Context and Textual Parallels
(the two ways).
26 ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ δίδωμι ἐνώπιον ὑμῶν σήμερον εὐλογίαν καὶ κατάραν, 27 τὴν εὐλογίαν ἐὰν ἀκούσητε τὰς ἐντολὰς κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ ὑμῶν ἃς ἐγὼ ἐντέλλομαι ὑμῖν σήμερον, 28 καὶ τὰς κατάρας ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσητε τὰς ἐντολὰς κυρίου τοῦ θεοῦ ὑμῶν ὅσας ἐγὼ ἐντέλλομαι ὑμῖν σήμερον καὶ πλανηθῆτε ἀπὸ τῆς ὁδοῦ ἧς ἐνετειλάμην ὑμῖν πορευθέντες λατρεύειν θεοῖς ἑτέροις οὓς οὐκ οἴδατε. / 26 "See, I am setting before you today a blessing and a curse: 27 the blessing, if you listen to the commandments of the Lord your God, which I am commanding you today; 28 and the curse, if you do not listen to the commandments of the Lord your God, but turn aside from the way which I am commanding you today, by following other gods which you have not known."
(the two ways fragment
Epistle of Barnabas 18-20
(the two ways section
(love God and neighbor).
Matthew 22.34-40 = Mark 12.28-34 = Luke 10.25-29
(the greatest commandment).
(the golden rule).
Matthew 7.12 = Luke 6.31
(the golden rule).
Thomas 6.2-3: ⲡⲉϫⲉ <ⲓⲥ> ϫⲉ ⲙ̅ⲡⲣ̅ϫⲉ ϭⲟⲗ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲉⲧⲉⲧⲙ̅ⲙⲟⲥⲧⲉ ⲙ̅ⲙⲟϥ' ⲙ̅ⲡⲣ̅ⲁⲁϥ
/ λέγει Ἰη(σοῦ)ς· [μὴ ψεύδεσθε καὶ ὃτι μισ]εῖται μὴ ποιεῖτ̣[ε.] / Jesus said, "Do not tell lies, and do not do what you hate." [Download the New Athena Unicode font
to view Coptic.]
(love your enemies, better than sinners).
Matthew 5.43-47 = Luke 6.27-28, 32-35
(love your enemies, better than sinners).
Ignatius to Polycarp 2.1:
1. Καλοὺς μαθητὰς ἐὰν φιλῇς, χάρις σοι οὐκ ἔστιν· μᾶλλον τοὺς λοιμοτέρους ἐν πραότητι ὑπότασσε. οὐ πᾶν τραῦμα τῇ αὐτῇ ἐμπλάστρῳ θεραπεύεται. τοὺς παροξυσμοὺς ἐμβροχαῖς παῦε. / If thou lovest the good disciples, no thanks are due to thee on that account; but rather seek by meekness to subdue the more troublesome. Every kind of wound is not healed with the same plaster. Mitigate violent attacks [of disease] by gentle applications.
Polycarp to the Philippians 12.3:
3 Pro omnibus sanctis orate. Orate etiam pro regibus et potestatibus et principibus atque pro persequentibus et odientibus vos et pro inimicis crucis, ut fructus vester manifestus sit in omnibus, ut sitis in illo perfecti.
/ 3 Pray for all the saints. Pray also for kings, and potentates, and princes, and for those that persecute and hate you, and for the enemies of the cross, that your fruit may be manifest to all, and that ye may be perfect in Him.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224, fragment 2 recto, column 1:
[... κ]α̣ὶ̣ π[ρ]οσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ [τῶν ἐχθ]ρ̣ῶν ὑμῶν· ὁ γὰρ μὴ ὢν [κατὰ ὑμ]ῶ̣ν ὑπερ ὑμῶν ἐστιν. [ὁ σήμερον ὢ]ν μακράν αὔριον [ἐγγὺς ὑμῶν γ]ενήσεται, καὶ ἐν [...] τοῦ ἀντιδί[κου ...]ι̣νενων̣[....] / [... a]nd p[r]ay for your [ene]mies; For the one who is not [against y]ou is for you. [The one who today i]s far away tomorrow [w]ill be [near you,] and in [...] the advers[ary ....]
2 Clement 13.4:
4. ὅταν ἀλλὰ χάρις ὑμῖν, εἰ ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς καὶ τοὺς μισοῦντας ὑμᾶς· ταῦτα ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν, θαυμάζουσιν τὴν ὑπερβολὴν τῆς ἀγαθότητος· ὅταν δὲ ἴδωσιν, ὅτι οὐ μόνον τοὺς μισοῦντας οὐκ ἀγαπῶμεν, ἀλλ’ ὅτι οὐδὲ τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας, καταγελῶσιν ἡμῶν, καὶ βλασφημεῖται τὸ ὄνομα. / For, whenever they hear from us that God saith, "No thank have ye, if ye love them which love you, but ye have thank, if ye love your enemies and them which hate you " --whenever they hear these words, they marvel at the surpassing measure of their goodness; but when they see, that not only do we not love those who hate, but that we love not even those who love, they laugh us to scorn, and the name is blasphemed.
