him vinegar, and saying, If thou art the King of the Jews, save thyself. And there was also a superscription over him, This is the King of the Jews. And one of the malefactors that were hanged railed on him, saying, Art not thou the Christ? save thyself and us. But the other answered, and rebuking him said, Dost thou not even fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said, Jesus, remember me when thou comest in thy kingdom. And he said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise.

And it was now about the sixth hour, and a darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour, the sun’s light failing: and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said this, he gave up the ghost. And when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man. And all the multitudes that came together to this sight, when they beheld the things that were done, returned smiting their breasts. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed with him from Galilee, stood afar off, seeing these things.

And behold, a man named Joseph, who was a councillor, a good and righteous man (he had not consented to their counsel and deed), a man of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews, who was looking for the kingdom of God: this man went to Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb that was hewn in stone, where never man had yet lain. And it was the day of the Preparation, and the sabbath drew on. And the women, who had come with him out of Galilee, followed after, and beheld the tomb, and how his body was laid. And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments. And on the sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they came unto the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared. And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb. And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus. And it came to pass, while they were perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel: and as they were affrighted and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, saying that the Son of man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. And they remembered his words, and returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. Now they were Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James: and the other women with them told these things unto the apostles. And these words appeared in their sight as idle talk; and they disbelieved them. But Peter arose, and ran unto the tomb; and stooping and looking in, he seeth the linen cloths by themselves; and he departed to his home, wondering at that which was come to pass.

And behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was threescore furlongs from Jerusalem. And they communed with each other of all these things which had happened. And it came to pass, while they communed and questioned together, that Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. But their eyes were holden that they should not know him. And he said unto them, What communications are these that ye have one with another, as ye walk? And they stood still, looking sad. And one of them, named Cleopas, answering said unto him, Dost thou alone sojourn in Jerusalem and not know the things which are come to pass there in these days? And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we hoped that it was he who should redeem Israel. Yea and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things came to pass. Moreover certain women of our company amazed us, having been early at the tomb; and when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. And certain of them that were with us went to the tomb, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not. And he said unto them, O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Behooved it not the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they were going: and he made as though he would go further. And they constrained him, saying, Abide with us; for it is toward evening, and the day is now far spent. And he went in to abide with them. And it came to pass, when he had sat down with them to meat, he took the bread and blessed; and breaking it he gave to them. And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight. And they said one to another, Was not our heart burning within us, while he spake to us in the way, while he opened to us the scriptures? And they rose up that very hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them, saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. And they rehearsed the things that happened in the way, and how he was known of them in the breaking of the bread.

And as they spake these things, he himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they beheld a spirit. And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and wherefore do questionings arise in your heart? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye behold me having. And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. And while they still disbelieved for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here anything to eat? And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish. And he took it, and ate before them. And he said unto them, These are my words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must needs be fulfilled, which are written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. Then opened he their mind, that they might understand the scriptures; and he said unto them, Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer, and rise again from the dead the third day; and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name unto all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem. Ye are witnesses of these things. And behold, I send forth the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city, until ye be clothed with power from on high.

And he led them out until they were over against Bethany: and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven. And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy: and were continually in the temple, blessing God.
Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and arrayed him in a purple garment; and they came unto him, and said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they struck him with their hands. And Pilate went out again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him out to you, that ye may know that I find no crime in him. Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold, the man! When therefore the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him! Pilate saith unto them, Take him yourselves, and crucify him: for I find no crime in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God. When Pilate therefore heard this saying, he was the more afraid; and he entered into the Praetorium again, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. Pilate therefore saith unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to release thee, and have power to crucify thee? Jesus answered him, Thou wouldest have no power against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath greater sin. Upon this Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou release this man, thou art not Caesar’s friend: every one that maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar. When Pilate therefore heard these words, he brought Jesus out, and sat down on the judgment-seat at a place called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. Now it was the Preparation of the passover: it was about the sixth hour. And he saith unto the Jews, Behold, your King! They therefore cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him! Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar. Then therefore he delivered him unto them to be crucified.

They took Jesus therefore: and he went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha: where they crucified him, and with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. And Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. And there was written, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews. This title therefore read many of the Jews, for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city; and it was written in Hebrew, and in Latin, and in Greek. The chief priests of the Jews therefore said to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but, that he said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate answered, What I have written I have written. The soldiers therefore, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also the coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore one to another, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my garments among them, And upon my vesture did they cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did. But there were standing by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold, thy son! Then saith he to the disciple, Behold, thy mother! And from that hour the disciple took her unto his own home.

