The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

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The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:11 am

This thread is a simple reconstruction of the Marcionite version of the epistle of Paul to the Galatians. Refer to my index of Marcionite epistles for more information.

The following chapter index may help navigate the epistle:
But we begin the so-called Marcionite prologue to the epistle:

To the Galatians: Galatae sunt Graeci. hi verbum veritatis primum ab apostolo acceperunt, sed post discessum eius temptati sunt a falsis apostolis, ut in legem et circumcisionem verterentur. hos apostolus revocat ad fidem veritatis scribens eis ab Epheso. / Galatians are Greeks. These accepted the word of truth first from the apostle, but after his departure were tempted by false apostles to turn to the law and circumcision. These the apostle recalls to the faith of the truth, writing to them from Ephesus.

And now the introduction by Epiphanius to the elenchi both for this epistle and for the Marcionite canon as a whole:

Αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ κατ' αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῶν λειψάνων τῶν παρ' αὐτῷ σῳζομένων ἐκ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ὑπόθεσις τῆς ἡμῶν πεποιημένης δι' αὐτὸν πραγματείας, ὥς γε νομίζω ἱκανῶς ἐχούσης πρὸς ἀντίθεσιν τῆς αὐτοῦ ἀπάτης. ἐλεύσομαι δὲ καὶ εἰς τὰ ἑξῆς τῶν ἀποστολικῶν ῥητῶν παρ' αὐτῷ ἔτι σῳζομένων καὶ δι' ἡμῶν πάλιν οὕτως ἀναλελεγμένων, ἐν πρώτοις δὲ ἡμῖν καὶ καθ' εἱρμὸν δι' ὅλου οὕτως προταχθέντων <τῶν> ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸς Γαλάτας ἐπιστολῆς· αὕτη γὰρ παρ' αὐτῷ πρώτη κεῖται. ἡμεῖς δὲ τὴν ἀναλογὴν τότε ἐποιησάμεθα οὐχ ὡς παρ' αὐτῷ <κεῖται> ἀλλὰ ὡς ἔχει τὸ ἀποστολικόν, τὴν πρὸς Ῥωμαίους τάξαντες πρώτην· ὧδε δὲ κατὰ τὸν αὐτοῦ χαρακτῆρα οὕτως παρατιθέμεθα. <Ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸς Γαλάτας ἐπιστολῆς> / This is the publication of the treatise against Marcion based on the remains of the Gospel he preserves, which I have composed on his account and which, in my opinion, is adequate to expose his deceit. But I shall also go on to the next part, the texts from the Apostle which he still preserves, and which I have, again, selected in the same way. I have put the ones from the Epistle to the Galatians first, and keep that order throughout, for in Marcion's canon Galatians stands first. At the time I did not make my selection in his order but in the order of the Apostolic Canon, and put Romans first. But here I cite in accordance with Marcion's canon. From the Epistle to the Galatians.

Ben.
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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:11 am

Galatians 1.1-24.

1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν, 2 καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί, ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας· 3 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 4 τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν, ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν, 5 ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ἀμήν. 6 Θαυμάζω ὅτι οὕτως ταχέως μετατίθεσθε ἀπὸ τοῦ καλέσαντος ὑμᾶς ἐν χάριτι Χριστοῦ εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον, 7 ὃ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο· εἰ μή τινές εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες ὑμᾶς καὶ θέλοντες μεταστρέψαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ. 8 ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐὰν ἡμεῖς ἢ ἄγγελος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ εὐαγγελίσηται ὑμῖν παρ’ ὃ εὐηγγελισάμεθα ὑμῖν, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω. 9 ὡς προειρήκαμεν, καὶ ἄρτι πάλιν λέγω, εἴ τις ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελίζεται παρ’ ὃ παρελάβετε, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω. 10 Ἄρτι γὰρ ἀνθρώπους πείθω ἢ τὸν Θεόν; ἢ ζητῶ ἀνθρώποις ἀρέσκειν; εἰ ἔτι ἀνθρώποις ἤρεσκον, Χριστοῦ δοῦλος οὐκ ἂν ἤμην. 11 γνωρίζω γὰρ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τὸ εὐαγγελισθὲν ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον· 12 οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐγὼ παρὰ ἀνθρώπου παρέλαβον αὐτό οὔτε ἐδιδάχθην, ἀλλὰ δι’ ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 13 Ἠκούσατε γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀναστροφήν ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὅτι καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν ἐδίωκον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἐπόρθουν αὐτήν, 14 καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων. 15 Ὅτε δὲ εὐδόκησεν ὁ ἀφορίσας με ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου καὶ καλέσας διὰ τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ 16 ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν Υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ, ἵνα εὐαγγελίζωμαι αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, εὐθέως οὐ προσανεθέμην σαρκὶ καὶ αἵματι, 17 οὐδὲ ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πρὸς τοὺς πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἀποστόλους, ἀλλὰ ἀπῆλθον εἰς Ἀραβίαν, καὶ πάλιν ὑπέστρεψα εἰς Δαμασκόν. 18 Ἔπειτα μετὰ τρία ἔτη ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἱστορῆσαι Κηφᾶν, καὶ ἐπέμεινα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡμέρας δεκαπέντε· 19 ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ Ἰάκωβον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Κυρίου. 20 ἃ δὲ γράφω ὑμῖν, ἰδοὺ ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ ὅτι οὐ ψεύδομαι. 21 ἔπειτα ἦλθον εἰς τὰ κλίματα τῆς Συρίας καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας. 22 ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ. 23 μόνον δὲ ἀκούοντες ἦσαν ὅτι Ὁ διώκων ἡμᾶς ποτε νῦν εὐαγγελίζεται τὴν πίστιν ἥν ποτε ἐπόρθει, 24 καὶ ἐδόξαζον ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸν Θεόν. 1 Paul, an apostle—not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead— 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assemblies of Galatia: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, 4 who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father— 5 to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 6 I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different “good news”, 7 but there isn’t another [Marcion: any other in accordance with my] “good news.” Only there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the Good News of Christ [Marcion: it into a different Good News]. 8 But even though we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you any “good news” other than that which we preached to you, let him be cursed. 9 As we have said before, so I now say again: if any man preaches to you any “good news” other than that which you received, let him be cursed. 10 For am I now seeking the favor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? For if I were still pleasing men, I wouldn’t be a servant of Christ. 11 But I make known to you, brothers, concerning the Good News which was preached by me, that it is not according to man. 12 For I didn’t receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me through revelation of Jesus Christ. 13 For you have heard of my way of living in time past in the Jews’ religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the assembly of God and ravaged it. 14 I advanced in the Jews’ religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, being more exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 15 But when it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother’s womb and called me through his grace 16 to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn’t immediately confer with flesh and blood, 17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returned to Damascus. [Criterion 2 weakly, criterion 3 weakly, and criterion 4:] 18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 19 But of the other apostles I saw no one except James, the Lord’s brother. 20 Now about the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I’m not lying. 21 Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 22 I was still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were in Christ, 23 but they only heard: “He who once persecuted us now preaches the faith that he once tried to destroy.” 24 So they glorified God in me.


Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.1.3: [3] Ipse se, inquit, apostolum est professus, et quidem non ab hominibus nec per hominem, sed per Iesum Christum. Plane profiteri potest semetipsum quis, verum professio eius alterius auctoritate conficitur. Alius scribit, alius subscribit, alius obsignat, alius actis refert. Nemo sibi et professor et testis est. Praeter haec utique legisti multos venturos qui dicant, Ego sum Christus. / [3] He professes himself to be "an apostle"----to use his own, words----"not of men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ." Of course, any one may make a profession concerning himself; but his profession is only rendered valid by the authority of a second person. One man signs, another countersigns; one man appends his seal, another registers in the public records. No one is at once a proposer and a seconder to himself. Besides, you have read, no doubt, that "many shall come, saying, I am Christ."
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.1.6: [6] Nam et Saulis primo asperitas insectationis erga David, dehinc paenitentia et satisfactio, bona pro malis recipientis, non aliud portendebat quam Paulum in Saule secundum tribus et Iesum in David secundum virginis censum. Haec figurarum sacramenta si tibi displicent, certe Acta Apostolorum hunc mihi ordinem Pauli tradiderunt, a te quoque non negandum. Inde apostolum ostendo persecutorem, non ab hominibus neque per hominem; inde et ipsi credere inducor; inde te a defensione eius expello, nec timeo dicentem, Tu ergo negas apostolum Paulum? Non blasphemo quem tueor. Nego, ut te probare compellam. / [6] Then, again, in Saul's conduct towards David, exhibited first in violent persecution of him, and then in remorse and reparation, on his receiving from him good for evil, we have nothing else than an anticipation of Paul in Saul----belonging, too, as they did, to the same tribe----and of Jesus in David, from whom He descended according to the Virgin's genealogy. Should you, however, disapprove of these types, the Acts of the Apostles, at all events, have handed down to me this career of Paul, which you must not refuse to accept. Thence I demonstrate that from a persecutor he became "an apostle, not of men, neither by man; " thence am I led to believe the Apostle himself; thence do I find reason for rejecting your defence of him, and for bearing fearlessly your taunt. "Then you deny the Apostle Paul." I do not calumniate him whom I defend. I deny him, to compel you to the proof of him.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.2.4-7: [4] Igitur tota intentio epistulae istius nihil aliud docet quam legis discessionem venientem de creatoris dispositione, ut adhuc suggeremus. Si item nullius novi dei exserit mentionem, quod nusquam magis fecisset quam in ista materia, ut rationem scilicet ablegandae legis unica hac et sufficientissima definitione proponeret novae divinitatis, apparet quomodo scribat, Miror vos tam cito transferri ab eo qui vos vocavit in gratiam ad aliud evangelium, ex conversatione aliud, non ex religione, ex disciplina, non ex divinitate: quoniam quidem evangelium Christi a lege evocare deberet ad gratiam, non a creatore ad alium deum. [5] Nemo enim illos moverat a creatore, ut viderentur sic ad aliud evangelium transferri quasi dum ad creatorem transferuntur. Nam et adiciens quod aliud evangelium omnino non esset, creatoris confirmat id quod esse defendit. Si enim et creator evangelium repromittit, dicens per Esaiam, Ascende in montem excelsum, qui evangelizas Sioni, extolle vocem in valentia tua, qui evangelizas Hierusalem; item ad apostolorum personam, Quam tempestivi pedes evangelizantium pacem, evangelizantium bona, utique et nationibus evangelizantium, quoniam et, In nomine eius, inquit, nationes sperabunt, Christi scilicet, cui ait, Posui te in lumen nationum; est autem evangelium etiam dei novi, quod vis tunc ab apostolo defensum; iam ergo duo sunt evangelia apud duos deos, et mentitus erit apostolus dicens quod aliud omnino non est, cum sit et aliud, cum sic suum evangelium defendere potuisset, ut potius demonstraret, non ut unum determinaret. Sed fortasse, ut fugias hinc, Et ideo, dices, subtexuit, Licet angelus de caelo aliter evangelizaverit, anathema sit, quia et creatorem sciebat evangelizaturum. [6] Rursus ergo te implicas. Hoc est enim quo adstringeris. Duo enim evangelia confirmare non est eius qui aliud iam negarit. Tamen lucet sensus eius qui suam praemisit personam: Sed et si nos aut angelus de caelo aliter evangelizaverit. Verbi enim gratia dictum est.Ceterum si nec ipse aliter evangelizaturus, utique nec angelus. Ita angelum ad hoc nominavit, quo multo magis hominibus non esset credendum, quando nec angelo nec apostolo, non angelum ad evangelium referret creatoris. [7] Exinde decurrens ordinem conversionis suae de persecutore in apostolum scripturam Apostolicorum confirmat, apud quam ipsa etiam epistulae istius materia recognoscitur, intercessisse quosdam qui dicerent circumcidi oportere et observandam esse Moysi legem, tunc apostolos de ista quaestione consultos ex auctoritate spiritus renuntiasse non esse imponenda onera hominibus quae patres ipsi non potuissent sustinere. Quodsi et ex hoc congruunt Paulo Apostolorum Acta, cur ea respuatis iam apparet, ut deum scilicet non alium praedicantia quam creatorem, nec Christum alterius quam creatoris, quando nec promissio spiritus sancti aliunde probetur exhibita quam de instrumento Actorum. Quae utique verisimile non est ex parte quidem apostolo convenire, cum ordinem eius secundum ipsius testimonium ostendunt, ex parte vero dissidere, cum divinitatem in Christo creatoris annuntiant, ut praedicationem quidem apostolorum non sit secutus Paulus, qui formam ab eis dedocendae legis accepit. / [4] Therefore the entire purport of this epistle is simply to show us that the supersession of the law comes from the appointment of the Creator----a point, which we shall still have to keep in mind. Since also he makes mention of no other god (and he could have found no other opportunity of doing so, more suitable than when his purpose was to set forth the reason for the abolition of the law----especially as the prescription of a new god would have afforded a singularly good and most sufficient reason), it is clear enough in what sense he writes, "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from Him who hath called you to His grace to another gospel" ----He means) "another" as to the conduct it prescribes, not in respect of its worship; "another" as to the discipline it teaches, not in respect of its divinity; because it is the office of Christ's gospel to call men from the law to grace, not from the Creator to another god. [5] For nobody had induced them to apostatize from the Creator, that they should seem to "be removed to another gospel," simply when they return again to the Creator. When he adds, too, the words, "which is not another," he confirms the fact that the gospel which he maintains is the Creator's. For the Creator Himself promises the gospel, when He says by Isaiah: "Get thee up into the high mountain, thou that bringest to Sion good tidings; lift up thy voice with strength, thou that bringest the gospel to Jerusalem." Also when, with respect to the apostles personally, He says, "How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, that bring good tidings of good" ----even proclaiming the gospel to the Gentiles, because He also says, "In His name shall the Gentiles trust; " that is, in the name of Christ, to whom He says, "I have given thee as a light of the Gentiles." However, you will have it that it is the gospel of a new god which was then set forth by the apostle. So that there are two gospels for two gods; and the apostle made a great mistake when he said that "there is not another" gospel, since there is (on the hypothesis) another; and so he might have made a better defence of his gospel, by rather demonstrating this, than by insisting on its being but one. But perhaps, to avoid this difficulty, you will say that he therefore added just afterwards, "Though an angel from heaven preach any other gospel, let him be accursed," because he was aware that the Creator was going to introduce a gospel! [6] But you thus entangle yourself still more. For this is now the mesh in which you are caught. To affirm that there are two gospels, is not the part of a man who has already denied that there is another. His meaning, however, is clear, for he has mentioned himself first (in the anathema): "But though we or an angel from heaven preach any other gospel." It is by way of an example that he has expressed himself. If even he himself might not preach any other gospel, then neither might an angel. He said "angel" in this way, that he might show how much more men ought not to be believed, when neither an angel nor an apostle ought to be; not that he meant to apply an angel to the gospel of the Creator. [7] He then cursorily touches on his own conversion from a persecutor to an apostle----confirming thereby the Acts of the Apostles, in which book may be found the very subject of this epistle, how that certain persons interposed, and said that men ought to be circumcised, and that the law of Moses was to be observed; and how the apostles, when consulted, determined, by the authority of the Holy Ghost, that "a yoke should not be put upon men's necks which their fathers even had not been able to bear." Now, since the Acts of the Apostles thus agree with Paul, it becomes apparent why you reject them. It is because they declare no other God than the Creator, and prove Christ to belong to no other God than the Creator; whilst the promise of the Holy Ghost is shown to have been fulfilled in no other document than the Acts of the Apostles. Now, it is not very likely that these should be found in agreement with the apostle, on the one hand, when they described his career in accordance with his own statement; but should, on the other hand, be at variance with him when they announce the (attribute of) divinity in the Creator's Christ----as if Paul did not follow the preaching of the apostles when he received from them the prescription of not teaching the Law.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.3.5: [5] Itaque frustrandi erant falsi fratres, speculantes libertatem Christianam, ne ante eam in servitutem abducerent Iudaismi quam Paulus sciret se non in vacuum cucurrisse, quam dexteras ei darent antecessores, quam ex censu eorum in nationes praedicandi munus subiret. Necessario igitur cessit ad tempus, et sic ei ratio constat Timotheum circumcidendi et rasos introducendi in templum, quae in Actis edicuntur, adeo vera, ut apostolo consonent profitenti factum se Iudaeis Iudaeum ut Iudaeos lucrifaceret, et sub lege agentem propter eos qui sub lege agerent, sic et propter superinductos illos, et omnibus novissime omnia factum ut omnes lucraretur. / [5] Accordingly, the false brethren who were the spies of their Christian liberty must be thwarted in their efforts to bring it under the yoke of their own Judaism before that Paul discovered whether his labour had been in vain, before that those who preceded him in the apostolate gave him their right hands of fellowship, before that he entered on the office of preaching to the Gentiles, according to their arrangement with him. He therefore made some concession, as was necessary, for a time; and this was the reason why he had Timothy circumcised, and the Nazarites introduced into the temple, which incidents are described in the Acts. Their truth may be inferred from their agreement with the apostle's own profession, how "to the Jews he became as a Jew, that he might gain the Jews, and to them that were under the law, as under the law,"----and so here with respect to those who come in secretly,----"and lastly, how he became all things to all men, that he might gain all."
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.5.1-2: [1] Praestructio superioris epistulae ita duxit, ut de titulo eius non retractaverim, certus et alibi retractari eum posse, communem scilicet et eundem in epistulis omnibus. Quod non utique salutem praescribit eis quibus scribit, sed gratiam et pacem, non dico. Quid illi cum Iudaico adhuc more, destructori Iudaismi? Nam et hodie Iudaei in pacis nomine appellant, et retro in scripturis sic salutabant. Sed intellego illum defendisse officio suo praedicationem creatoris: Quam maturi pedes evangelizantium bona, evangelizantium pacem. [2] Evangelizator enim bonorum, id est gratiae dei, pacem quam praeferendam sciebat. Haec cum a deo patre nostro et domino Iesu annuntians communibus nominibus utatur, competentibus nostro quoque sacramento, non puto dispici posse quis deus pater et dominus Iesus praedicetur, nisi ex accedentibus cui magis competant. / [1] My preliminary remarks on the preceding epistle called me away from treating of its superscription, for I was sure that another opportunity would occur for considering the matter, it being of constant recurrence, and in the same form too, in every epistle. The point, then, is, that it is not (the usual) health which the apostle prescribes for those to whom he writes, but "grace and peace." I do not ask, indeed, what a destroyer of Judaism has to do with a formula which the Jews still use. For to this day they salute each other with the greeting of "peace," and formerly in their Scriptures they did the same. But I understand him by his practice plainly enough to have corroborated the declaration of the Creator: "How beautiful are the feet of them that bring glad tidings of good, who preach the gospel of peace!" [2] For the herald of good, that is, of God's "grace" was well aware that along with it "peace" also was to be proclaimed. Now, when he announces these blessings as "from God the Father and the Lord Jesus," he uses titles that are common to both, and which are also adapted to the mystery of our faith; and I suppose it to be impossible accurately to determine what God is declared to be the Father and the Lord Jesus, unless (we consider) which of their accruing attributes are more suited to them severally.
Adamantius Dialogue 1.6.
From Jerome, Commentary on Galatians 1.1: Sciendum quoque in Marcionis Apostolo non esse scriptum, et per Deum Patrem, volentis exponere Christum non a Deo Patre, sed per semetipsum suscitatum, ut est illud: Solvite templum hoc, et ego in triduo suscitabo illud. Necnon et alibi: Nemo tollit animam meam a me; sed ego pono eam a meipso. Potestatem habeo ponendi eam et rursum potestatem habeo sumendi illam. / We should be aware that the phrase "and through God the Father" is not found in Marcion's version of the Apostle. Marcion wished to present Christ as having been resurrected not by God the Father but through his own power, just as Christ says, "Tear down this temple and I shall raise it up on the third day," and elsewhere, "No one takes my life from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have the power to lay it down and I have the power to take it up again."
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 1.18-24: These verses are unattested as being in Marcion. Irenaeus (AH 3.13), Tertullian’s quotation of Marcion (AM 5.3.1), Augustine (Quaestionum Evangeliorum 2.40, Migne PL vol. 35 col. 1355), John Chrysostom (Commentary on Galatians 2.1, Migne PG vol. 61 col. 633), a certain Greek Catena in epistulam ad Galatas (e cod. Coislin. 204, page 27, line 10), the Bohairic Coptic version, and a manuscript of the Vulgate have Galatians 2:1 without the word “again.” There is some level of expectation that Tertullian would have quoted it in an attempt to show subordination of Paul to Peter and James. Some or all of these verses are considered an interpolation on other grounds by J. C. O’Neil (The Recovery of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians, p. 25), Frank R. McGuire (“Did Paul Write Galatians?“), Hermann Detering (“The Original Version of the Epistle to the Galatians,” p. 20), David Oliver Smith (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Paul, p. 72), Robert Price (The Amazing Colossal Apostle, p. 415), and in some comments online.
Peter Kirby's criteria: (1) Passages attested as absent from the Marcionite version by the patristic writers. (2) Unattested passages that have miscellaneous manuscript support and/or patristic support for omission. (3) Unattested passages that Tertullian is likely to have cited were they present in the Marcionite version. (4) Unattested passages that correspond to a scholarly conjecture for interpolation on grounds other than the alleged absence in the Marcionite version.

Last edited by Ben C. Smith on Thu Apr 21, 2016 8:21 pm, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:11 am

Galatians 2.1-21.

1 Ἔπειτα διὰ δεκατεσσάρων ἐτῶν πάλιν ἀνέβην εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα μετὰ Βαρνάβα συνπαραλαβὼν καὶ Τίτον· 2 ἀνέβην δὲ κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν· καὶ ἀνεθέμην αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, κατ’ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς δοκοῦσιν, μή πως εἰς κενὸν τρέχω ἢ ἔδραμον. 3 ἀλλ’ οὐδὲ Τίτος ὁ σὺν ἐμοί, Ἕλλην ὤν, ἠναγκάσθη περιτμηθῆναι· 4 διὰ δὲ τοὺς παρεισάκτους ψευδαδέλφους, οἵτινες παρεισῆλθον κατασκοπῆσαι τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἡμῶν ἣν ἔχομεν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἵνα ἡμᾶς καταδουλώσουσιν· 5 οἷς οὐδὲ πρὸς ὥραν εἴξαμεν τῇ ὑποταγῇ, ἵνα ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐαγγελίου διαμείνῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς. 6 ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δοκούντων εἶναί τι, —ὁποῖοί ποτε ἦσαν οὐδέν μοι διαφέρει· πρόσωπον ὁ Θεὸς ἀνθρώπου οὐ λαμβάνει— ἐμοὶ γὰρ οἱ δοκοῦντες οὐδὲν προσανέθεντο, 7 ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον ἰδόντες ὅτι πεπίστευμαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀκροβυστίας καθὼς Πέτρος τῆς περιτομῆς, 8 ὁ γὰρ ἐνεργήσας Πέτρῳ εἰς ἀποστολὴν τῆς περιτομῆς ἐνήργησεν καὶ ἐμοὶ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, 9 καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάνης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στῦλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρνάβα κοινωνίας, ἵνα ἡμεῖς εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν· 10 μόνον τῶν πτωχῶν ἵνα μνημονεύωμεν, ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι. 11 Ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην, ὅτι κατεγνωσμένος ἦν. 12 πρὸ τοῦ γὰρ ἐλθεῖν τινας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβου μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν· ὅτε δὲ ἦλθον, ὑπέστελλεν καὶ ἀφώριζεν ἑαυτόν, φοβούμενος τοὺς ἐκ περιτομῆς. 13 καὶ συνυπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ Ἰουδαῖοι, ὥστε καὶ Βαρνάβας συναπήχθη αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει. 14 ἀλλ’ ὅτε εἶδον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθοποδοῦσιν πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, εἶπον τῷ Κηφᾷ ἔμπροσθεν πάντων Εἰ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ὑπάρχων ἐθνικῶς καὶ οὐκ Ἰουδαϊκῶς ζῇς, πῶς τὰ ἔθνη ἀναγκάζεις ἰουδαΐζειν; 15 Ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἁμαρτωλοί, 16 εἰδότες δὲ ὅτι οὐ δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος ἐξ ἔργων νόμου ἐὰν μὴ διὰ πίστεως Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐπιστεύσαμεν, ἵνα δικαιωθῶμεν ἐκ πίστεως Χριστοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, ὅτι ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σάρξ. 17 εἰ δὲ ζητοῦντες δικαιωθῆναι ἐν Χριστῷ εὑρέθημεν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἁμαρτωλοί, ἆρα Χριστὸς ἁμαρτίας διάκονος; μὴ γένοιτο. 18 εἰ γὰρ ἃ κατέλυσα ταῦτα πάλιν οἰκοδομῶ, παραβάτην ἐμαυτὸν συνιστάνω. 19 ἐγὼ γὰρ διὰ νόμου νόμῳ ἀπέθανον ἵνα Θεῷ ζήσω· Χριστῷ συνεσταύρωμαι· 20 ζῶ δὲ οὐκέτι ἐγώ, ζῇ δὲ ἐν ἐμοὶ Χριστός· ὃ δὲ νῦν ζῶ ἐν σαρκί, ἐν πίστει ζῶ τῇ τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντός με καὶ παραδόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ. 21 Οὐκ ἀθετῶ τὴν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ· εἰ γὰρ διὰ νόμου δικαιοσύνη, ἄρα Χριστὸς δωρεὰν ἀπέθανεν. 1 Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2 I went up by revelation, and I laid before them the Good News which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear lest I might be running, or had run, in vain. 3 But not even Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 4 This was because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage, 5 to whom we gave no place in the way of subjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the Good News might continue with you. 6 But from those who were reputed to be important—whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; God doesn’t show partiality to man—they, I say, who were respected imparted nothing to me, [criterion 3 weakly, criterion 4:] 7 but to the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the Good News for the uncircumcised, even as Peter with the Good News for the circumcised— 8 for he who worked through Peter in the apostleship with the circumcised also worked through me with the Gentiles— 9 and when they perceived the grace that was given to me, Peter and James and Cephas and John, those who were reputed to be pillars, gave to Barnabas and me the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 10 They only asked us to remember the poor—which very thing I was also zealous to do. 11 But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to his face, because he stood condemned. 12 For before some people came from James, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back and separated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 13 And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 14 But when I saw that they didn’t walk uprightly according to the truth of the Good News, I said to Peter before them all, “If you, being a Jew, live as the Gentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles to live as the Jews do? 15 “We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners, 16 yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 17 But if while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselves also were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 18 For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I prove myself a law-breaker. 19 For I, through the law, died to the law, that I might live to God. 20 I have been crucified with Christ, and it is no longer I that live, but Christ lives in me. That life which I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved [Marcion: redeemed] me, and gave himself up for me. 21 I don’t reject the grace of God. For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing!”