(give without expectation).
Matthew 5.42 = Luke 6.30, 34-35
(give without expectation).
Thomas 95: 95. [ⲡⲉϫⲉ <ⲓⲥ> ϫⲉ] ⲉϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲛ̅ⲧⲏⲧⲛ̅ ϩⲟⲙⲧ' ⲙ̅ⲡⲣ̅ϯ ⲉⲧⲙⲏⲥⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ϯ [ⲙ̅ⲙⲟϥ] ⲙ̣̅ⲡⲉⲧ̣[ⲉ]ⲧⲛⲁϫⲓⲧⲟⲩ ⲁⲛ ⲛ̅ⲧⲟⲟⲧϥ'
/ 95. [Jesus said,] "If you have money, do not lend it at interest, but give [it] to one from whom you will not get it back." [Download the New Athena Unicode font
to view Coptic.]
1 Clement 2.1:
1 Πάντες τε ἐταπεινοφρονεῖτε μηδὲν ἀλαζονευόμενοι, ὑποτασσόμενοι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑποτάσσοντες, ἥδιον διδόντες ἢ λαμβάνοντες. τοῖς ἐφοδίοις τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἀρκούμενοι, καὶ προσέχοντες τοὺς λόγους αὐτοῦ ἐπιμελῶν ἐνεστερνισμένοι ἦτε τοῖς σπλάγχνοις, καὶ τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ἧν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν. / 1 Moreover, you were all distinguished by humility, and were in no respect puffed up with pride, but yielded obedience rather than extorted it, and were more willing to give than to receive? Content with the provision which God had made for you, and carefully attending to His words, you were inwardly filled with His doctrine, and His sufferings were before your eyes.
πάντα ὑπέδειξα ὑμῖν ὅτι οὕτως κοπιῶντας δεῖ ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι τῶν ἀσθενούντων, μνημονεύειν τε τῶν λόγων τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ ὅτι αὐτὸς εἶπεν· μακάριόν ἐστιν μᾶλλον διδόναι ἢ λαμβάνειν. / "In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive.'"
Shepherd of Hermas, Mandate 2.4:
4 ἔνδυσαι δὲ τὴν σεμνότητα, ἐν ᾗ οὐδὲν πρόσκομμά ἐστιν πονηρόν, ἀλλὰ πάντα ὁμαλὰ καὶ ἱλαρά. ἐργάζου τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ ἐκ τῶν κόπων σου ὧν ὁ θεὸς δίδωσίν σοι πᾶσιν ὑστερουμένοις δίδου ἁπλῶς, μὴ διστάζων, τίνι δῷς ἢ τίνι μὴ δῷς. πᾶσιν δίδου· πᾶσιν γάρ ὁ θεὸς δίδοσθαι θέλει ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων δωρημάτων. / 4 Put on a holiness in which there is no wicked cause of offence, but all deeds that are equable and joyful. Practise goodness; and from the rewards of your labours, which God gives you, give to all the needy in simplicity, not hesitating as to whom you are to give or not to give. Give to all, for God wishes His gifts to be shared amongst all.
(the last farthing).
Matthew 5.25-26 = Luke 12.57-59
(settle on the way).
(blessed the meek).
μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν. / "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth."
4 οὐ πορνεύσεις, οὐ μοιχεύσεις, οὐ παιδοφθορήσεις. οὐ μή σου ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐξέθῃ ἐν ἀκαθαρσίᾳ τινῶν. οὐ λήμωψῃ πρόσωπον ἐλέγξαι τινὰ ἐπὶ παραπτώματι. ἔσῃ πραΰς, ἔσῃ ἡσύχιος, ἔσῃ τρέμων τοὺς λόγους οὓς ἤκουσας, οὐ μνησικακήσεις τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου. / Thou shalt not commit fornication: thou shalt not commit adultery: thou shalt not be a corrupter of youth. Thou shalt not let the word of God issue from thy lips with any kind of impurity. Thou shalt not accept persons when thou reprovest any one for transgression. Thou shalt be meek: thou shalt be peaceable. Thou shalt tremble at the words which thou hearest. Thou shalt not be mindful of evil against thy brother.
Οἱ δὲ ἕνδεκα μαθηταὶ ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν εἰς τὸ ὄρος οὗ ἐτάξατο αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, 17 καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν προσεκύνησαν, οἱ δὲ ἐδίστασαν. 18 καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς λέγων· ἐδόθη μοι πᾶσα ἐξουσία ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ [τῆς] γῆς. 19 πορευθέντες οὖν μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, 20 διδάσκοντες αὐτοὺς τηρεῖν πάντα ὅσα ἐνετειλάμην ὑμῖν· καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ μεθ᾽ ὑμῶν εἰμι πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος. / But the eleven disciples proceeded to Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had designated. 17 And when they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some were doubtful. 18 And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age."