After this Jesus, knowing that all things are now finished, that the scripture might be accomplished, saith, I thirst. There was set there a vessel full of vinegar: so they put a sponge full of the vinegar upon hyssop, and brought it to his mouth. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit. The Jews therefore, because it was the Preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross upon the sabbath (for the day of that sabbath was a high day), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. The soldiers therefore came, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him: but when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: howbeit one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and straightway there came out blood and water. And he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye also may believe. For these things came to pass, that the scripture might be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

And after these things Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, asked of Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took away his body. And there came also Nicodemus, he who at the first came to him by night, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds. So they took the body of Jesus, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new tomb wherein was never man yet laid. There then because of the Jews’ Preparation (for the tomb was nigh at hand) they laid Jesus.

Now on the first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, while it was yet dark, unto the tomb, and seeth the stone taken away from the tomb. She runneth therefore, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we know not where they have laid him. Peter therefore went forth, and the other disciple, and they went toward the tomb. And they ran both together: and the other disciple outran Peter, and came first to the tomb; and stooping and looking in, he seeth the linen cloths lying; yet entered he not in. Simon Peter therefore also cometh, following him, and entered into the tomb; and he beholdeth the linen cloths lying, and the napkin, that was upon his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. Then entered in therefore the other disciple also, who came first to the tomb, and he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. So the disciples went away again unto their own home.

But Mary was standing without at the tomb weeping: so, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb; and she beholdeth two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him. When she had thus said, she turned herself back, and beholdeth Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turneth herself, and saith unto him in Hebrew, Rabboni; which is to say, Teacher. Jesus saith to her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended unto the Father: but go unto my brethren, and say to them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and my God and your God. Mary Magdalene cometh and telleth the disciples, I have seen the Lord; and that he had said these things unto her.

When therefore it was evening, on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. And when he had said this, he showed unto them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad, when they saw the Lord. Jesus therefore said to them again, Peace be unto you: as the Father hath sent me, even so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit: whose soever sins ye forgive, they are forgiven unto them; whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe. And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them. Jesus cometh, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and see my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and put it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing. Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. Jesus saith unto him, Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.

Many other signs therefore did Jesus in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book: but these are written, that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye may have life in his name.

After these things Jesus manifested himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and he manifested himself on this wise. There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also come with thee. They went forth, and entered into the boat; and that night they took nothing. But when day was now breaking, Jesus stood on the beach: yet the disciples knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus therefore saith unto them, Children, have ye aught to eat? They answered him, No. And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes. That disciple therefore whom Jesus loved saith unto Peter, It is the Lord. So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt his coat about him (for he was naked), and cast himself into the sea. But the other disciples came in the little boat (for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits off), dragging the net full of fishes. So when they got out upon the land, they see a fire of coals there, and fish laid thereon, and bread. Jesus saith unto them, Bring of the fish which ye have now taken. Simon Peter therefore went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fishes, a hundred and fifty and three: and for all there were so many, the net was not rent. Jesus saith unto them, Come and break your fast. And none of the disciples durst inquire of him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord. Jesus cometh, and taketh the bread, and giveth them, and the fish likewise. This is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to the disciples, after that he was risen from the dead.

So when they had broken their fast, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of John, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs. He saith to him again a second time, Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Tend my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither thou wouldest not. Now this he spake, signifying by what manner of death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me.

Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; who also leaned back on his breast at the supper, and said, Lord, who is he that betrayeth thee? Peter therefore seeing him saith to Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do? Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? follow thou me. This saying therefore went forth among the brethren, that that disciple should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, that he should not die; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? This is the disciple that beareth witness of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his witness is true. And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself would not contain the books that should be written.

Peter is consistent with John's timeline of Jesus's death being before Passover (Nissan 14), whereas the Synoptics and Marcion, have it on the first day, (Nissan 15). John also seems to have an account similar to the end of Peter. Simon Peter and some of the disciples go fishing on Galilee; Jesus has resurrected, but he hasn't shown himself, and the women haven't told them. The thing with Peter is that this take place over the course of the entire Passover. It's the last day, and to the disciples there's still no sign of Jesus's return. John closes this gap by adding in the detail that Jesus had shown himself by this point a couple of times already, and even goes so far as to put Peter in the tomb to see for himself that Jesus isn't there.