Tertullian, Against Marcion 4.3.3: [3] Porro etsi reprehensus est Petras et Ioannes et Iacobus, qui existimabantur columnae, manifesta causa est. Personarum enim respectu videbantur variare convictum. Et tamen cum ipse Paulus omnibus omnia fieret, ut omnes lucraretur, potuit et Petro hoc in consilio fuisse aliquid aliter agendi quam docebat. / [3] But then, even if he censures Peter and John and James, who were thought to be pillars, it is for a manifest reason. They seemed to be changing their company from respect of persons. And yet as Paul himself "became all things to all men," that he might gain all, it was possible that Peter also might have betaken himself to the same plan of practising somewhat different from what he taught.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.3.1-8: [1] Denique ad patrocinium Petri ceterorumque apostolorum ascendisse Hierosolymam post annos quatuordecim scribit, ut conferret cum illis de evangelii sui regula, ne in vacuum tot annis cucurrisset aut curreret, si quid scilicet citra formam illorum evangelizaret. Adeo ab illis probari et constabiliri desiderarat, quos, si quando, vultis Iudaismi magis adfines subintellegi. [2] Cum vero nec Titum dicit circumcisum, iam incipit ostendere solam circumcisionis quaestionem ex defensione adhuc legis concussam ab eis quos propterea falsos et superinducticios fratres appellat, non aliud statuere pergentes quam perseverantiam legis, ex fide sine dubio integra creatoris, atque ita pervertentes evangelium, non interpolatione scripturae qua Christum creatoris effingerent, sed retentione veteris disciplinae ne legem creatoris excluderent. [3] Ergo propter falsos, inquit, superinducticios fratres, qui subintraverant ad speculandam libertatem nostram quam habemus in Christo, ut nos subigerent servituti, nec ad horam cessimus subiectioni. Intendamus enim et sensui ipsi et causae eius, et apparebit vitiatio scripturae. Cum praemittit, Sed nec Titus, qui mecum erat, cum esset Graecus, coactus est circumcidi, dehinc subiungit, Propter superinducticios falsos fratres, et reliqua, contrarii utique facti incipit reddere rationem, ostendens propter quid fecerit quod nec fecisset nec ostendisset si illud propter quod fecit non accidisset. [4] Denique dicas velim, si non subintroissent falsi illi fratres ad speculandam libertatem eorum, cessissent subiectioni? Non opinor. Ergo cesserunt, quia fuerunt propter quos cederetur. Hoc enim rudi fidei et adhuc de legis observatione suspensae competebat, ipso quoque apostolo ne in vacuum cucurrisset aut curreret suspecto. [5] Itaque frustrandi erant falsi fratres, speculantes libertatem Christianam, ne ante eam in servitutem abducerent Iudaismi quam Paulus sciret se non in vacuum cucurrisse, quam dexteras ei darent antecessores, quam ex censu eorum in nationes praedicandi munus subiret. Necessario igitur cessit ad tempus, et sic ei ratio constat Timotheum circumcidendi et rasos introducendi in templum, quae in Actis edicuntur, adeo vera, ut apostolo consonent profitenti factum se Iudaeis Iudaeum ut Iudaeos lucrifaceret, et sub lege agentem propter eos qui sub lege agerent, sic et propter superinductos illos, et omnibus novissime omnia factum ut omnes lucraretur. [6] Si haec quoque intellegi ex hoc postulant, id quoque nemo dubitabit, eius dei et Christi praedicatorem Paulum cuius legem quamvis excludens, interim tamen pro temporibus admiserat, statim amoliendam si novum deum protulisset. Bene igitur quod et dexteras Paulo dederunt Petrus et Iacobus et Ioannes, et de officii distributione pepigerunt, ut Paulus in nationes, illi in circumcisionem, tantum ut meminissent egenorum, et hoc secundum legem creatoris, pauperes et egenos foventis, sicut in evangelii vestri retractatu probatum est. [7] Adeo constat de lege sola fuisse quaestionem, dum ostenditur quid ex lege custodiri convenerit. Sed reprehendit Petrum non recto pede incedentem ad evangelii veritatem. Plane reprehendit, non ob aliud tamen quam ob inconstantiam victus, quem pro personarum qualitate variabat, timens eos qui erant ex circumcisione, non ob aliquam divinitatis perversitatem, de qua et aliis in faciem restitisset, qui de minore causa conversationis ambiguae Petro ipsi non pepercit. Sed quomodo Marcionitae volunt credi? [8] De cetero pergat apostolus, negans ex operibus legis iustificari hominem, sed ex fide. Eiusdem tamen dei cuius et lex. Nec enim laborasset fidem a lege discernere, quam diversitas ipsius divinitatis ultro discrevisset, si fuisset. Merito non reaedificabat quae destruxit. Destrui autem lex habuit ex quo vox Ioannis clamavit in eremo: Parate vias domini, ut fierent rivi et colles et montes repleti et humiliati, et tortuosa et aspera in rectitudinem et in campos, id est legis difficultates in evangelii facilitates. Meminerat iam et psalmi esse tempus: Disrumpamus a nobis vincula eorum, et abiciamus a nobis iugum ipsorum; ex quo tumultuatae sunt gentes et populi meditati sunt inania, astiterunt reges terrae et magistratus congregati sunt in unum adversus dominum et adversus Christum ipsius; ut iam ex fidei libertate iustificetur homo, non ex legis servitute, quia iustus ex fide vivit. / [1] But with regard to the countenance of Peter and the rest of the apostles, he tells us that "fourteen years after he went up to Jerusalem," in order to confer with them about the rule which he followed in his gospel, lest perchance he should all those years have been running, and be running still, in vain, (which would be the case, ) of course, if his preaching of the gospel fell short of their method. So great had been his desire to be approved and supported by those whom you wish on all occasions to be understood as in alliance with Judaism! [2] When indeed he says, that "neither was Titus circumcised," he for the first time shows us that circumcision was the only question connected with the maintenance of the law, which had been as yet agitated by those whom he therefore calls "false brethren unawares brought in." These persons went no further than to insist on a continuance of the law, retaining unquestionably a sincere belief in the Creator. They perverted the gospel in their teaching, not indeed by such a tampering with the Scripture as should enable them to expunge the Creator's Christ, but by so retaining the ancient régime as not to exclude the Creator's law. [3] Therefore he says: "Because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ, that they might bring us into bondage, to whom we gave place by subjection not even for an hour." Let us only attend to the clear sense and to the reason of the thing, and the perversion of the Scripture will be apparent. When he first says, "Neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised," and then adds, "And that because of false brethren unawares brought in," etc., he gives us an insight into his reason for acting in a clean contrary way, showing us wherefore he did that which he would neither have done nor shown to us, if that had not happened which induced him to act as he did. [4] But then I want you to tell us whether they would have yielded to the subjection that was demanded, if these false brethren had not crept in to spy out their liberty? I apprehend not. They therefore gave way (in a partial concession), because there were persons whose weak faith required consideration. For their rudimentary belief, which was still in suspense about the observance of the law, deserved this concessive treatment, when even the apostle himself had some suspicion that he might have run, and be still running, in vain. [5] Accordingly, the false brethren who were the spies of their Christian liberty must be thwarted in their efforts to bring it under the yoke of their own Judaism before that Paul discovered whether his labour had been in vain, before that those who preceded him in the apostolate gave him their right hands of fellowship, before that he entered on the office of preaching to the Gentiles, according to their arrangement with him. He therefore made some concession, as was necessary, for a time; and this was the reason why he had Timothy circumcised, and the Nazarites introduced into the temple, which incidents are described in the Acts. Their truth may be inferred from their agreement with the apostle's own profession, how "to the Jews he became as a Jew, that he might gain the Jews, and to them that were under the law, as under the law,"----and so here with respect to those who come in secretly,----"and lastly, how he became all things to all men, that he might gain all." [6] Now, inasmuch as the circumstances require such an interpretation as this, no one will refuse to admit that Paul preached that God and that Christ whose law he was excluding all the while, however much he allowed it, owing to the times, but which he would have had summarily to abolish if he had published a new god. Rightly, then, did Peter and James and John give their right hand of fellowship to Paul, and agree on such a division of their work, as that Paul should go to the heathen, and themselves to the circumcision. Their agreement, also, "to remember the poor" was in complete conformity with the law of the Creator, which cherished the poor and needy, as has been shown in our observations on your Gospel. [7] It is thus certain that the question was one which simply regarded the law, while at the same time it is apparent what portion of the law it was convenient to have observed. Paul, however, censures Peter for not walking straightforwardly according to the truth of the gospel. No doubt he blames him; but it was solely because of his inconsistency in the matter of "eating," which he varied according to the sort of persons (whom he associated with) "fearing them which were of the circumcision," but not on account of any perverse opinion touching another god. For if such a question had arisen, others also would have been "resisted face to face" by the man who had not even spared Peter on the comparatively small matter of his doubtful conversation. But what do the Marcionites wish to have believed (on the point)? [8] For the rest, the apostle must (be permitted to) go on with his own statement, wherein he says that "a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by faith: " faith, however, in the same God to whom belongs the law also. For of course he would have bestowed no labour on severing faith from the law, when the difference of the god would, if there had only been any, have of itself produced such a severance. Justly, therefore, did he refuse to "build up again (the structure of the law) which he had overthrown." The law, indeed, had to be overthrown, from the moment when John "cried in the wilderness, Prepare ye the ways of the Lord," that valleys and hills and mountains may be filled up and levelled, and the crooked and the rough ways be made straight and smooth ----in other words, that the difficulties of the law might be changed into the facilities of the gospel. For he remembered that the time was come of which the Psalm spake, "Let us break their bands asunder, and cast off their yoke from us; " since the time when "the nations became tumultuous, and the people imagined vain counsels; "when "the kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ," in order that thenceforward man might be justified by the liberty of faith, not by servitude to the law, "because the just shall live by his faith."
From Hegemonius, Acts of Archelaus 45: Ipsum quoque Paulum ex propria sua persona dicebat adserere id quod ait: Si ea quae destruxi iterum aedifico, praevaricatorem me constituo. / He also maintained that Paul himself spoke in his own proper person when he said: If I build again the things which I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor.
Adamantius Dialogue 5.22.
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 2.7-8: These verses are unattested as being in Marcion. There is some level of expectation that Tertullian would have quoted it against Marcion to show the harmony of Paul with Peter as apostles. Some or all of these verses are considered an interpolation on other grounds by C. P. Coffin (“Peter or Cephas in Pauline Usage“), Ernst Barnikol (“The Non-Pauline Origin of the Parallelism of the Apostles Peter and Paul“), William O Walker Jr. (“Galatians 2:8 and the Question of Paul’s Apostleship“), J. C. O’Neil (The Recovery of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians, p. 37), and Hermann Detering (The Original Version of the Epistle to the Galatians, p. 33).
Peter Kirby's criteria: (1) Passages attested as absent from the Marcionite version by the patristic writers. (2) Unattested passages that have miscellaneous manuscript support and/or patristic support for omission. (3) Unattested passages that Tertullian is likely to have cited were they present in the Marcionite version. (4) Unattested passages that correspond to a scholarly conjecture for interpolation on grounds other than the alleged absence in the Marcionite version.

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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:12 am

Galatians 3.1-29.