(prayer and fasting).
Matthew 6.9-13 = Luke 11.1-4
5 Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6 σὺ δὲ ὅταν προσεύχῃ, εἴσελθε εἰς τὸ ταμεῖόν σου καὶ κλείσας τὴν θύραν σου πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι. / 5 And when you pray, you are not to be as the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and on the street corners, in order to be seen by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full. 6 But you, when you pray, go into your inner room, and when you have shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will repay you."
16 Ὅταν δὲ νηστεύητε, μὴ γίνεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταὶ σκυθρωποί, ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύοντες· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 17 σὺ δὲ νηστεύων ἄλειψαί σου τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸ πρόσωπόν σου νίψαι, 18 ὅπως μὴ φανῇς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύων ἀλλὰ τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ ἀποδώσει σοι. / 16 "And whenever you fast, do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do, for they neglect their appearance in order to be seen fasting by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full. 17 But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face 18 so that you may not be seen fasting by men, but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will repay you."
Polycarp to the Philippians 7.2:
2 διὸ ἀπολιπόντες τὴν ματαιότητα τῶν πολλῶν καὶ τὰς ψευδοδιδασκαλίας ἐπὶ τὸν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἡμῖν παραδοθέντα λόγον ἐπιστρέψωμεν, νήφοντες πρὸς τὰς εὐχὰς καὶ προσκαρτεροῦντες νηστείας, δεήσεσιν αἰτούμενοι τὸν παντεπόπτην θεὸν μὴ εἰσενεγκεῖν ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ κύριος· Τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής. / 2 Wherefore, forsaking the vanity of many, and their false doctrines, let us return to the word which has been handed down to us from the beginning; "watching unto prayer," and persevering in fasting; beseeching in our supplications the all-seeing God "not to lead us into temptation," as the Lord has said: "The spirit truly is willing, but the flesh is weak."
Jerome, On Matthew 1, commentary on Matthew 6.11: In evangelio quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, pro supersubstantiali pane reperi «mahar» (
מהר), quod dicitur «crastinum», ut sit sensus: «panem nostrum crastinum», id est, «futurum da nobis hodie».
/ In the gospel which is named according to the Hebrews, instead of supersubstantial bread I found "mahar" (מהר), which means "of tomorrow," so that the sense would be: "our bread for tomorrow," that is, "the future give us this day."
Jerome, commentary on Psalm 135: In Hebraico evangelio secundum Matthaeum ita habet: Panem nostrum crastinum da nobis hodie, hoc est, panem quem daturus es in regno tuo da nobis hodie.
/ In the Hebraic gospel according to Matthew it has thus: Our bread for tomorrow give us this day, that is, the bread which you will give in your kingdom give us today. Refer also to Sedulius Scottus, Commentary on Matthew: In evangelio quod appellatur secundum Ebreos, pro supersubstantiali pane moar repperi, quod dicitur crastinum.
/ In the gospel which is called "according to the Hebrews," I found moar, which means "for tomorrow," instead of supersubstantial bread.
1 Corinthians 10.14-22:
Διόπερ, ἀγαπητοί μου, φεύγετε ἀπὸ τῆς εἰδωλολατρίας. ὡς φρονίμοις λέγω· κρίνατε ὑμεῖς ὅ φημι. Τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία ἐστὶν τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ; τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐστιν; ὅτι εἷς ἄρτος, ἓν σῶμα οἱ πολλοί ἐσμεν, οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν. βλέπετε τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα· οὐχ οἱ ἐσθίοντες τὰς θυσίας κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου εἰσίν; Τί οὖν φημι; ὅτι εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν ἢ ὅτι εἴδωλόν τί ἐστιν; ἀλλ᾿ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν, δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ [θύουσιν]· οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι. οὐ δύνασθε ποτήριον κυρίου πίνειν καὶ ποτήριον δαιμονίων, οὐ δύνασθε τραπέζης κυρίου μετέχειν καὶ τραπέζης δαιμονίων. ἢ παραζηλοῦμεν τὸν κύριον; μὴ ἰσχυρότεροι αὐτοῦ ἐσμεν; / 14 Therefore, my dear friends, flee from the worship of idols. 15 I speak as to sensible people; judge for yourselves what I say. 16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ? 17 Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread. 18 Consider the people of Israel; are not those who eat the sacrifices partners in the altar? 19 What do I imply then? That food sacrificed to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything? 20 No, I imply that what pagans sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God. I do not want you to be partners with demons. 21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons. 22 Or are we provoking the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he?
1 Corinthians 11.23-25:
Ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὃ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ εἶπεν· τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι λέγων· τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ αἵματι· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. / 23 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, 24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." 25 In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me."