A possible convergence Peter, Luke/Marcion, and John potentially share is the two angles that appear. In Peter this occurs on the night of the Sabbath, where we actually see Jesus being resurrected out of the tomb--a feature that none of the other Gospels share--and is being helped by two angels whose heads reach to the sky. The centurions keeping guard go and tell Pilate, who orders them to not tell anyone--a trait shared with Matthew. On this level, only Peter and Mark line up perfectly. In both texts, when the women arrive the stone has already rolled away, they go in and find a young man in white/splendid robes who tells them that Jesus has risen, to which the women flee. In Mark it makes a point to say that they didn't tell anyone, while in Peter it's implied they didn't tell anyone as it's been a couple days and the disciples are still mourning. Matthew stands alone on this, as it describes the women arriving, there's an earth quack and the stone rolls away and an angel descends to tell them Jesus has risen. At best that appears to be a fusion of the resurrection and scene and the empty tomb scene from Peter, in which case, Peter would have priority. Peter and Mark are so similar on the empty tomb that there is common source for both.

Peter also has Pilate and Herod share some text space together, something only found in Luke/Marcion which goes so far as to say they became friends. This goes against Mark and Matthew who seem to have a hatred for Herod and a priority for John the Baptist. Peter also describes Joseph of Arimethae as being a friend to both Jesus and Pilate. Matthew and John calls him a disciple of Jesus, Luke says he's a member of the council of priests/Sanhedrin,

Roughly, Peter follows the same line of events as the other five texts, with two exceptions. For Peter it's the scene of the resurrection, the angels, the cross, and the guards. For Matthew it's the death of Judas. Matthew is the only Gospel to describe Judas's fate. A problem here is that it is contradicted by Papias of Hierapolis. Apologists try to argue that Papias was conflating Matthew and Acts of the Apostles, but Papias didn't have Acts of the Apostles, and only knew of texts attributed to Mark and Matthew. That puts the priority of Matthew into question, and sets Peter up in a good position to over take it.

Besides those differences, Peter also doesn't have the Barabbas or the Simon of Cyrene episodes. All the Gospels have Barabbas, but only the Synoptics have Simon of Cyrene. John, for whatever reason, either didn't know of Simon, or didn't feel it vital for his text. Considering how later Gnostics like the Basilideans, and texts like Acts of John, maintained that Jesus didn't suffer on the cross in actuality, could have been motivation for annexing Simon.

So the topic of this thread. Does Gospel of Peter have priority?

The short answer is, I don't know. The Gospel of Peter shares material from all of the Gospels, however, while there are enough differences that prevent it from being a Synoptic, what similarities there are prevent it from being a Diatessaronic text. There's evidence of a common source between it and Mark, Matthew and Luke, but John, at least John 21, seems to be aware of this text and is rewriting it.

There's also the issue of it's first person narration. This gives the impressions that was either written by Peter or dictated by him. Luke 1:1-4, and John 21:24-25 are in a similar vain, but there the motive is given. Too much of the Gospel of Peter is missing to understand what the motive was

There's also 2 Clement 5:2-4, but I'm not sure what to make of that. Before I was sure that this was a part of Peter, but I'll hold off until further notice.

Anyway, that's about it.

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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by perseusomega9 » Tue Mar 17, 2020 12:03 pm

you should read Crossan's The Cross That Spoke if you haven't already. He doesn't argue for gPeter primacy, but he does argue for a 'Cross Gospel' narrative that gPeter preserve parts of. This Cross Gospel is more primitive than the passion-resurrection narratives of the canonical gospels and itself is based on 'Resurrection Catenae' put together from OT passages (e.g. Psalm 22).

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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by Joseph D. L. » Tue Mar 17, 2020 2:04 pm

perseusomega9 wrote:
Tue Mar 17, 2020 12:03 pm
you should read Crossan's The Cross That Spoke if you haven't already. He doesn't argue for gPeter primacy, but he does argue for a 'Cross Gospel' narrative that gPeter preserve parts of. This Cross Gospel is more primitive than the passion-resurrection narratives of the canonical gospels and itself is based on 'Resurrection Catenae' put together from OT passages (e.g. Psalm 22).
I haven't read anything by Crossan. I'll put it on the list as I've recently became obsessed with Peter.