1 Ὦ ἀνόητοι Γαλάται, τίς ὑμᾶς ἐβάσκανεν, οἷς κατ’ ὀφθαλμοὺς Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς προεγράφη ἐσταυρωμένος; 2 τοῦτο μόνον θέλω μαθεῖν ἀφ’ ὑμῶν, ἐξ ἔργων νόμου τὸ Πνεῦμα ἐλάβετε ἢ ἐξ ἀκοῆς πίστεως; 3 οὕτως ἀνόητοί ἐστε; ἐναρξάμενοι Πνεύματι νῦν σαρκὶ ἐπιτελεῖσθε; 4 τοσαῦτα ἐπάθετε εἰκῇ; εἴ γε καὶ εἰκῇ. 5 ὁ οὖν ἐπιχορηγῶν ὑμῖν τὸ Πνεῦμα καὶ ἐνεργῶν δυνάμεις ἐν ὑμῖν, ἐξ ἔργων νόμου ἢ ἐξ ἀκοῆς πίστεως; 6 καθὼς Ἀβραὰμ ἐπίστευσεν τῷ Θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. 7 Γινώσκετε ἄρα ὅτι οἱ ἐκ πίστεως, οὗτοι υἱοί εἰσιν Ἀβραάμ. 8 προϊδοῦσα δὲ ἡ γραφὴ ὅτι ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοῖ τὰ ἔθνη ὁ Θεὸς, προευηγγελίσατο τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ὅτι Ἐνευλογηθήσονται ἐν σοὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη. 9 ὥστε οἱ ἐκ πίστεως εὐλογοῦνται σὺν τῷ πιστῷ Ἀβραάμ. 10 Ὅσοι γὰρ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἰσὶν, ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσίν, γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά. 11 ὅτι δὲ ἐν νόμῳ οὐδεὶς δικαιοῦται παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ δῆλον, ὅτι Ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται· 12 ὁ δὲ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως, ἀλλ’ Ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς. 13 Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα, ὅτι γέγραπται Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου, 14 ἵνα εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ἡ εὐλογία τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ γένηται ἐν Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ, ἵνα τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ Πνεύματος λάβωμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως. [Marcion locates verse 15a before Galatians 4.3] 15a Ἀδελφοί, κατὰ ἄνθρωπον λέγω. 15b ὅμως ἀνθρώπου κεκυρωμένην διαθήκην οὐδεὶς ἀθετεῖ ἢ ἐπιδιατάσσεται. 16 τῷ δὲ Ἀβραὰμ ἐρρέθησαν αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ. οὐ λέγει Καὶ τοῖς σπέρμασιν, ὡς ἐπὶ πολλῶν, ἀλλ’ ὡς ἐφ’ ἑνός Καὶ τῷ σπέρματί σου, ὅς ἐστιν Χριστός. 17 τοῦτο δὲ λέγω· διαθήκην προκεκυρωμένην ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ ὁ μετὰ τετρακόσια καὶ τριάκοντα ἔτη γεγονὼς νόμος οὐκ ἀκυροῖ, εἰς τὸ καταργῆσαι τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν. 18 εἰ γὰρ ἐκ νόμου ἡ κληρονομία, οὐκέτι ἐξ ἐπαγγελίας· τῷ δὲ Ἀβραὰμ δι’ ἐπαγγελίας κεχάρισται ὁ Θεός. 19 Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρις ἂν ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ᾧ ἐπήγγελται, διαταγεὶς δι’ ἀγγέλων ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου. 20 ὁ δὲ μεσίτης ἑνὸς οὐκ ἔστιν, ὁ δὲ Θεὸς εἷς ἐστιν. 21 ὁ οὖν νόμος κατὰ τῶν ἐπαγγελιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ; μὴ γένοιτο. εἰ γὰρ ἐδόθη νόμος ὁ δυνάμενος ζωοποιῆσαι, ὄντως ἐκ νόμου ἂν ἦν ἡ δικαιοσύνη· 22 ἀλλὰ συνέκλεισεν ἡ γραφὴ τὰ πάντα ὑπὸ ἁμαρτίαν ἵνα ἡ ἐπαγγελία ἐκ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δοθῇ τοῖς πιστεύουσιν. 23 Πρὸ τοῦ δὲ ἐλθεῖν τὴν πίστιν ὑπὸ νόμον ἐφρουρούμεθα συνκλειόμενοι εἰς τὴν μέλλουσαν πίστιν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι. 24 ὥστε ὁ νόμος παιδαγωγὸς ἡμῶν γέγονεν εἰς Χριστόν, ἵνα ἐκ πίστεως δικαιωθῶμεν· 25 ἐλθούσης δὲ τῆς πίστεως οὐκέτι ὑπὸ παιδαγωγόν ἐσμεν. 26 Πάντες γὰρ υἱοὶ Θεοῦ ἐστε διὰ τῆς πίστεως ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· 27 ὅσοι γὰρ εἰς Χριστὸν ἐβαπτίσθητε, Χριστὸν ἐνεδύσασθε. 28 οὐκ ἔνι Ἰουδαῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην, οὐκ ἔνι δοῦλος οὐδὲ ἐλεύθερος, οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ· πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς εἷς ἐστε ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. 29 εἰ δὲ ὑμεῖς Χριστοῦ, ἄρα τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ σπέρμα ἐστέ, κατ’ ἐπαγγελίαν κληρονόμοι. 1 Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly portrayed among you as crucified? 2 I just want to learn this from you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3 Are you so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed in the flesh? 4 Did you suffer so many things in vain, if it is indeed in vain? 5 He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you and does miracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? [Criterion 1:] 6 Even as Abraham “believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness.” 7 Know therefore that those who are of faith are children of Abraham. 8 The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the Good News beforehand to Abraham, saying, “In you all the nations will be blessed.” 9 So then, those who are of faith are blessed with the faithful Abraham. 10 For as many as are of the works of [Marcion: under] the law are under a curse. For it is written, “Cursed is everyone who doesn’t continue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to do them.” 11 Now that no man is justified by the law before God is evident, for, [Marcion: learn therefore that] “The righteous will live by faith.” 12 The law is not of faith, but, “The man who does them will live by them.” 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us. For it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree,” 14 that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. [Marcion locates verse 15a before Galatians 4.3] 15a Brothers, I am speaking in human terms; [criterion 1:] 15b though it is only a man’s covenant, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void or adds to it. 16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his offspring. He doesn’t say, “To descendants”, as of many, but as of one, “To your offspring”, which is Christ. 17 Now I say this: A covenant confirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundred thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of no effect. 18 For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more of promise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 19 Then why is there the law? It was added because of transgressions, until the offspring should come to whom the promise has been made. It was ordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 20 Now a mediator is not between one, but God is one. 21 Is the law then against the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a law given which could make alive, most certainly righteousness would have been of the law. 22 But the Scripture [Marcion: Law] imprisoned all things under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. 23 But before faith came, we were kept in custody under the law, confined for the faith which should afterwards be revealed. 24 So that the law has become our tutor to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith. 25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor. 26 For you are all children of God, through faith in Christ Jesus. 27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. [Criterion 1:] 29 If you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring and heirs according to promise.


Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.3.8-11: [8] De cetero pergat apostolus, negans ex operibus legis iustificari hominem, sed ex fide. Eiusdem tamen dei cuius et lex. Nec enim laborasset fidem a lege discernere, quam diversitas ipsius divinitatis ultro discrevisset, si fuisset. Merito non reaedificabat quae destruxit. Destrui autem lex habuit ex quo vox Ioannis clamavit in eremo: Parate vias domini, ut fierent rivi et colles et montes repleti et humiliati, et tortuosa et aspera in rectitudinem et in campos, id est legis difficultates in evangelii facilitates. Meminerat iam et psalmi esse tempus: Disrumpamus a nobis vincula eorum, et abiciamus a nobis iugum ipsorum; ex quo tumultuatae sunt gentes et populi meditati sunt inania, astiterunt reges terrae et magistratus congregati sunt in unum adversus dominum et adversus Christum ipsius; ut iam ex fidei libertate iustificetur homo, non ex legis servitute, quia iustus ex fide vivit. [9] Quod si prophetes Abacuc praenuntiavit, habes et apostolum prophetas confirmantem, sicut et Christus. Eius ergo dei erit fides in qua vivet iustus, cuius et lex in qua non iustificatur operarius. Proinde si in lege maledictio est, in fide vero benedictio, utrumque habes propositum apud creatorem: Ecce posui, inquit, ante te maledictionem et benedictionern. Non potes distantiam vindicare, quae etsi rerum est, non ideo auctorum, quae ab uno auctore proponitur. Cur autem Christus factus sit pro nobis maledictio ipso apostolo edocente, manifestum est quam nobiscum faciat, id est secundum fidem creatoris. [10] Neque enim quia creator pronuntiavit, Maledictus omnis in ligno suspensus, ideo videbitur alterius dei esse Christus et idcirco a creatore iam tunc in lege maledictus. Et quomodo praemaledixisset eum creator quem ignorat? Cur autem non magis competat creatori filium suum dedisse maledictioni suae quam illi deo tuo subdidisse maledictioni, et quidem pro homine alieno? Denique si atrox videtur hoc in creatore circa filium, proinde tuo in deo; si vero rationale et in tuo, proinde et in meo, et magis in meo. [11] Facilius enim crederetur eius esse per maledictionem Christi benedictionem prospexisse homini qui et maledictionem aliquando et benedictionem proposuerit ante hominem, quam qui neutrum unquam sit apud te professus. Accepimus igitur benedictionem spiritalem per fidem, inquit, ex qua scilicet vivit iustus, secundum creatorem. Hoc est ergo quod dico, eius dei fidem esse cuius est forma gratiae fidei. Sed et cum adicit: Omnes enim filii estis fidei, ostenditur quid supra haeretica industria eraserit, mentionem scilicet Abrahae, qua nos apostolus filios Abrahae per fidem affirmat, secundum quam mentionem hic quoque filios fidei notavit. Ceterum quomodo filii fidei? et cuius fidei, si non Abrahae? / [8] For the rest, the apostle must (be permitted to) go on with his own statement, wherein he says that "a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by faith: " faith, however, in the same God to whom belongs the law also. For of course he would have bestowed no labour on severing faith from the law, when the difference of the god would, if there had only been any, have of itself produced such a severance. Justly, therefore, did he refuse to "build up again (the structure of the law) which he had overthrown." The law, indeed, had to be overthrown, from the moment when John "cried in the wilderness, Prepare ye the ways of the Lord," that valleys and hills and mountains may be filled up and levelled, and the crooked and the rough ways be made straight and smooth ----in other words, that the difficulties of the law might be changed into the facilities of the gospel. For he remembered that the time was come of which the Psalm spake, "Let us break their bands asunder, and cast off their yoke from us; " since the time when "the nations became tumultuous, and the people imagined vain counsels; "when "the kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ," in order that thenceforward man might be justified by the liberty of faith, not by servitude to the law, "because the just shall live by his faith." [9] Now, although the prophet Habakkuk first said this, yet you have the apostle here confirming the prophets, even as Christ did. The object, therefore, of the faith whereby the just man shall live, will be that same God to whom likewise belongs the law, by doing which no man is justified. Since, then, there equally are found the curse in the law and the blessing in faith, you have both conditions set forth by the Creator: "Behold," says He, "I have set before you a blessing and a curse." You cannot establish a diversity of authors because there happens to be one of things; for the diversity is itself proposed by one and the same author. Why, however, "Christ was made a curse for us," is declared by the apostle himself in a way which quite helps our side, as being the result of the Creator's appointment. [10] But yet it by no means follows, because the Creator said of old, "Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree," that Christ belonged to another god, and on that account was accursed even then in the law. And how, indeed, could the Creator have cursed by anticipation one whom He knew not of? Why, however, may it not be more suitable for the Creator to have delivered His own Son to His own curse, than to have submitted Him to the malediction of that god of yours,----in behalf, too, of man, who is an alien to him? Now, if this appointment of the Creator respecting His Son appears to you to be a cruel one, it is equally so in the case of your own god; if, on the contrary, it be in accordance with reason in your god, it is equally so----nay, much more so----in mine. [11] For it would be more credible that that God had provided blessing for man, through the curse of Christ, who formerly set both a blessing and a curse before man, than that he had done so, who, according to you, never at any time pronounced either. "We have received therefore, the promise of the Spirit," as the apostle says, "through faith," even that faith by which the just man lives, in accordance with the Creator's purpose. What I say, then, is this, that that God is the object of faith who prefigured the grace of faith. But when he also adds, "For ye are all the children of faith," it becomes dear that what the heretic's industry erased was the mention of Abraham's name; for by faith the apostle declares us to be "children of Abraham," and after mentioning him he expressly called us "children of faith" also. But how are we children of faith? and of whose faith, if not Abraham's?
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.4.1-2: [1] Sub eadem Abrahae mentione, dum ipso sensu revincatur, Adhuc, inquit, secundum hominem dico: dum essemus parvuli, sub elementis mundi eramus positi, ad deserviendum eis. Atquin non est hoc humanitus dictum. Non enim exemplum est, sed veritas. Quis enim parvulus, utique sensu, quod sunt nationes, non elementis subiectus est mundi, quae pro deo suspicit? Illud autem fuit, quod cum Secundum hominem dixisset, tamen testamentum hominis nemo spernit aut superordinat. [2] Exemplo enim humani testamenti permanentis divinum tuebatur. Abrahae dictae sunt promissiones et semini eius: non dixit seminibus, quasi pluribus, sed semini, tanquam uni, quod Christus est. Erubescat spongia Marcionis! Nisi quod ex abundanti retracto quae abstulit, cum validius sit illum ex his revinci quae servavit. Cum autem evenit impleri tempus, misit deus filium suum, utique is qui etiam ipsorum temporum deus est quibus saeculum constat, qui signa quoque temporum ordinavit, soles et lunas et sidera et stellas, qui filii denique sui revelationem in extremitatem temporum et disposuit et praedicavit: In novissimis diebus erit manifestus mons domini, et, In novissimis diebus effundam de spiritu meo in omnem carnem, secundum Ioelem. Ipsius erat sustinuisse tempus impleri cuius erat etiam finis temporis, sicut initium. / [1] "But," says he, "I speak after the manner of men: when we were children, we were placed in bondage under the elements of the world." This, however, was not said "after the manner of men." For there is no figure here, but literal truth. For (with respect to the latter clause of this passage), what child (in the sense, that is, in which the Gentiles are children) is not in bondage to the elements of the world, which he looks up to in the light of a god? With regard, however, to the former clause, there was a figure (as the apostle wrote it); because after he had said, "I speak after the manner of men," he adds), "Though it be but a man's covenant, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto." [2] For by the figure of the permanency of a human covenant he was defending the divine testament. "To Abraham were the promises made, and to his seed. He said not 'to seeds, 'as of many; but as of one, 'to thy seed, 'which is Christ." Fie on Marcion's sponge! But indeed it is superfluous to dwell on what he has erased, when he may be more effectually confuted from that which he has retained. "But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth His Son" ----the God, of course, who is the Lord of that very succession of times which constitutes an age; who also ordained, as "signs" of time, suns and moons and constellations and stars; who furthermore both predetermined and predicted that the revelation of His Son should be postponed to the end of the times. "It shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain (of the house) of the Lord shall be manifested"; "and in the last days I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh" as Joel says. It was characteristic of Him (only) to wait patiently for the fulness of time, to whom belonged the end of time no less than the beginning.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.4.8: [8] Sed ut furibus solet aliquid excidere de praeda in indicium, ita credo et Marcionem novissimam Abrahae mentionem dereliquisse, nulla magis auferenda, etsi ex parte convertit. Si enim Abraham duos liberos habuit, unum ex ancilla et alium ex libera, sed qui ex ancilla carnaliter natus est, qui vero ex libera per repromissionem: quae sunt allegorica, id est aliud portendentia: haec sunt enim duo testamenta, sive duae ostensiones, sicut invenimus interpretatum, unum a monte Sina in synagogam Iudaeorum secundum legem generans in servitutem, aliud super omnem principatum generans, vim, dominationem, et omne nomen quod nominatur, non tantum in hoc aevo sed et in futuro, quae est mater nostra, in quam repromisimus sanctam ecclesiam; ideoque adicit, Propter quod, fratres, non sumus ancillae filii sed liberae, utique manifestavit et Christianismi generositatem in filio Abrahae ex libera nato allegoriae habere sacramentum, sicut et Iudaismi servitutem legalem in filio ancillae, atque ita eius dei esse utramque dispositionem apud quem invenimus utriusque dispositionis delineationem. / [8] But as, in the case of thieves, something of the stolen goods is apt to drop by the way, as a clue to their detection; so, as it seems to me, it has happened to Marcion: the last mention of Abraham's name he has left untouched (in the epistle), although no passage required his erasure more than this, even his partial alteration of the text. "For (it is written) that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond maid, the other by a free woman; but he who was of the bond maid was born after the flesh, but he of the free woman was by promise: which things are allegorized" (that is to say, they presaged something besides the literal history); "for these are the two covenants," or the two exhibitions (of the divine plans), as we have found the word interpreted," the one from the Mount Sinai," in relation to the synagogue of the Jews, according to the law, "which gendereth to bondage"----"the other gendereth" (to liberty, being raised) above all principality, and power, and dominion, and every name that is l named, not only in this world, but in that which is to come, "which is the mother of us all," in which we have the promise of (Christ's) holy church; by reason of which he adds in conclusion: "So then, brethren, we are not children of the bond woman, but of the free." In this passage he has undoubtedly shown that Christianity had a noble birth, being sprung, as the mystery of the allegory indicates, from that son of Abraham who was born of the free woman; whereas from the son of the bond maid came the legal bondage of Judaism. Both dispensations, therefore, emanate from that same God by whom, as we have found, they were both sketched out beforehand.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.13.11: [11] Propter hoc omnia concluserat lex creatoris sub delictum, et totum mundum deduxerat in reatum, et omne os obstruxerat, ne qui gloriaretur per illam, ut gratia servaretur in gloriam Christi, non creatoris, sed Marcionis? / [11] For this (I suppose it was, that) the law of the Creator had "concluded all under sin," and had brought in "all the world as guilty (before God)," and had "stopped every mouth," so that none could glory through it, in order that grace might be maintained to the glory of the Christ, not of the Creator, but of Marcion!
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.8.1: Πάλιν δὲ τὰ τῆς θείας γραφῆς οὐκ ὀρθῶς νοῶν προφέρει καὶ τοὺς ἀκεραίους ἐξαπατᾷ διαστρέφων τὸ τοῦ ἀποστόλου ῥητόν, ὅτι «Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου, γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα» καί φησιν· εἰ ἦμεν αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἂν τὸ ἑαυτοῦ ἠγόραζεν· / But again, he cites sacred scripture without understanding it properly, and deceives the innocent by perverting the letter of the apostle's, 'Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the Law, being made a curse for us.' He says, 'If we were his, he would not 'buy' what was his own.
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.11.8: <α> (<κη>). <α>. «Μάθετε ὅτι ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται. ὅσοι γὰρ ὑπὸ νόμον, ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσίν· ὁ δὲ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς». <β>. «Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου». «ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, διὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας». / 1. 'Learn that the just shall live by faith. For as many as are under the Law are under a curse; but, The man that doeth them shall live by them.' 2. 'Cursed is everyone that hangeth upon a tree; but he that is of promise is by the freewoman.'
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.12.3: <Σχόλιον> <α>. «Μάθετε ὅτι ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται. ὅσοι γὰρ ὑπὸ νόμον, ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσίν· ὁ δὲ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς». <Ἔλεγχος> <α>. Τό «μάθετε ὅτι ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται» κατὰ τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀποστόλου εἰρημένα γραφῆς παλαιᾶς ἐστι δεικτικά, ἅτινά ἐστι παρὰ τοῦ ἀποστόλου εἰς ἡμετέραν ζωὴν * ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν εἰρημένα περὶ καινῆς διαθήκης καὶ σύζυγα ὄντα τῆς ἡμῶν ἐλπίδος. καὶ τό «ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσί» φησὶν ὅτι ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ἀπειλὴ ἐτύγχανε κατὰ τῆς τοῦ Ἀδὰμ παρακοῆς, ἕως ὅτε ἦλθεν ὁ ἄνωθεν ἐλθὼν καὶ ἑαυτὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ φυράματος σῶμα ἀμφιάσας μετέβαλε τὴν κατάραν εἰς εὐλογίαν. <Σχόλιον> <β>. «Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου». «ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, διὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας». <Ἔλεγχος> <β>. Δεικνὺς πάλιν ὁ ἅγιος ἀπόστολος τὴν οἰκονομίαν τῆς ἐνσάρκου παρουσίας καὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ ἐπὶ τῇ λύσει τῆς κατάρας γινομένην, ταύτην δὲ προγεγράφθαι ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ πεπροφητεῦσθαι <ὡς> ἐσομένην, εἶτα τελεσθεῖσαν ἐπὶ τῷ σωτῆρι, ἐπέδειξε σαφῶς ὅτι οὐκ ἀλλότριος ὁ νόμος τοῦ σωτῆρος. ἐπροφήτευσε γὰρ καὶ ἐμαρτύρησε τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ μέλλουσι γίνεσθαι. / Scholion 1. 'Learn that the just shall live by faith. For as many as are under the Law are under a curse; but, The man that doeth them shall live by them.' (a) Elenchus 1. The saying, 'Learn that the just shall live by faith,' as the apostle gives it is reference to an ancient scripture. Such things have been taken over by the apostle for our salvation, as statements from the Law and prophets (which are) about a new covenant and are conjoined with our hope. (b) And he says, 'They are under a curse,' because there was a threat in the Law against Adam's disobedience, until the One who had come from above arrived, clothed himself with a body made of Adam's clay, and changed the curse into a blessing. Scholion 2. 'Cursed is everyone that hangeth upon a tree; but he that is of the promise is by the freewoman.' Elenchus 2. Again, by showing that the provision of the incarnation and cross was made for the purpose of lifting the curse, and that it had been written in the Law first, and prophesied, and then fulfilled in the Saviour, the holy apostle gave plain indication that the Law is not alien to the Saviour. For it prophesied and witnessed to the things that were to be done by him.
From Jerome, Commentary on Galatians 3.6: Sicut Abraham credidit Deo, et reputatum est illi ad iustitiam. Ab hoc loco usque ad eum ubi scribitur: Qui ex fide sunt, benedicentur cum fideli Abraham, Marcion de suo Apostulo erasit. Sed quid profuit hoc tulisse, cum caetera quae reliquit, insaniae eius adversa sint? / "Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness." Marcion omitted from his version of the Apostle's epistle this and the next two verses, and he resumed with the verse, "Those who have faith will be blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith." But what was the point of doing this, seeing that the parts he left intact refute his madness?
From Jerome, Commentary on Galatians 3.13: Christus nos redemit de maledicto Legis, factus pro nobis maledictum. Subrepit in hoc loco Marcion de potestate Creatoris, quem sanguinarium, crudelem infamat et vindicem, asserens nos redemptos esse per Christum, qui alterius boni Dei Filius sit. Qui si intelligeret quo differunt emere et redimere (quia qui emit, alienum emit; qui autemm redimit, id emit proprie quod suum fuit, et suum esse desivit) numquam Scripturarum verba simplicia in calumniam sui dogmatis detorqueret. / "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse on our behalf." Marcion sneaks along at this point concerning the power of the Creator, whom he defames as bloodthirsty and cruel and vindictive, asserting that we were redeemed through Christ, who is the Son of the other God, the good one. If he had understood how procuring and redeeming differ from one another (since the one procuring procures something not his own; the one redeeming, however, procures that which was once his own and ceased to be his) he would never have twisted the simple words of the Scriptures around to make a calumny of his own teaching.
Adamantius Dialogue 1.27.
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 3.6-9: Jason BeDuhn comments, “Both Harnack (Marcion, 72*) and Schmid (Marcion und sein Apostolos, 106) conclude that Marcion’s text lacked Gal. 3.6-9. Jerome, Comm. Gal. 3.6 says, ‘In this passage all the way to where it is written, “who from faith are blessed together with the faithful Abraham,” Marcion erased from his Apostle’ … Tertullian, who jumps from Gal. 2.18 to 3.10 in his comments without saying anything about an omission, goes back to note one when he comes to comment on Gal 3:26, contending that the logic of the latter verse is ruined by the absence of the connection to the faith of Abraham … Later (5.4.8), he seems to suggest that Marcion’s text of Galatians lacked any mention of Abraham except Gal 4.22.” (The First New Testament, p. 264) See also Harnack and Detering.
Peter Kirby remarks concerning the relocation of Galatians 3.15a to just before 4.3: This is omitted in its current location. It is found instead immediately before Gal 4:3 instead. BeDuhn writes, “Tertullian, Marc. 5.4.1. Tertullian attests a transposition of 3.15a, adding ‘still’ (‘I still speak,’ Latin adhuc > Gk eti), to the beginning of this verse and omitting 4.3a ‘thus also you’ in agreement with Clement of Alexandria. Ephrem Syrus omits the clause at 3.15, but does not place it at 4.3.” (The First New Testament, p. 267)
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 3.15b-25: Harnack and Detering regard Gal 3:15b-25 as absent. BeDuhn regards Gal 3:22 as present in the Apostolikon because of “an allusion to Gal 3.22″ found in a discussion of Romans 12 (Tertullian, AM 5.13.11). On the other hand, Detering argues, “As we have seen, the evidence is clearly provided by Tertullian who switches immediately over from 3,14 to 3,26 (s. above) and ironically refers to the haeretica industria which he blames for the omission of the passage 3,15-25.” (pp. 53-54) Schmid regards Gal 3:15b-18 as absent, with 3:18 considered absent because of its reference to Abraham and because of the indication in Tertullian that Gal 4:22 was the only reference to Abraham. BeDuhn answers such an argument by saying that the Greek manuscripts 056 and 0176 show how the phrase containing Abraham in that verse could have been omitted due to scribal error. BeDuhn regards only the omission of Gal 3:15b-16 as secure. This much is explicitly identified as an omission by Tertullian. Tertullian quotes these verses and writes, “Let Marcion’s eraser be ashamed of itself! Except it is superfluous for me to discuss the passages he has left out, since my case is stronger if he is shown wrong by those he has retained.” (AM 5.4.1-2)
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 3.29: BeDuhn writes, “Harnack and Schmid think the mention of Abraham in v. 29 must have been omitted – Harnack on ideological grounds, Schmid on the basis of Tertullian’s apparent indication that Abraham was absent from Marcion’s text of the letter except for 4.22.” (The First New Testament, p. 267) Detering writes, “A survey of the discussion on passage 3,27-4,2 shows that an overall consensus is limited to v. 29: all scholars acknowledge that because of the mention of Abraham (cf. Tertullian V,4), this verse cannot have occcurred in the Marcionite Apostolikon. There can indeed be no doubt that this verse was missing in the Marcionite version of the epistle to the Galatians.” (The Original Version of the Epistle to the Galatians, p. 62)
Peter Kirby's criteria: (1) Passages attested as absent from the Marcionite version by the patristic writers. (2) Unattested passages that have miscellaneous manuscript support and/or patristic support for omission. (3) Unattested passages that Tertullian is likely to have cited were they present in the Marcionite version. (4) Unattested passages that correspond to a scholarly conjecture for interpolation on grounds other than the alleged absence in the Marcionite version.

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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:12 am

Galatians 4.1-31.