Matthew 26.26-29 = Mark 14.22-25 = Luke 22.15-20
(bread and cup, or the last supper).
51 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς· ἐάν τις φάγῃ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ἄρτου ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα· καὶ ὁ ἄρτος δὲ ὃν ἐγὼ δώσω ἡ σάρξ μού ἐστιν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς. 52 ἐμάχοντο οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, λέγοντες· Πῶς δύναται οὗτος ἡμῖν δοῦναι τὴν σάρκα αὐτοῦ φαγεῖν; 53 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς. 54 ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον, κἀγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ· 55 ἡ γὰρ σάρξ μου ἀληθής ἐστιν βρῶσις, καὶ τὸ αἷμά μου ἀληθής ἐστιν πόσις. 56 ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἐν ἐμοὶ μένει κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ. 57 καθὼς ἀπέστειλέν με ὁ ζῶν πατὴρ κἀγὼ ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα, καὶ ὁ τρώγων με κἀκεῖνος ζήσει δι᾿ ἐμέ. 58 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, οὐ καθὼς ἔφαγον οἱ πατέρες καὶ ἀπέθανον· ὁ τρώγων τοῦτον τὸν ἄρτον ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. / 51 I am the living bread that descended out of heaven. If anyone eats from this bread, he will live unto the age. And indeed the bread which I shall give on behalf of the life of the world is my flesh. 52 The Jews therefore were arguing with each other, saying: How can this man give us his flesh to eat? 53 Jesus therefore said to them: Amen, amen, I say to you, if you do not eat the flesh of the son of man and drink his blood, you do not have life in yourselves. 54 He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has life eternal, and I shall resurrect him at the last day. 55 For my flesh truly is food, and my blood truly is drink. 56 He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him. 57 Just as the living father sent me and I live on account of the father, also he who eats me, that man also will live on account of me. 58 This is the bread that descended from heaven, not just as the fathers ate and died. He who eats this bread will live unto the age.
Didache 11.3-6; 13.1-2
(apostles, prophets, and teachers).
1 Corinthians 9.14:
14 οὕτως καὶ ὁ κύριος διέταξεν τοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον καταγγέλλουσιν ἐκ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ζῆν. / So also the Lord directed those who proclaim the gospel to get their living from the gospel.
1 Corinthians 10.27:
27 εἴ τις καλεῖ ὑμᾶς τῶν ἀπίστων καὶ θέλετε πορεύεσθαι, πᾶν τὸ παρατιθέμενον ὑμῖν ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν. / If one of the unbelievers invites you, and you wish to go, eat anything that is set before you, without asking questions for conscience ' sake.
Thomas 14: 14. ⲡⲉϫⲉ <ⲓⲥ> ⲛⲁⲩ ϫⲉ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ϣⲁⲛⲣ̅ⲛⲏⲥⲧⲉⲩⲉ ⲧⲉⲧⲛⲁϫⲡⲟ ⲛ̅ⲏⲧⲛ̅ ⲛ̅ⲛⲟⲩⲛⲟⲃⲉ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ϣⲁⲛϣⲗⲏⲗ' ⲥⲉⲛⲁⲣ̅ⲕⲁⲧⲁⲕⲣⲓⲛⲉ ⲙ̅ⲙⲱⲧⲛ̅ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ϣⲁⲛϯ ⲉⲗⲉⲏⲙⲟⲥⲩⲛⲏ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛⲁⲉⲓⲣⲉ ⲛ̅ⲟⲩⲕⲁⲕⲟⲛ ⲛ̅ⲛⲉⲧⲙ̅<ⲡⲛⲁ> ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ϣⲁⲛⲃⲱⲕ' ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲕⲁϩ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛ̅ⲧⲉⲧⲙ̅ⲙⲟⲟϣⲉ ϩⲛ̅ ⲛ̅ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲩϣⲁⲣ̅ⲡⲁⲣⲁⲇⲉⲭⲉ ⲙ̅ⲙⲱⲧⲛ̅ ⲡⲉⲧⲟⲩⲛⲁⲕⲁⲁϥ ϩⲁⲣⲱⲧⲛ̅ ⲟⲩⲟⲙϥ̅ ⲛⲉⲧϣⲱⲛⲉ ⲛ̅ϩⲏⲧⲟⲩ ⲉⲣⲓⲑⲉⲣⲁⲡⲉⲩⲉ ⲙ̅ⲙⲟⲟⲩ ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁⲃⲱⲕ ⲅⲁⲣ' ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲛ̅ ⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ⲧⲁⲡⲣⲟ ϥⲛⲁϫⲱϩⲙ̅ ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ̅ ⲁⲛ' ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲡⲉⲧⲛ̅ⲛⲏⲩ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ' ϩⲛ̅ ⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ⲧⲁⲡⲣⲟ ⲛ̅ⲧⲟϥ ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁϫⲁϩⲙ̅ ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ̅
/ 14. Jesus said to them, "If you fast, you will give rise to sin for yourselves; and if you pray, you will be condemned; and if you give alms, you will do harm to your spirits. When you go into any land and walk about in the districts, if they receive you, eat what they will set before you, and heal the sick among them. For what goes into your mouth will not defile you, but that which issues from your mouth - it is that which will defile you." [Download the New Athena Unicode font
to view Coptic.]