As far as sources go, I think a simpler solution is that Peter has some version of Revelation that keeps the original meaning of chapter 6:

And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder, Come. And I saw, and behold, a white horse, and he that sat thereon had a bow; and there was given unto him a crown: and he came forth conquering, and to conquer.

And when he opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, Come. And another horse came forth, a red horse: and to him that sat thereon it was given to take peace from the earth, and that they should slay one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

And when he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, Come. And I saw, and behold, a black horse; and he that sat thereon had a balance in his hand. And I heard as it were a voice in the midst of the four living creatures saying, A measure of wheat for a shilling, and three measures of barley for a shilling; and the oil and the wine hurt thou not.

And when he opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, Come. And I saw, and behold, a pale horse: and he that sat upon him, his name was Death; and Hades followed with him. And there was given unto them authority over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with famine, and with death, and by the wild beasts of the earth.

And when he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of them that had been slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: and they cried with a great voice, saying, How long, O Master, the holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? And there was given them to each one a white robe; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little time, until their fellow-servants also and their brethren, who should be killed even as they were, should have fulfilled their course.

And I saw when he opened the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the whole moon became as blood; and the stars of the heaven fell unto the earth, as a fig tree casteth her unripe figs when she is shaken of a great wind. And the heaven was removed as a scroll when it is rolled up; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. And the kings of the earth, and the princes, and the chief captains, and the rich, and the strong, and every bondman and freeman, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains; and they say to the mountains and to the rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: for the great day of their wrath is come; and who is able to stand?

Peter keeps all of this. The darkness, the earthquake, which might a mistalnslation; the recognition that this as a sign of God; even the seven seals. It's all there.

This is why in every account of the crucifixion there is a darkness and a shaking. The darkness is the eclipse. The shaking is the sky. The word for this shaking is σεισμὸν, seismos. The reason why I think earthquake is a mistranslation is that in in Revelation, Peter and Matthew the context indicates that that this is a shaking in the sky.

Ὁ δὲ ἑκατόνταρχος καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ τηροῦντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἰδόντες τὸν σεισμὸν καὶ τὰ γενόμενα* ἐφοβήθησαν σφόδρα λέγοντες Ἀληθῶς Θεοῦ Υἱὸς ἦν οὗτος

Now the centurion, and they that were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, Truly this was [v]the Son of God.

The σεισμὸν, seismos, is in the sky, which unfolds like a scroll during an eclipse. Indeed, the "sixth hour" could just be an allusion to the sixth seal of Revelation 6:12. Later historians would try to explain the darkness as an eclipse, and the earliest manuscripts of Luke 23:45 outright calls it an eclipse.

So that's my assumption right now. I'll see about reading Crossan's book on google books. (Trying to save money).

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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by Joseph D. L. » Tue Mar 17, 2020 5:12 pm

Messing around Microsoft Paint. Created this, hopefully, helpful timeline:

Image

Mark and Luke share so little material that I don't see Luke using it.

I am also granting Gospel of the Lord as having priority over Luke, but even this Gospel has some major problems of its own. There are too many instances where this text contradicts Marcion's theology, and when taken together with the Apostolikon, this text falls apart. Either the Catholic church is grasping at straws to create their timeline, or Gospel of the Lord comes after Marcion.

The date range for Peter and John is massive, and the possibility for later interpolations and redactions has to be taken into account. Peter connects the disciples role with the Temple destruction, but tries to mitigate it as if it's doing damage control. John directly links the destruction of the Temple with Jesus. This actually conforms to Hegesippus/Josephus linking the Temple destruction as punishment for the death of James and Ananias. Origen also states that Peter belonged the eastern tradition of Jesus's familial relations.

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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by Joseph D. L. » Wed Mar 18, 2020 7:23 pm

@perseusomega9

I was reading Crossan's book you recommended on google books, but part way through (around page 40) it started becoming restricted and pages were cut out. I guess I'm going to have to breakdown and just buy it! lol

One thing he mentioned that I was able to read, that I didn't even notice before, is Joseph asking to be allowed to bury Jesus occurring before the crucifixion rather than after it, got me thinking a bit.

Besides Herod telling Pilate that Jewish custom must be honoured, and probably one other line, "And they fulfilled all things and completed the sins on their own head.", there is no invoking of scripture or the prophets in Gospel of Peter. This opposes John, which makes four invocations, " This was to fulfill the Scripture which says, “They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots.”, After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), “I thirst.”, For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken.” And again another Scripture says, “They will look on him whom they have pierced.” Matthew has one invocation, but I've explained above why this passage is likely an interpolation.