1 Λέγω δέ, ἐφ’ ὅσον χρόνον ὁ κληρονόμος νήπιός ἐστιν, οὐδὲν διαφέρει δούλου κύριος πάντων ὤν, 2 ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ ἐπιτρόπους ἐστὶν καὶ οἰκονόμους ἄχρι τῆς προθεσμίας τοῦ πατρός. [Marcion locates Galatians 3.15a at this point] 15a Ἀδελφοί, κατὰ ἄνθρωπον λέγω. [Marcion now returns to Galatians 4] 3 οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς, ὅτε ἦμεν νήπιοι, ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου ἤμεθα δεδουλωμένοι· 4 ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν Υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, 5 ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν. 6 Ὅτι δέ ἐστε υἱοί, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν, κρᾶζον Ἀββᾶ ὁ Πατήρ. 7 ὥστε οὐκέτι εἶ δοῦλος ἀλλὰ υἱός· εἰ δὲ υἱός, καὶ κληρονόμος διὰ Θεοῦ. 8 Ἀλλὰ τότε μὲν οὐκ εἰδότες Θεὸν ἐδουλεύσατε τοῖς φύσει μὴ οὖσιν θεοῖς· 9 νῦν δὲ γνόντες Θεόν, μᾶλλον δὲ γνωσθέντες ὑπὸ Θεοῦ, πῶς ἐπιστρέφετε πάλιν ἐπὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ καὶ πτωχὰ στοιχεῖα, οἷς πάλιν ἄνωθεν δουλεῦσαι θέλετε; 10 ἡμέρας παρατηρεῖσθε καὶ μῆνας καὶ καιροὺς καὶ ἐνιαυτούς. 11 φοβοῦμαι ὑμᾶς μή πως εἰκῇ κεκοπίακα εἰς ὑμᾶς. 12 Γίνεσθε ὡς ἐγώ, ὅτι κἀγὼ ὡς ὑμεῖς, ἀδελφοί, δέομαι ὑμῶν. οὐδέν με ἠδικήσατε· 13 οἴδατε δὲ ὅτι δι’ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν τὸ πρότερον, 14 καὶ τὸν πειρασμὸν ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου οὐκ ἐξουθενήσατε οὐδὲ ἐξεπτύσατε, ἀλλὰ ὡς ἄγγελον Θεοῦ ἐδέξασθέ με, ὡς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν. 15 ποῦ οὖν ὁ μακαρισμὸς ὑμῶν; μαρτυρῶ γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι εἰ δυνατὸν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὑμῶν ἐξορύξαντες ἐδώκατέ μοι. 16 ὥστε ἐχθρὸς ὑμῶν γέγονα ἀληθεύων ὑμῖν; 17 ζηλοῦσιν ὑμᾶς οὐ καλῶς, ἀλλὰ ἐκκλεῖσαι ὑμᾶς θέλουσιν, ἵνα αὐτοὺς ζηλοῦτε. 18 καλὸν δὲ ζηλοῦσθαι ἐν καλῷ πάντοτε, καὶ μὴ μόνον ἐν τῷ παρεῖναί με πρὸς ὑμᾶς, 19 τέκνα μου, οὓς πάλιν ὠδίνω μέχρις οὗ μορφωθῇ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν· 20 ἤθελον δὲ παρεῖναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἄρτι καὶ ἀλλάξαι τὴν φωνήν μου, ὅτι ἀποροῦμαι ἐν ὑμῖν. 21 Λέγετέ μοι, οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον θέλοντες εἶναι, τὸν νόμον οὐκ ἀκούετε; 22 γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ δύο υἱοὺς ἔσχεν, ἕνα ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης καὶ ἕνα ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. 23 ἀλλ’ ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας διὰ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας. 24 ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσιν δύο διαθῆκαι, μία μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινᾶ, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶν Ἄγαρ, [Marcion locates Ephesians 1.21 at approximately this point] Ephesians 1.21 ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως καὶ κυριότητος καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι· [Marcion now returns to Galatians 4] 25 τὸ δὲ Ἄγαρ Σινᾶ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ· συνστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἱερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς. 26 ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίν, ἥτις ἐστὶν μήτηρ ἡμῶν· 27 γέγραπται γάρ Εὐφράνθητι, στεῖρα ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα, ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον, ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα· ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα. 28 ὑμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, κατὰ Ἰσαὰκ ἐπαγγελίας τέκνα ἐστέ. 29 ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκεν τὸν κατὰ Πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν. 30 ἀλλὰ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς· οὐ γὰρ μὴ κληρονομήσει ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. 31 διό, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. [Criterion 1 weakly, criterion 4:] 1 But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is no different from a bondservant, though he is lord of all, 2 but is under guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father. [Marcion locates Galatians 3.15a at this point] 15a Brothers, I am speaking in human terms. [Marcion now returns to Galatians 4] 3 So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental principles of the world. 4 But when the fullness of the time came, God sent out his Son, [criterion 3:] born to a woman, born under the law, 5 that he might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of children. 6 And because you are God's children, God [Marcion: he] sent out the [Marcion: his] Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, “Abba, Father!” 7 So you are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ. 8 However at that time, not knowing God, you were in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 9 But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do you turn back again to the weak and miserable elemental principles, to which you desire to be in bondage all over again? 10 You observe days, months, seasons, and years. 11 I am afraid for you, that I might have wasted my labor for you. 12 I beg you, brothers, become as I am, for I also have become as you are. You did me no wrong, 13 but you know that because of weakness in the flesh I preached the Good News to you the first time. 14 That which was a temptation to you in my flesh, you didn’t despise nor reject; but you received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. 15 What was the blessing you enjoyed? For I testify to you that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me. 16 So then, have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? 17 They zealously seek you in no good way. No, they desire to alienate you, that you may seek them. 18 But it is always good to be zealous in a good cause, and not only when I am present with you. 19 My little children, of whom I am again in travail until Christ is formed in you— 20 but I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my tone, for I am perplexed about you. 21 Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don’t you listen to the law? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the servant, and one by the free woman. 23 However, the son by the servant was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free woman was born through promise. 24 These things contain an allegory, for these are two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children [Marcion: into the synagogue of the Jews in accordance with the Law,] into bondage, the other one giving birth which is Hagar, [Marcion locates Ephesians 1.21 at approximately this point] Ephesians 1.21 far above all rule, authority, power, dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in that which is to come. [Marcion now returns to Galatians 4] 25 For this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is in bondage with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem that is above is free, which [Marcion: for she] is the mother of us all [Jason BeDuhn adds here, but does not defend: "that sacred assembly to which we have promised ourselves"]. 27 For it is written, “Rejoice, you barren who don’t bear. Break out and shout, you who don’t travail. For the desolate have more children than her who has a husband.” 28 Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 29 But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 30 However what does the Scripture say? “Throw out the servant and her son, for the son of the servant will not inherit with the son of the free woman.” 31 So then, brothers, we are not children of a servant, but of the free woman.


Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.4.1-6: [1] Sub eadem Abrahae mentione, dum ipso sensu revincatur, Adhuc, inquit, secundum hominem dico: dum essemus parvuli, sub elementis mundi eramus positi, ad deserviendum eis. Atquin non est hoc humanitus dictum. Non enim exemplum est, sed veritas. Quis enim parvulus, utique sensu, quod sunt nationes, non elementis subiectus est mundi, quae pro deo suspicit? Illud autem fuit, quod cum Secundum hominem dixisset, tamen testamentum hominis nemo spernit aut superordinat. [2] Exemplo enim humani testamenti permanentis divinum tuebatur. Abrahae dictae sunt promissiones et semini eius: non dixit seminibus, quasi pluribus, sed semini, tanquam uni, quod Christus est. Erubescat spongia Marcionis! Nisi quod ex abundanti retracto quae abstulit, cum validius sit illum ex his revinci quae servavit. Cum autem evenit impleri tempus, misit deus filium suum, utique is qui etiam ipsorum temporum deus est quibus saeculum constat, qui signa quoque temporum ordinavit, soles et lunas et sidera et stellas, qui filii denique sui revelationem in extremitatem temporum et disposuit et praedicavit: In novissimis diebus erit manifestus mons domini, et, In novissimis diebus effundam de spiritu meo in omnem carnem, secundum Ioelem. Ipsius erat sustinuisse tempus impleri cuius erat etiam finis temporis, sicut initium. [3] Ceterum deus ille otiosus, nec operationis nec praedicationis ullius, atque ita nec temporis alicuius, quid omnino egit quod efficeret tempus impleri et iam implendum sustineri? Si nihil, satis vanum est ut creatoris tempora sustinuerit serviens creatori. Cui autem rei misit filium suum? Ut eos qui sub lege erant redimeret, hoc est ut efficeret tortuosa in viam rectam et aspera in vias lenes, secundum Esaiam, ut vetera transirent et nova orirentur, lex nova ex Sion et sermo domini ex Hierusalem, et ut adoptionem filiorum acciperemus, utique nationes, quae filii non eramus. [4] Et ipse enim lux erit nationum, et in nomine eius nationes sperabunt. Itaque ut certum esset nos filios dei esse, misit spiritum suum in corda nostra, clamantem: Abba, pater. In novissimis enim, inquit, diebus effundam de meo spiritu in omnem carnem. Cuius gratia, nisi cuius et promissio gratiae? [5] Quis pater, nisi qui et factor? Post has itaque divitias non erat revertendum ad infirma et mendica elementa. Elementa autem apud Romanos quoque etiam primae litterae solent dici. Non ergo per mundialium elementorum derogationem a deo eoram avertere cupiebat, etsi dicendo supra, Si ergo his qui non natura sunt dei servitis, physicae, id est naturalis, superstitionis elementa pro deo habentis suggillabat errorem, nec sic tamen elementorum deum taxans. Sed quae velit intellegi elementa, primas scilicet litteras legis, ipse declarat. [6] Dies observatis et menses et tempora et annos, et sabbata ut opinor et coenas puras et ieiunia et dies magnos. Cessare enim ab his quoque, sicut et circumcisione, oportebat ex decretis creatoris, qui et per Esaiam, Neomenias vestras et sabbata et diem magnum non sustinebo, ieiunium et ferias et cerimonias vestras odit anima mea; et per Amos, Odi, reieci cerimonias vestras, et non odorabor in frequentiis vestris; item per Osee, Avertam universas iocunditates eius et cerimonias eius et sabbata et neomenias eius et omnes frequentias eius. / [1] "But," says he, "I speak after the manner of men: when we were children, we were placed in bondage under the elements of the world." This, however, was not said "after the manner of men." For there is no figure here, but literal truth. For (with respect to the latter clause of this passage), what child (in the sense, that is, in which the Gentiles are children) is not in bondage to the elements of the world, which he looks up to in the light of a god? With regard, however, to the former clause, there was a figure (as the apostle wrote it); because after he had said, "I speak after the manner of men," he adds), "Though it be but a man's covenant, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto." [2] For by the figure of the permanency of a human covenant he was defending the divine testament. "To Abraham were the promises made, and to his seed. He said not 'to seeds, 'as of many; but as of one, 'to thy seed, 'which is Christ." Fie on Marcion's sponge! But indeed it is superfluous to dwell on what he has erased, when he may be more effectually confuted from that which he has retained. "But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth His Son" ----the God, of course, who is the Lord of that very succession of times which constitutes an age; who also ordained, as "signs" of time, suns and moons and constellations and stars; who furthermore both predetermined and predicted that the revelation of His Son should be postponed to the end of the times. "It shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain (of the house) of the Lord shall be manifested"; "and in the last days I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh" as Joel says. It was characteristic of Him (only) to wait patiently for the fulness of time, to whom belonged the end of time no less than the beginning. [3] But as for that idle god, who has neither any work nor any prophecy, nor accordingly any time, to show for himself, what has he ever done to bring about the fulness of time, or to wait patiently its completion? If nothing, what an impotent state to have to wait for the Creator's time, in servility to the Creator! But for what end did He send His Son? "To redeem them that were under the law," in other words, to "make the crooked ways straight, and the rough places smooth," as Isaiah says ----in order that old things might pass away, and a new course begin, even "the new law out of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem," and "that we might receive the adoption of sons," that is, the Gentiles, who once were not sons. [4] For He is to be "the light of the Gentiles," and "in His name shall the Gentiles trust." That we may have, therefore the assurance that we are the children of God, "He hath sent forth His Spirit into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father." For "in the last days," saith He," I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh." Now, from whom comes this grace, but from Him who proclaimed the promise thereof? [5] Who is (our) Father, but He who is also our Maker? Therefore, after such affluence (of grace), they should not have returned "to weak and beggarly elements." By the Romans, however, the rudiments of learning are wont to be called elements. He did not therefore seek, by any depreciation of the mundane elements, to turn them away from their god, although, when he said just before, "Howbeit, then, ye serve them which by nature are no gods," he censured the error of that physical or natural superstition which holds the elements to be god; but at the God of those elements he aimed not in this censure. He tells us himself clearly enough what he means by "elements," even the rudiments of the law: [6] "Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years" ----the sabbaths, I suppose, and "the preparations," and the fasts, and the "high days." For the cessation of even these, no less than of circumcision, was appointed by the Creator's decrees, who had said by Isaiah, "Your new moons, and your sabbaths, and your high days I cannot bear; your fasting, and feasts, and ceremonies my soul hateth; " also by Amos, "I hate, I despise your feast-days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies; " and again by Hosea, "I will cause to cease all her mirth, and her feast-days, and her sabbaths, and her new moons, and all her solemn assemblies."
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.4.8: [8] Sed ut furibus solet aliquid excidere de praeda in indicium, ita credo et Marcionem novissimam Abrahae mentionem dereliquisse, nulla magis auferenda, etsi ex parte convertit. Si enim Abraham duos liberos habuit, unum ex ancilla et alium ex libera, sed qui ex ancilla carnaliter natus est, qui vero ex libera per repromissionem: quae sunt allegorica, id est aliud portendentia: haec sunt enim duo testamenta, sive duae ostensiones, sicut invenimus interpretatum, unum a monte Sina in synagogam Iudaeorum secundum legem generans in servitutem, aliud super omnem principatum generans, vim, dominationem, et omne nomen quod nominatur, non tantum in hoc aevo sed et in futuro, quae est mater nostra, in quam repromisimus sanctam ecclesiam; ideoque adicit, Propter quod, fratres, non sumus ancillae filii sed liberae, utique manifestavit et Christianismi generositatem in filio Abrahae ex libera nato allegoriae habere sacramentum, sicut et Iudaismi servitutem legalem in filio ancillae, atque ita eius dei esse utramque dispositionem apud quem invenimus utriusque dispositionis delineationem. / [8] But as, in the case of thieves, something of the stolen goods is apt to drop by the way, as a clue to their detection; so, as it seems to me, it has happened to Marcion: the last mention of Abraham's name he has left untouched (in the epistle), although no passage required his erasure more than this, even his partial alteration of the text. "For (it is written) that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond maid, the other by a free woman; but he who was of the bond maid was born after the flesh, but he of the free woman was by promise: which things are allegorized" (that is to say, they presaged something besides the literal history); "for these are the two covenants," or the two exhibitions (of the divine plans), as we have found the word interpreted," the one from the Mount Sinai," in relation to the synagogue of the Jews, according to the law, "which gendereth to bondage"----"the other gendereth" (to liberty, being raised) above all principality, and power, and dominion, and every name that is l named, not only in this world, but in that which is to come, "which is the mother of us all," in which we have the promise of (Christ's) holy church; by reason of which he adds in conclusion: "So then, brethren, we are not children of the bond woman, but of the free." In this passage he has undoubtedly shown that Christianity had a noble birth, being sprung, as the mystery of the allegory indicates, from that son of Abraham who was born of the free woman; whereas from the son of the bond maid came the legal bondage of Judaism. Both dispensations, therefore, emanate from that same God by whom, as we have found, they were both sketched out beforehand.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.8.6-7: [6] In evangelio, enim inquit, ego vos generavi, et, Filii mei quos parturio rursus. Iam nunc et illa promissio spiritus absolute facta per loelem: In novissimis diebus effundam de meo spiritu in omnem carnem, et prophetabunt filii filiaeque eorum, et super servos et ancillas meas de meo spiritu effundam. [7] Et utique si in novissimos dies gratiam spiritus creator repromisit, Christus autem spiritalium dispensator in novissimis diebus apparuit, dicente apostolo, At ubi tempus expletum est misit deus filium suum, et rursus, Quia tempus iam in collecto est, apparet et de temporum ultimorum praedicatione hanc gratiam spiritus ad Christum praedicatoris pertinere. Compara denique species apostoli et Esaiae. / [6] "For," says he, "I have begotten you through the gospel; " and "Ye are my children, of whom I travail again in birth." Now was absolutely fulfilled that promise of the Spirit which was given by the word of Joel: "In the last days will I pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh, and their sons and their daughters shall prophesy; and upon my servants and upon my handmaids will I pour out of my Spirit." [7] Since, then, the Creator promised the gift of His Spirit in the latter days; and since Christ has in these last days appeared as the dispenser of spiritual gifts (as the apostle says, "When the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son; " and again, "This I say, brethren, that the time is short" ), it evidently follows in connection with this prediction of the last days, that this gift of the Spirit belongs to Him who is the Christ of the predicters. Now compare the Spirit's specific graces, as they are described by the apostle, and promised by the prophet Isaiah.
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.11.8: <β>. «Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου». «ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, διὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας». / 2. 'Cursed is everyone that hangeth upon a tree; but he that is of promise is by the freewoman.'
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.12.3: <Σχόλιον> <β>. «Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου». «ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, διὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας». <Ἔλεγχος> <β>. Δεικνὺς πάλιν ὁ ἅγιος ἀπόστολος τὴν οἰκονομίαν τῆς ἐνσάρκου παρουσίας καὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ ἐπὶ τῇ λύσει τῆς κατάρας γινομένην, ταύτην δὲ προγεγράφθαι ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ πεπροφητεῦσθαι <ὡς> ἐσομένην, εἶτα τελεσθεῖσαν ἐπὶ τῷ σωτῆρι, ἐπέδειξε σαφῶς ὅτι οὐκ ἀλλότριος ὁ νόμος τοῦ σωτῆρος. ἐπροφήτευσε γὰρ καὶ ἐμαρτύρησε τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ μέλλουσι γίνεσθαι. / Scholion 2. 'Cursed is everyone that hangeth upon a tree; but he that is of the promise is by the freewoman.' Elenchus 2. Again, by showing that the provision of the incarnation and cross was made for the purpose of lifting the curse, and that it had been written in the Law first, and prophesied, and then fulfilled in the Saviour, the holy apostle gave plain indication that the Law is not alien to the Saviour. For it prophesied and witnessed to the things that were to be done by him.
From Jerome, Commentary on Galatians 4.4-5: At ubi venit plenitudo temporis, misit Deus Filium suum factum ex muliere, factum sub Lege: ut eos qui sub Lege erant redimeret, ut adoptionem filiorum reciperemus. Diligenter attendite quod non dixerit, factum per mulierem: quod Marcion et caeterae haereses volunt, quae putativam Christi carnem simulant: sed ex muliere, ut non per illam, sed ex illa natus esse credatur. / "But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, made from a woman, made under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons." Diligently attend to what he did not say, "made through a woman," which Marcion and the other heresies who pretend that the flesh of Christ was imaginary wish it to be, but rather "from a woman," so that it might be believed that he was born, not through her, but rather from her.
Jason BeDuhn remarks (page 267): Harnack, who usually credits Jerome's testimony as based on Origen, rejects it here because he assumes Marcion's views about Jesus preclude him allowing the words to remain in the text. Such an ideologically-based argument is unacceptable. A more sound reason for questioning Jerome's testimony comes from a quotation of the original words of Origen on which Jerome probably based his remark. These are preserved by Pamphilus, Apology for Origen 113: "We need not give a hearing to those who say that Christ was born through Mary and not of Mary, because the Apostle, in his foresight, said in anticipation of this," quoting Gal 4.4, followed by, "You see why he did not say 'born through a woman,' but rather 'born of a woman.'" It appears, then, that Origen offers a hypothetical textual variant, rather than attributing it - or v. 4b in any form - to Marcion's text. It therefore remains unattested.
From Jerome, Commentary on Galatians 4.24: Marcion et Manichaeus hunc locum in quo dixit Apostolus: Quae quidem sunt allegorica, et caetera quae sequuntur, de codice suo tollere noluerunt, putantes adversum nos relinqui. / Marcion and Mani did not wish to remove this passage in which the Apostle said, "Which things indeed are allegorical," and the rest which follows, from their codex, supposing it to be left behind against us.
Adamantius Dialogue 2.19.
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 4.1-2: BeDuhn writes, “Harnack, Marcion, 74*, suggests that these verses probably were present as the referent of 3.15a, which was transposed to the beginning of 4.3. But Tertullian complains that 3.15a makes no sense because what follows in 4.3ff. is not an analogy from human practice, but a statement of actual spiritual fact; this criticism would lose its cogency if 4.1-2, with its analogy from human practice, immediately preceded, in which case 3.15a would be taken to refer back to it, just as Harnack supposes.” (The First New Testament, p. 267) Following Bruno Bauer, Detering draws attention to the differences between Gal 4:1-2 and what follows, i.e., “that in 4,1-2 the heirs are acknowledged to be children even while still minors, whereas in 4,3ff they only become children and receive the quality of being children through Christ” and “that the heir as a child only has the appearance of a slave in Gal 4,1- 2, while the νήπιοι, of 4,3, are in fact slaves. ” (The Original Version of the Epistle to the Galatians, p. 64) Detering concludes, “The entire passage 4,1-2 obviously seems not to have had any other function than to introduce 4,3ff, rather badly used by the editor to lead from his starting-point, the keyword κληρονόμοι in 3,29, to 4,3. He overlooked the fact that his expositions, intended to lead to 4,3ff, were hardly compatible with the metaphor used there and in principle belonged to a completely different context. By the inserted οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς, a context is but very forcibly established — and it misses the mark i.a. because after such an introduction, a reader generally expects not another allegory but its explanation or application.” (p. 65)
Peter Kirby remarks concerning Galatians 4.4b: Harnack describes how Tertullian’s citations in Against Marcion stop short just before quoting these particular words (AM 5.4.2-3, 5.8.7): “Tertullian (V, 4): ‘Cum autem evenit impleri tempus misit deus filium suum‘ [But when it came about that the time was fulfilled, God sent his Son]. … Tertullian himself wrote shortly afterwards [quoting the same verse in V, 8]: ‘At ubi tempus expletum est‘ [But when the time was fulfilled]. – Erased the words γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός γενομ νον ὑπὸ νόμον [born of a woman, born under the law].” Detering writes, “There is a consensus of all scholars that the words γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον were missing in Marcion’s edition. The fact is unambiguously confirmed by Tertullian. He surely would not have omitted the words that showed Christ’s genuine human nature to be true and that therefore could be used as an excellent argument against Marcion’s docetism, if then he had found them in Marcion.” (The Original Version of the Epistle to the Galatians, pp. 65-66)
Peter Kirby remarks concerning the relocation of Ephesians 1.21 to just after Galatians 4.24: BeDuhn writes, “Tertullian, Marc. 5.4.8. Tertullian seems to signal the inclusion here (in place of catholic v. 25?) of text paralleling catholic Eph 1.21 … (as in codex Montepessulanus; Adversus Marcionem [1954 ed.], 673, prefers the reading that reverses the order of the last two clauses, but see the evidence of Ephrem Syrus below). Harnack (Marcion, 76*) attributes this addition to Marcion’s editorial hand. But a portion of the same combined reading is found in Ephrem Syrus’ commentary on the letters of Paul (135), as first noted by Harris (Four Lectures, 19; cf. Zahn, Der Brief des Paulus, 298; Clabeaux, A Lost Edition of the Letters of Paul, 3, 118-19).” (The First New Testament, p. 269)
Peter Kirby's criteria: (1) Passages attested as absent from the Marcionite version by the patristic writers. (2) Unattested passages that have miscellaneous manuscript support and/or patristic support for omission. (3) Unattested passages that Tertullian is likely to have cited were they present in the Marcionite version. (4) Unattested passages that correspond to a scholarly conjecture for interpolation on grounds other than the alleged absence in the Marcionite version.