Matthew 10.1, 5-16 = Mark 6.7-13 = Luke 9.1-6
(mission of the twelve).
(mission of the seventy).
Matthew 18.1-5 = Mark 9.33-37 = Luke 9.46-48; Matthew 10.40-42 = Luke 10.16
(receiving the sender).
ὁ μὴ τιμῶν τὸν υἱὸν οὐ τιμᾷ τὸν πατέρα τὸν πέμψαντα αὐτόν. / He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him.
44 Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἔκραξεν καὶ εἶπεν· Ὁ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ πιστεύει εἰς ἐμὲ ἀλλὰ εἰς τὸν πέμψαντά με, 45 καὶ ὁ θεωρῶν ἐμὲ θεωρεῖ τὸν πέμψαντά με. 46 ἐγὼ φῶς εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἐλήλυθα, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ μὴ μείνῃ. 47 καὶ ἐάν τίς μου ἀκούσῃ τῶν ῥημάτων καὶ μὴ φυλάξῃ, ἐγὼ οὐ κρίνω αὐτόν, οὐ γὰρ ἦλθον ἵνα κρίνω τὸν κόσμον ἀλλ᾿ ἵνα σώσω τὸν κόσμον. 48 ὁ ἀθετῶν ἐμὲ καὶ μὴ λαμβάνων τὰ ῥήματά μου ἔχει τὸν κρίνοντα αὐτόν· ὁ λόγος ὃν ἐλάλησα ἐκεῖνος κρινεῖ αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, 49 ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐξ ἐμαυτοῦ οὐκ ἐλάλησα, ἀλλ᾿ ὁ πέμψας με πατὴρ αὐτός μοι ἐντολὴν δέδωκεν τί εἴπω καὶ τί λαλήσω. 50 καὶ οἶδα ὅτι ἡ ἐντολὴ αὐτοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιός ἐστιν. ἃ οὖν ἐγὼ λαλῶ, καθὼς εἴρηκέν μοι ὁ πατήρ, οὕτως λαλῶ. / 44 But Jesus shouted and said: He who puts faith in me puts faith not in me but rather in the one who sent me, 45 and he who looks on me looks on the one who sent me. 46 I have come as a light into the world, so that everyone who puts faith in me might not remain in the darkness. 47 And, if anyone listens to my words and does not guard them, I do not judge him, for I came not in order to judge the world but rather in order to save the world. 48 He who rejects me and does not accept my words has one who judges him; the word which I spoke, that is what judges him on the last day, 49 since I did not speak from my own, but rather the one who sent me, the father himself, has given me a commandment on what I should say and what I should speak. 50 And I know that his commandment is eternal life. The things that I speak, therefore, I speak thus, just as the father has told me.
20 Ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ λαμβάνων ἄν τινα πέμψω ἐμὲ λαμβάνει, ὁ δὲ ἐμὲ λαμβάνων λαμβάνει τὸν πέμψαντά με. / 20 Amen, amen, I say to you, he who accepts whoever I send accepts me, but he who accepts me accepts the one who sent me.
1 Timothy 5.18:
λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφή· βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις, καί· ἄξιος ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ. / For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox while he is threshing," and "The laborer is worthy of his wages."
Ignatius to the Ephesians 6.1:
1. Καὶ ὅσον βλέπει τις σιγῶντα ἐπίσκοπον, πλειόνως αὐτὸν φοβείσθω· πάντα γάρ, ὃν πέμπει ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης εἰς ἰδίαν οἰκονομίαν, οὕτως δεῖ ἡμᾶς αὐτὸν δέχεχθαι, ὡς αὐτὸν τὸν πέμψαντα. τὸν οὖν ἐπίσκοπον δῆλον ὅτι ὡς αὐτὸν κύριον δεῖ προσβλέπειν. / Now the more any one sees the bishop keeping silence, the more ought he to revere him. For we ought to receive every one whom the Master of the house sends to be over His household, as we would do Him that sent him.
Dialogue of the Savior 53b:
Mary said, "Thus with respect to 'the wickedness of each day,' and 'the laborer is worthy of his food,' and 'the disciple resembles his teacher.'" She uttered this as a woman who had understood completely.
(the unforgivable sin).
Matthew 12.31-32 = Mark 3.28-30 = Luke 12.10
(sin against the spirit).