The Gospel of Peter seems lax on references to the Old Testament and is not preoccupied with Jesus fulfilling scripture. Whether this would carry over to the entirety of the text is a mystery. If this Gospel was used by early Montanists then that could narrow down the references to Old Testament prophecies, as they were interested in new prophecies.

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Re: The Power of Elijah

Post by Joseph D. L. » Thu Mar 19, 2020 1:31 am

One thing that has always bothered me is why the Jews heard Jesus call out to Elijah from the cross.

And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” And some of the bystanders hearing it said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah.”


And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” And some of the bystanders, hearing it, said, “This man is calling Elijah.”

I have read attempts to explain this linguistically and mockingly and a satisfying answer is not forthcoming. I've even read apologists say that this proves the historicity of the Gospels, as it shows that the Jews misheard Jesus and thus were not simply creations of the writers.

But I'm going to make the quantum leap into pure speculative territory here, where tridimensional logic no longer applies. So bear with me. I think the Gospel of Peter might hold the answer.

επεσαντο. Και ο κυριος ανεβονσε λεγων Η δψναμιχ μοψ, η δψναμιχ, κατελειψαχ με και ειπων ανεληφθη και αυτος.

kai o kuriov anebohse legwn, H dunamiv mou, h dunamiv, kateleiyav me, kai eipwn anelhfqh.

And the Lord screamed out, saying: 'My power, O power, you have forsaken me.' And having said this, he was taken up.

Mark and Matthew use the expression δύναμις when Jesus performs his miracles. Both uses it exactly ten times.

Luke on the other hand, only uses it twice.

And he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God, and he will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready for the Lord a people prepared.”


And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy—the Son of God.

Luke/Marcion also connects John, Jesus and Elijah together, in a roundabout way:

Now Herod the tetrarch heard about all that was happening, and he was perplexed, because it was said by some that John had been raised from the dead, by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the prophets of old had risen.Herod said, “John I beheaded, but who is this about whom I hear such things?” And he sought to see him

Luke 1:17 explicitly connects δύναμις, Elijah, and John the Baptist together. Luke/Marcion Also makes Jesus out to be John resurrected also keeps the Herod/Pilate relationship from Gospel of Peter, but doesn't add the cries of Jesus from the cross, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?, in favour of Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!, which means the Jews can't mistake or misinterpret this as cries to Elijah. Indeed, the last words of Jesus in Marcion, seem like a perfect harmony of the last words he speaks on the cross in Peter and John.

So why is his last words in Mark and Matthew different? And why do the Jews interpret it as Elijah? The answer is determined by how important John the Baptist is to the evangelists.

John the Baptist is intrinsically linked to Elijah in the Synoptics. Yet John outright denies this association.

And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” And he answered, “No.” So they said to him, “Who are you? We need to give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?” He said, “I am the voice of one crying out in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of the Lord,’ as the prophet Isaiah said.”

(Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.) They asked him, “Then why are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?” John answered them, “I baptize with water, but among you stands one you do not know, even he who comes after me, the strap of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.” These things took place in Bethany across the Jordan, where John was baptizing.

Then why is John the Baptist called Elijah in Mark and Matthew? If Gospel of Peter has priority over them could John the Baptist be important to him?

Let's break it down.

Peter
John
Marcion
Mark
Matthew
John the Baptist ElijahUnknownNoOnly after deathYesYes
John Baptizes JesusUnknownNoNoYesYes
Importance of John the BaptistUnknownVeryNeutralVeryVery
Fate of John the BaptistUnknownImprisoned. Death not mentionedBeheadedBeheadedBeheaded
Herod and PilateMutualHerod not present at trialFriendsHeord not present at trialHeord not present at trial
Demand Jesus's deathHerod/JewsJewsJewsJewsJews
Jesus's last words on the cross"My power, O power, you have forsaken me.""It is finished""Father into your hands I commend my spirit"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?""Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?" "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
Those responsible for killing Jesus misunderstand his final wordsNoNoNoAnd some of the bystanders hearing it said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah.” And some of the bystanders, hearing it, said, “This man is calling Elijah.”