Thomas 44: 44. ⲡⲉϫⲉ <ⲓⲥ> ϫⲉ ⲡⲉⲧⲁϫⲉ ⲟⲩⲁ ⲁⲡⲉⲓⲱⲧ' ⲥⲉⲛⲁⲕⲱ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲁϥ' ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲉⲧⲁϫⲉ ⲟⲩⲁ ⲉⲡϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲥⲉⲛⲁⲕⲱ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲁϥ' ⲡⲉⲧⲁϫⲉ ⲟⲩⲁ ⲇⲉ ⲁⲡ<ⲡⲛⲁ> ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲥⲉⲛⲁⲕⲱ ⲁⲛ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲁϥ' ⲟⲩⲧⲉ ϩⲙ̅ ⲡⲕⲁϩ ⲟⲩⲧⲉ ϩⲛ̅ ⲧⲡⲉ
/ 44. Jesus said, "Whoever blasphemes against the Father will be forgiven, and whoever blasphemes against the Son will be forgiven, but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven either on earth or in heaven." [Download the New Athena Unicode font
to view Coptic.]
(prayer and forgiveness).
23 ἐὰν οὖν προσφέρῃς τὸ δῶρόν σου ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον κἀκεῖ μνησθῇς ὅτι ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἔχει τι κατὰ σοῦ, 24 ἄφες ἐκεῖ τὸ δῶρόν σου ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ ὕπαγε πρῶτον διαλλάγηθι τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, καὶ τότε ἐλθὼν πρόσφερε τὸ δῶρόν σου. / 23 "If therefore you are presenting your offering at the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you, 24 leave your offering there before the altar, and go your way; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and present your offering."
1 Thessalonians 4.13-5.11:
4.13 Οὐ θέλομεν δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, περὶ τῶν κοιμωμένων, ἵνα μὴ λυπῆσθε καθὼς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες ἐλπίδα. 14 εἰ γὰρ πιστεύομεν ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἀνέστη, οὕτως καὶ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς κοιμηθέντας διὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἄξει σὺν αὐτῷ. 15 Τοῦτο γὰρ ὑμῖν λέγομεν ἐν λόγῳ κυρίου, ὅτι ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι εἰς τὴν παρουσίαν τοῦ κυρίου οὐ μὴ φθάσωμεν τοὺς κοιμηθέντας· 16 ὅτι αὐτὸς ὁ κύριος ἐν κελεύσματι, ἐν φωνῇ ἀρχαγγέλου καὶ ἐν σάλπιγγι θεοῦ, καταβήσεται ἀπ᾽ οὐρανοῦ καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστήσονται πρῶτον, 17 ἔπειτα ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι ἅμα σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁρπαγησόμεθα ἐν νεφέλαις εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ κυρίου εἰς ἀέρα· καὶ οὕτως πάντοτε σὺν κυρίῳ ἐσόμεθα. 18 Ὥστε παρακαλεῖτε ἀλλήλους ἐν τοῖς λόγοις τούτοις. 5.Περὶ δὲ τῶν χρόνων καὶ τῶν καιρῶν, ἀδελφοί, οὐ χρείαν ἔχετε ὑμῖν γράφεσθαι, 2 αὐτοὶ γὰρ ἀκριβῶς οἴδατε ὅτι ἡμέρα κυρίου ὡς κλέπτης ἐν νυκτὶ οὕτως ἔρχεται. 3 ὅταν λέγωσιν· εἰρήνη καὶ ἀσφάλεια, τότε αἰφνίδιος αὐτοῖς ἐφίσταται ὄλεθρος ὥσπερ ἡ ὠδὶν τῇ ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσῃ, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐκφύγωσιν. 4 ὑμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σκότει, ἵνα ἡ ἡμέρα ὑμᾶς ὡς κλέπτης καταλάβῃ· 5 πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς υἱοὶ φωτός ἐστε καὶ υἱοὶ ἡμέρας. Οὐκ ἐσμὲν νυκτὸς οὐδὲ σκότους· 6 ἄρα οὖν μὴ καθεύδωμεν ὡς οἱ λοιποί ἀλλὰ γρηγορῶμεν καὶ νήφωμεν. 7 Οἱ γὰρ καθεύδοντες νυκτὸς καθεύδουσιν καὶ οἱ μεθυσκόμενοι νυκτὸς μεθύουσιν· 8 ἡμεῖς δὲ ἡμέρας ὄντες νήφωμεν ἐνδυσάμενοι θώρακα πίστεως καὶ ἀγάπης καὶ περικεφαλαίαν ἐλπίδα σωτηρίας· 9 ὅτι οὐκ ἔθετο ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ὀργὴν ἀλλὰ εἰς περιποίησιν σωτηρίας διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 10 τοῦ ἀποθανόντος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, ἵνα εἴτε γρηγορῶμεν εἴτε καθεύδωμεν ἅμα σὺν αὐτῷ ζήσωμεν. 11 Διὸ παρακαλεῖτε ἀλλήλους καὶ οἰκοδομεῖτε εἷς τὸν ἕνα, καθὼς καὶ ποιεῖτε. / 4.13 But we do not want you to be uninformed, brethren, about those who are asleep, that you may not grieve, as do the rest who have no hope. 14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus. 15 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, and remain until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first. 17 Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and thus we shall always be with the Lord. 18 Therefore comfort one another with these words. 5.1 Now as to the times and the epochs, brethren, you have no need of anything to be written to you. 2 For you yourselves know full well that the day of the Lord will come just like a thief in the night. 3 While they are saying, "Peace and safety!" then destruction will come upon them suddenly like birth pangs upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape. 4 But you, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day should overtake you like a thief; 5 for you are all sons of light and sons of day. We are not of night nor of darkness; 6 so then let us not sleep as others do, but let us be alert and sober. 7 For those who sleep do their sleeping at night, and those who get drunk get drunk at night. 8 But since we are of the day, let us be sober, having put on the breastplate of faith and love, and as a helmet, the hope of salvation. 9 For God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10 who died for us, that whether we are awake or asleep, we may live together with Him. 11 Therefore encourage one another, and build up one another, just as you also are doing.
7 Ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν, καὶ ὄψεται αὐτὸν πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν, καὶ κόψονται ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς. ναί, ἀμήν. / 7 Behold, He is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him. Even so. Amen.
14 Καὶ εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ νεφέλη λευκή, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν νεφέλην καθήμενον ὅμοιον υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου, ἔχων ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ στέφανον χρυσοῦν καὶ ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ δρέπανον ὀξύ. / 14 And I looked, and behold, a white cloud, and sitting on the cloud was one like a son of man, having a golden crown on His head, and a sharp sickle in His hand.
Matthew 24.1-25.46 = Mark 13.1-37 = Luke 21.5-36
35 Ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι καὶ οἱ λύχνοι καιόμενοι· 36 καὶ ὑμεῖς ὅμοιοι ἀνθρώποις προσδεχομένοις τὸν κύριον ἑαυτῶν πότε ἀναλύσῃ ἐκ τῶν γάμων, ἵνα ἐλθόντος καὶ κρούσαντος εὐθέως ἀνοίξωσιν αὐτῷ. 37 μακάριοι οἱ δοῦλοι ἐκεῖνοι, οὓς ἐλθὼν ὁ κύριος εὑρήσει γρηγοροῦντας· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι περιζώσεται καὶ ἀνακλινεῖ αὐτοὺς καὶ παρελθὼν διακονήσει αὐτοῖς. 38 κἂν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ κἂν ἐν τῇ τρίτῃ φυλακῇ ἔλθῃ καὶ εὕρῃ οὕτως, μακάριοί εἰσιν ἐκεῖνοι. / 35 "Be dressed in readiness, and keep your lamps alight. 36 And be like men who are waiting for their master when he returns from the wedding feast, so that they may immediately open the door to him when he comes and knocks. 37 Blessed are those slaves whom the master shall find on the alert when he comes; truly I say to you, that he will gird himself to serve, and have them recline at the table, and will come up and wait on them. 38 Whether he comes in the second watch, or even in the third, and finds them so, blessed are those slaves."
9 πολλὰ δὲ θέλων γράφειν, οὐχ ὡς διδάσκαλος, ἀλλ’ ὡς πρέπει ἀγαπῶντι ἀφ’ ὧν ἔχομεν μὴ ἐλλείπειν, γράφειν ἐσπούδασα, περίψημα ὑμῶν. διὸ προσέχωμεν ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις· οὐδὲν γὰρ ὠφελήσει ἡμᾶς ὁ πᾶς χρόνος τῆς πίστεως ἡμῶν, ἐὰν μὴ νῦν ἐν τῷ ἀνόμῳ καιρῷ καὶ τοῖς μέλλουσιν σκανδάλοις, ὡς πρέπει υἱοῖς θεοῦ, ἀντιστῶμεν, ἵνα μὴ σχῇ παρείσδυσιν ὁ μέλας. / 9 Now, being desirous to write many things to you, not as your teacher, but as becometh one who loves you, I have taken care not to fail to write to you from what I myself possess, with a view to your purification. We take earnest heed in these last days; for the whole [past] time of your faith will profit you nothing, unless now in this wicked time we also withstand coming sources of danger, as becometh the sons of God, that the Black One may find no means of entrance.
Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 1.20:
ἔμπαλιν οὖν ἀδικεῖ ὁ σφετερισάμενος τὰ βαρβάρων καὶ ὡς ἴδια αὐχῶν, τὴν ἑαυτοῦ δόξαν αὔξων καὶ ψευδόμενος τὴν ἀλήθειαν. οὗτος «κλέπτης» ὑπὸ τῆς γραφῆς εἴρηται. φησὶ γοῦν· «υἱέ, μὴ γίνου ψεύστης· ὁδηγεῖ γὰρ τὸ ψεῦσμα πρὸς τὴν κλοπήν.» / Again, therefore, the one who has adopted the things of the barbarians, and vaunts them as his own, does unjustly, and has falsified the truth. This man is said to be a thief by the scripture. It says therefore: Son, do not become false; for falsehood is the road to thievery. [Refer to Didache 3.5.]
Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 7.12:
οἶδεν αὐτὸς καὶ τῆς νηστείας τὰ αἰνίγματα τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων, τῆς τετράδος καὶ τῆς παρασκευῆς λέγω. ἐπιφημίζονται γὰρ ἣ μὲν Ἑρμοῦ, ἣ δὲ Ἀφροδίτης. .... οὗτος ἐντολὴν τὴν κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον διαπραξάμενος κυριακὴν ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν ποιεῖ, ὅταν ἀποβάλλῃ φαῦλον νόημα καὶ γνωστικὸν προσλάβῃ, τὴν ἐν αὑτῷ τοῦ κυρίου ἀνάστασιν δοξάζων. / [The gnostic] himself knows also the enigmas of the fasting of those days, I mean the fourth [day] and the [day of] preparation. For the one is so called from Hermes, but the other from Aphrodite. .... This man, practicing the commandment according to the gospel, keeps that lordly day whenever he should cast away the wrong mindset and takes hold of the gnostic [mindset], glorifying the resurrection of the Lord within himself. [The fourth day is Wednesday; the day of preparation is Friday. The lordly day is evidently the first day of the week, or Sunday, the Christian day of worship. Refer to Didache 8.1; 13.7; 14.1.]
Clement of Alexandria, Salvation of the Rich Man 29:
οὗτος <ὁ> τὸν οἶνον, τὸ αἷμα τῆς ἀμπέλου τῆς Δαβίδ, ἐκχέας ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τὰς τετρωμένας ψυχάς. / This is the one who has poured out the wine, the blood of the vine of David, upon our wounded souls. [Refer to Didache 9.2.]
Origen, On First Things 3.2.7: Propterea docet nos Scriptura divina omnia quae accidunt nobis tanquam a Deo illata suscipere, scientes quod sine Deo nihil fit.
/ And therefore holy Scripture teaches us to receive all that happens as sent by God, knowing that without Him no event occurs.
Proceedings Before Zenophilus, circa 320: Quae sit charitas iuxta omnes collegas; certus sum, peculiariter tamen secundum Dei voluntatem, qui dixit: Quosdam diligo super animam meam, Silvanum te coluisse.
/ How great is your charity according to the witness of all your colleagues, I know very well but that you have had a special friendship with Silvanus, according to the will of God, who has said, "Some I love above my soul." [Refer to Didache 2.7].
Optatus, Against Parmenianus the Donatist 7.1.21: Denique inter cetera praecepta etiam haec tria iussio divina prohibuit: non occides, non ibis post deos alienos, et in capitibus mandatorum, non facies scisma.
/ Finally, among other precepts, the divine command prohibited these three also: you shall not kill, you shall not go after alien gods, and in the Chapters of Mandates, you shall not make a schism. [Refer to Didache 4.3.]
Epistle of Pseudo-Titus 262-263: ...praeconante prudencia gesta futura hoc est quod mandat semper dicens: Fuge, filiole, omnem malum et ab omne simile illi.
/ ...while prudence endeavors beforehand things that will be done, this is what it always commands, saying, "Flee, young son, every evil one and away from everyone like him." [Refer to Didache 3.1.]
Eusebius, History of the Church 3.25.4:
4 Among the rejected writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul, and the so called Shepherd, and the Apocalypse of Peter, and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas and the so called Teachings of the Apostles; and besides, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. / 4 ἐν τοῖς νόθοις κατατετάχθω καὶ τῶν Παύλου Πράξεων ἡ γραφὴ ὅ τε λεγόμενος Ποιμὴν καὶ ἡ Ἀποκάλυψις Πέτρου καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἡ φερομένη Βαρναβᾶ ἐπιστολὴ καὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων αἱ λεγόμεναι Διδαχαὶ ἔτι τε, ὡς ἔφην, ἡ Ἰωάννου Ἀποκάλυψις, εἰ φανείη· ἥν τινες, ὡς ἔφην, ἀθετοῦσιν, ἕτεροι δὲ ἐγκρίνουσιν τοῖς ὁμολογουμένοις.
Apostolic Constitutions, Book VII
Works Consulted and Links
B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt
, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri
, The Oldest Church Manual Called the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles
Huub van de Sandt and David Flusser
, The Didache
, The Gospel of Matthew's Dependence on the Didache
John Dominic Crossan
, The Historical Jesus
David Robert Palmer
, The Teaching of the Apostles
, The Didache
, English translation of the Renunciation (Sermon XV)
Florentino García Martínez
, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition
Early Christian Writings: The Didache
TextExcavation: The Didache
Biblical Criticism & History Forum: Other Gospel Texts