Image

As you can see, the higher John the Baptist's priority goes up, so too goes up the Jews misunderstanding Jesus's last words as Elijah. John the Baptis is important to John, but rejects him being called Elijah and after a certain point John leaves off John the Baptist and only mentions his fate in a line that looks like a later insertion. Luke/Marcion only make John out to be Elijah after his death, but this is also tied with a belief that Jesus is John resurrected from the dead. Where do that leave Peter?

It is probable that John the Baptist would not be in Peter, or alternatively, Jesus and John were the same individual in Peter. This would explain Mark and Matthew almost reiterating Jesus's last words from Peter, while also having the Jews mistake it for Elijah.

At the tail end of this chain, Luke 1, right out of the gate is already is trying hard to reconcile Jesus and John, gong so far as to make them cousins, and giving John the power, δύναμις, of Elijah.

Marcion would thus be a harmonization of Peter and John. John's role is limited, yet his post-death role is increased. Mark would be a redaction of Peter and Marcion, but increase the status of John the Bapist because of the Elijah equation after John's death. Matthew would be a harmony of Peter, Mark and John, but against Marcion. The evil of the Herodians are amped up so much that it has Herod the Great go on an infanticidal rage to prevent Jesus from growing up. By this point Herod and Pilate are on opposite ends of the theological spectrum.

So when the Jews say Jesus is calling out to Elijah, that was by design, and an attempt to reconcile John and Jesus, when originally they were one and the same.

perseusomega9
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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by perseusomega9 » Thu Mar 19, 2020 7:58 am

Power is a circumlocution for God. Combined with saying King of Israel instead of King of the Jews puts gPeter closer to Christianity's Palestinian roots.

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Joseph D. L.
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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by Joseph D. L. » Thu Mar 19, 2020 4:51 pm

perseusomega9 wrote:
Thu Mar 19, 2020 7:58 am
Power is a circumlocution for God. Combined with saying King of Israel instead of King of the Jews puts gPeter closer to Christianity's Palestinian roots.
I don't know. I think it's a similar idea to the Angel in Exodus who possess the name of God, or Simon Magus having the Power, εξουσία, of God.

Right now I'm leaning towards the text being used by Montanists, and possibly Cerinthians, although there is a technical snafu that I haven't been able to work around.

This is all theoretical and hypothetical. Just trying to see what can work and what can't.

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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by lsayre » Fri Mar 20, 2020 2:18 am

Joseph D. L. wrote:
Thu Mar 19, 2020 4:51 pm
Right now I'm leaning towards the text being used by Montanists, and possibly Cerinthians, although there is a technical snafu that I haven't been able to work around.
Do tell as to the technical snafu. I was beginning to be sold on this having a level of validity, and then this....

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Joseph D. L.
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Re: Establishing Peter's Priority

Post by Joseph D. L. » Fri Mar 20, 2020 4:10 am

lsayre wrote:
Fri Mar 20, 2020 2:18 am
Joseph D. L. wrote:
Thu Mar 19, 2020 4:51 pm
Right now I'm leaning towards the text being used by Montanists, and possibly Cerinthians, although there is a technical snafu that I haven't been able to work around.
Do tell as to the technical snafu. I was beginning to be sold on this having a level of validity, and then this....
The snafu, as it were, is Cerinthus. Origen wrote that Gospel of Peter, along with some Book of James, which sounds like Protoevangelium of James, or Gospel of the Hebrews (and Cerinthus is said to use a book similar to the latter) both held that Jesus's brothers and sisters were from a previous marriage of Joseph's. This was to maintain the tradition that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was and forever is, a virgin. The problem is that Cerinthus rejected the virgin birth and held Jesus to be Joseph and Mary's child directly, through sex.

I've tried to brainstorm different ways that this could work, as Cerinthus using this Gospel would prove something I've held for a long time--that Cerinthus was Cephas--but have come up with nothing yet that is convincing, and it's just too easy to dismiss what Irenaeus and Epiphanius say because it's an inconvenience to my theory. Now I did think that maybe this was a later tradition that was attached to him, as Papias seems to hold views similar to Cerinthus, yet says Jesus's brothers were actually cousins of his. But that isn't addressing Cerinthus denying the virgin birth. Then I thought maybe Cerinthus denied the virgin birth because it hadn't come about yet? But then that wouldn't explain Origen's comments about Gospel of Peter. So then I thought, well maybe Origen is just taking Peter together with Book of James and it doesn't actually say that? Origen isn't above fudging things to make it fit. But again, that's too easy.

I'm working through every permutation I can think of, even though right now I'm at an impasse with Cerinthus.

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