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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:12 am

Galatians 5.1-26.

1 Τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ ἡμᾶς Χριστὸς ἠλευθέρωσεν· στήκετε οὖν καὶ μὴ πάλιν ζυγῷ δουλείας ἐνέχεσθε. 2 Ἴδε ἐγὼ Παῦλος λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐὰν περιτέμνησθε Χριστὸς ὑμᾶς οὐδὲν ὠφελήσει. 3 μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ περιτεμνομένῳ ὅτι ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον ποιῆσαι. 4 κατηργήθητε ἀπὸ Χριστοῦ οἵτινες ἐν νόμῳ δικαιοῦσθε, τῆς χάριτος ἐξεπέσατε. 5 ἡμεῖς γὰρ Πνεύματι ἐκ πίστεως ἐλπίδα δικαιοσύνης ἀπεκδεχόμεθα. 6 ἐν γὰρ Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ οὔτε περιτομή τι ἰσχύει οὔτε ἀκροβυστία, ἀλλὰ πίστις δι’ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη. 7 Ἐτρέχετε καλῶς· τίς ὑμᾶς ἐνέκοψεν ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι; 8 ἡ πεισμονὴ οὐκ ἐκ τοῦ καλοῦντος ὑμᾶς. 9 μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ. 10 ἐγὼ πέποιθα εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐν Κυρίῳ ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο φρονήσετε· ὁ δὲ ταράσσων ὑμᾶς βαστάσει τὸ κρίμα, ὅστις ἐὰν ᾖ. 11 Ἐγὼ δέ, ἀδελφοί, εἰ περιτομὴν ἔτι κηρύσσω, τί ἔτι διώκομαι; ἄρα κατήργηται τὸ σκάνδαλον τοῦ σταυροῦ. 12 Ὄφελον καὶ ἀποκόψονται οἱ ἀναστατοῦντες ὑμᾶς. 13 Ὑμεῖς γὰρ ἐπ’ ἐλευθερίᾳ ἐκλήθητε, ἀδελφοί· μόνον μὴ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν εἰς ἀφορμὴν τῇ σαρκί, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης δουλεύετε ἀλλήλοις. 14 ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ἐν ἑνὶ λόγῳ πεπλήρωται, ἐν τῷ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. 15 εἰ δὲ ἀλλήλους δάκνετε καὶ κατεσθίετε, βλέπετε μὴ ὑπ’ ἀλλήλων ἀναλωθῆτε. 16 Λέγω δέ, Πνεύματι περιπατεῖτε καὶ ἐπιθυμίαν σαρκὸς οὐ μὴ τελέσητε. 17 ἡ γὰρ σὰρξ ἐπιθυμεῖ κατὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος, τὸ δὲ Πνεῦμα κατὰ τῆς σαρκός, ταῦτα γὰρ ἀλλήλοις ἀντίκειται, ἵνα μὴ ἃ ἐὰν θέλητε ταῦτα ποιῆτε. 18 εἰ δὲ Πνεύματι ἄγεσθε, οὐκ ἐστὲ ὑπὸ νόμον. 19 φανερὰ δέ ἐστιν τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστιν πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγεια, 20 εἰδωλολατρεία, φαρμακεία, ἔχθραι, ἔρις, ζῆλος, θυμοί, ἐριθεῖαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις, 21 φθόνοι, μέθαι, κῶμοι, καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν καθὼς προεῖπον ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν Θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν. 22 ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ Πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη, χαρά, εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία, χρηστότης, ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις, 23 πραΰτης, ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος. 24 οἱ δὲ τοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν σὺν τοῖς παθήμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις. 25 Εἰ ζῶμεν Πνεύματι, Πνεύματι καὶ στοιχῶμεν. 26 μὴ γινώμεθα κενόδοξοι, ἀλλήλους προκαλούμενοι, ἀλλήλοις φθονοῦντες. 1 Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has made us free for freedom, and don’t be entangled again with a yoke of bondage, which is the Law. 2 Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will profit you nothing. 3 Yes, I testify again to every [Marcion: that a ]man who receives circumcision that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 4 You are alienated from Christ, you who desire to be justified by the law. You have fallen away from grace. 5 For we, through the Spirit, by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. 6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faith working through love. 7 You were running well! Who interfered with you that you should not obey the truth? 8 This persuasion is not from him who calls you. 9 A little yeast grows through the whole lump. 10 I have confidence toward you in the Lord that you will think no other way. But he who troubles you will bear his judgment, whoever he is. 11 But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? Then the stumbling block of the cross has been removed. 12 I wish that those who disturb you would cut themselves off. 13 For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don’t use your freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to one another. 14 For the whole law is fulfilled in one word [Marcion: you], in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” 15 But if you bite and devour one another, be careful that you don’t consume one another. 16 But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won’t fulfill the lust of the flesh. 17 For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one another, that you may not do the things that you desire. 18 But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. 19 Now the deeds of the flesh are obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness, lustfulness, 20 idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies, outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies, 21 envy, murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which I forewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit God’s Kingdom. 22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faith, 23 gentleness, and self-control. Against such things there is no law. 24 Those who belong to Christ have crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 25 If we live by the Spirit, let’s also walk by the Spirit. 26 Let’s not become conceited, provoking one another, and envying one another.


Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.4.9-12: [9] Ipsum quod ait, Qua libertate Christus nos manumisit, nonne eum constituit manumissorem qui fuit dominus? Alienos enim servos nec Galba manumisit, facilius liberos soluturus. Ab eo igitur praestabitur libertas apud quem fuit servitus legis. Et merito. Non decebat manumissos rursus iugo servitutis, id est legis, adstringi, iam psalmo adimpleto: Disrumpamus vincula eorum et abiciamus a nobis iugum ipsorum, postquam archontes congregati sunt in unum adversus dominum et adversus Christum ipsius. [10] De servitute igitur exemptos ipsam servitutis notam eradere perseverabat, circumcisionem, ex praedicationis scilicet propheticae auctoritate, memor dictum per Hieremiam, Et circumcidimini praeputia cordis vestri; quia et Moyses, Circumcidetis duricordiam vestram, id est non carnem. Denique si circumcisionem ab alio deo veniens excludebat, cur etiam praeputiationem negat quicquam valere in Christo, sicut et circumcisionem? / [9] When he speaks of "the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free," does not the very phrase indicate that He is the Liberator who was once the Master? For Galba himself never liberated slaves which were not his own, even when about to restore free men to their liberty. By Him, therefore, will liberty be bestowed, at whose command lay the enslaving power of the law. And very properly. It was not meet that those who had received liberty should be "entangled again with the yoke of bondage" ----that is, of the law; now that the Psalm had its prophecy accomplished: "Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us, since the rulers have gathered themselves together against the Lord and against His Christ." [10] All those, therefore, who had been delivered from the yoke of slavery he would earnestly have to obliterate the very mark of slavery----even circumcision, on the authority of the prophet'sprediction. He remembered how that Jeremiah had said, "Circumcise the foreskins of your heart; " as Moses likewise had enjoined, "Circumcise your hard hearts" ----not the literal flesh. If, now, he were for excluding circumcision, as the messenger of a new god, why does he say that "in Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision?
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.10.11: [11] Portemus enim, inquit, non portabimus, praeceptive, non promissive, volens nos sicut ipse incessit ita incedere, et a terreni, id est veteris, hominis imagine abscedere, quae est carnalis operatio. Denique quid subiungit? Hoc enim dico, fratres, quia caro et sanguis regnum dei non possidebunt, opera scilicet carnis et sanguinis, quibus et ad Galatas scribens abstulit dei regnum, solitus et alias substantiam pro operibus substantiae ponere, ut cum dicit eos qui in carne sunt deo placere non posse. Quando enim placere poterimus deo, nisi dum in carne hac sumus? / [11] He says, Let us bear, as a precept; not We shall bear, in the sense of a promise----wishing us to walk even as he himself was walking, and to put off the likeness of the earthly, that is, of the old man, in the works of the flesh. For what are this next words? "Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God." He means the works of the flesh and blood, which, in his Epistle to the Galatians, deprive men of the kingdom of God. In other passages also he is accustomed to put the natural condition instead of the works that are done therein, as when he says, that "they who are in the flesh cannot please God." Now, when shall we be able to please God except whilst we are in this flesh?
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.11.8: <γ>. «Μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν ὅτι ἄνθρωπος περιτετμημένος ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον πληρῶσαι». <<δ>.> Ἀντὶ τοῦ «μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ» ἐποίησε «δολοῖ». <<ε>.> «Ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ὑμῖν πεπλήρωται· ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν». <<Ϛ>.> «Φανερὰ δέ ἐστι τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστι πορνεία ἀκαθαρσία ἀσέλγεια εἰδωλολατρεία φαρμακεία ἔχθραι ἔρεις ζῆλοι θυμοὶ ἐριθεῖαι διχοστασίαι αἱρέσεις φθόνοι μέθαι κῶμοι, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν, καθὼς καὶ προεῖπον, ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν». <ζ>. «Οἱ δὲ τοῦ Χριστοῦ τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν σὺν τοῖς παθήμασι καὶ ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις». / 3. 'I testify again that a man that is circumcised is a debtor to do the whole Law.' 4. In place of, 'A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump,' he put, 'corrupteth the whole lump.' 5. 'For all the Law is fulfilled by you; thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.' 6. 'Now the works of the flesh are manifest which are these: Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, factions, envyings, drunkenness, revellings—of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.' 7. 'They that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.'
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.12.3: <Σχόλιον> <γ>. «Μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν ὅτι ἄνθρωπος περιτετμημένος ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον πληρῶσαι». <Ἔλεγχος> <γ>. Τό «ὀφειλέτης ἐστίν» οὐκέτι ὡς περὶ ἀπειρημένου λέγει, ἀλλὰ περὶ βαρυτέρου φορτίου δυναμένου ἐλαφρυνθῆναι, ἑνὸς δὲ ὄντος δεσπότου, δυναμένου καὶ βαρύνειν καὶ ἐλαφρύνειν διὰ τῆς προαιρέσεως τῶν μὴ παραιτησαμένων καταδέξασθαι τὴν διὰ τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ἐνσάρκῳ αὐτοῦ παρουσίᾳ σωτηρίαν. <Σχόλιον> <δ>. Ἀντὶ τοῦ «μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ» ἐποίησεν «δολοῖ». <Ἔλεγχος> <δ>. Ἵνα μηδὲν ἀληθὲς παρ' αὐτῷ εὑρεθείη, οὐδαμοῦ σχεδὸν ἄνευ ῥᾳδιουργίας ταῖς γραφαῖς προσενήνεκται. ἀλλὰ ἀπ' αὐτῆς τῆς ἀκολουθίας ἡ φανέρωσις τοῦ λόγου γίνεται· ἡ γὰρ ζύμη τὸ εἶδος φυράματος ἔργον καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ φυράματος τὸ ζυμοῦσθαι, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐν τοῖς πρωτοτύποις τὸ εἶδος ἠφάνιζεν ὁ συνετῶς τὴν παραβολὴν τοῦ αἰνίγματος ποιησάμενος. <Σχόλιον> <ε>. «Ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ὑμῖν πεπλήρωται· ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν». <Ἔλεγχος> <ε>. Τίς ἐστι χρεία τῷ ἁγίῳ ἀποστόλῳ νόμῳ χρῆσθαι, εἰ ἀπηλλοτρίωτο ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη τῆς παλαιᾶς νομοθεσίας; ἀλλ' ἵνα δείξῃ ὅτι τοῦ ἑνὸς θεοῦ αἱ δύο διαθῆκαι καὶ ἡ συμφωνία <κατὰ> τὸ πληρωτικὸν τοῦ νόμου διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ πλησίον ἰσορρόπως ἐν ταῖς δύο διαθήκαις γνωρίζεται, τὸ τέλε<ι>ον ἐργαζομένης [τὸ] ἀγαθόν, νόμου τελείωσιν εἶπεν εἶναι τὴν ἀγάπην. <Σχόλιον> <Ϛ>. «Φανερὰ δέ ἐστι τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστι πορνεία ἀκαθαρσία ἀσέλγεια εἰδωλολατρεία φαρμακεία ἔχθραι ἔρεις ζῆλοι θυμοὶ ἐριθεῖαι διχοστασίαι αἱρέσεις φθόνοι μέθαι κῶμοι, ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν καθὼς καὶ προεῖπον, ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν». <Ἔλεγχος> <Ϛ>. Ὦ θαυμασίων μυστηρίων καὶ ἀντιθέτων * θεοῦ ὑποδειγμάτων. τῇ γὰρ σαρκὶ περιῆψε τὰ πάντα δεινά. ἡ σὰρξ δὲ οὐκ ἀεὶ ἦν, ἀλλὰ ἐν τῇ ἕκτῃ ἡμέρᾳ τῆς κοσμοποιίας, τοῦ Ἀδὰμ πλασθέντος, <ἐγένετο> ἡ σάρξ· ἔκτοτε ἔσχε τὴν ἀρχήν, φημὶ <ἀπὸ> τῆς πλάσεως, ἵνα ἐλεγχθῶσιν οἱ λέγοντες ἀεὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀρχῆς εἶναι τὸ κακόν. καὶ γὰρ οὔτε ἐξότε ἐπλάσθη ἡ σὰρξ ἥμαρτεν, ἵνα μὴ ὁ πλάστης αἴτιος νομισθῇ ἁμαρτίας, πλάσας σάρκα ἁμαρτωλήν, οὔτε προϋπῆρχε τοῦ πλάσματος τὸ κακόν. μετὰ χρόνον δὲ ἐν παρακοῇ ὁ Ἀδὰμ γεγονώς, <ὡς> ἔχων τὸ αὐτεξούσιον προαιρέσει ἰδίᾳ ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν εἰς ἑαυτὸν διανοηθεὶς ἔπραξε, φημὶ δὲ τὴν ἀθέτησιν τοῦ αὐτοῦ δεσπότου διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς ποιησάμενος. ποῦ τοίνυν ἦν τὸ κακόν, πρὶν ἢ τὴν σάρκα εἶναι; πῶς δὲ εὐθὺς πλασθεῖσα οὐ τὸ κακὸν εἰργάσατο, ἀλλὰ χρόνῳ μετέπειτα; ἄρα γοῦν ἀνῄρηται ὁ περὶ τῆς κακίας ἀρχῆς λόγος. οὐ γὰρ δύναται ἀρχαΐζειν, ἐπειδὴ ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ τῇ μεταγενεστέρᾳ τὸ γίνεσθαι ἔχει ἡ κακία ἢ μὴ γίνεσθαι καὶ οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ πάλιν ἀκληρονόμητός ἐστι τῶν ἐπουρανίων. καὶ μή τις λάβηται τοῦ ἁγίου ἀποστόλου εἰπόντος «σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν». οὐ γὰρ πᾶσαν σάρκα αἰτιᾶται. πῶς γὰρ αἰτιαθήσεται σὰρξ ἡ μὴ πράξασα τὰ προειρημένα; καὶ ἐξ ἑτέρων δὲ ἀποδείξεων παραστήσω τὸ ζητούμενον. «τίς, γάρ φησιν, ἐγκαλέσει κατὰ ἐκλεκτῶν θεοῦ;» πῶς οὐ κληρονομήσει Μαρία ἡ ἁγία μετὰ σαρκὸς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἡ μὴ πορνεύσασα μὴ ἀσελγήσασα μὴ μοιχευθεῖσα μηδέ τι τῶν ἀνηκέστων σαρκὸς ἔργων ἐργασαμένη, ἀλλὰ ἄχραντος μείνασα; οὐκ ἄρα τοίνυν περὶ σαρκὸς λέγει μὴ κληρονομεῖν βασιλείαν οὐρανῶν, ἀλλὰ περὶ σαρκικῶν ἀνθρώπων τῶν τὰ φαῦλα διὰ τῆς σαρκὸς πραττόντων, ἅτινά ἐστι πορνεία, εἰδωλολατρεία καὶ τὰ τούτοις ὅμοια. καὶ ἐξ ἅπαντος ἐλήλεγκταί σου ἡ σκευωρία, ὦ Μαρκίων πεπλανημένε, τῆς ἀληθείας πάντῃ προλαβούσης καὶ τὸ στερεὸν τοῦ κηρύγματος τῆς ζωῆς ἀσφαλιζομένης. <Σχόλιον> <ζ>. «Οἱ δὲ τοῦ Χριστοῦ τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν σὺν τοῖς. παθήμασι καὶ ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις». <Ἔλεγχος> <ζ>. Εἰ ἐσταύρωσαν καὶ τὴν σάρκα οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὦ Μαρκίων, δῆλον οὖν ὅτι οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ δοῦλοι σὺν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ τοῖς παθήμασι καθαρὰν τὴν σάρκα ἀπέδειξαν καὶ ἐμιμήσαντο τὸν Χριστόν, δείξαντες αὐτὸν σάρκα ἐσταυρωκέναι. διὸ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὰ ἴσα τῷ δεσπότῃ αὐτῶν φρονήσαντες τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν. καὶ εἰ τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν, ἀνένδεκτον τὴν σάρκα ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ παθοῦσαν μὴ σὺν Χριστῷ βασιλεύειν, καθὼς καὶ ἐν ἄλλῳ ῥητῷ δείκνυσιν ὁ ἅγιος ἀπόστολος λέγων ὅτι «καθάπερ κοινωνοί ἐστε τῶν παθημάτων τοῦ Χριστοῦ, οὕτως καὶ τῆς δόξης». / Scholion 3. 'I testify that a man that is circumcised is a debtor to do the whole Law.' Elenchus 3. He does not say 'he is debtor' with regard to something that is forbidden, but with regard to a heavier burden which can be lightened. For there is one Master who is able both to burden and, of his free choice, to lighten the burden of those who have not refused to accept salvation through his grace at his coming in the flesh. Scholion 4. In place of, 'A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump,' he put, 'corrupteth the whole lump.' Elenchus 4. So that there would be nothing true in his canon he has almost nowhere dealt with the scriptures without tampering with them. But the explanation of the saying comes from the analogy itself. Leaven, by its nature, is a product of a lump and leavening comes from the lump; and a person drawing the analogy of the symbol intelligently would not do away with the nature in the original terms. Scholion 5. 'For all the Law is fulfilled by you; thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.' Elenchus 5. What use would the holy apostle have for practicing the Law if the New Testament had been separated from the ancient legislation? But to show that the two Testaments are testaments of the one God, and that their agreement as to the possibility of fulfilling the Law by the love of neighbour, which does perfect good, is made equally known in the two Testaments, he said that love is the fulfilment of the Law. Scholion 6. 'Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these: Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, factions, envyings, drunkenness, revellings—of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.' (a) Elenchus 6. What marvellous mysteries the precepts of God's apostle are—the opposite of the tramp's imposture! For Marcion attributed everything dreadful to the flesh. But flesh was not always in existence; the flesh came into being on the sixth day of creation, with the fashioning of Adam. It had its origin from that time, I mean the time of Adam's fashioning, to confound those who say that evil is everlasting and primordial. (b) Nor, in fact, did the flesh sin from the time of its fashioning, or its Fashioner might be held responsible for sin, because he had fashioned the flesh as a sinful thing. Neither did evil pre-exist the thing God had fashioned. Adam fell into disobedience later on, and as a free agent deliberately committed the sin against himself by his own choice, I mean (the sin of) breaking faith with his Master through disobedience. (c) Where, then, was evil before there was flesh? And why did the flesh not do evil as soon as it was fashioned, but later on? And that disposes of what is said about the origin of evil! Evil cannot be primordial, since whether it is done or not is up to the flesh, whose origin came later. Nor, in turn, is the flesh without an inheritance in the heavens. (d) And let no one seize hold of the holy apostle's words, 'Flesh and blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God'; he is not censuring all flesh. How can the flesh be accused which has not done these things? (e) But let me make the point with other proofs as well. For Paul says, 'Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?' How can the holy Mary not inherit the kingdom of heaven, flesh and all, when she did not commit fornication or uncleanness or adultery or do any of the intolerable deeds of the flesh, but remained undefiled? (f) Therefore Paul does not mean that flesh cannot inherit the kingdom of heaven, but means carnal men who do evil with the flesh—fornication, idolatry and the like. (g) And your villainy has been exposed by every method, you misguided Marcion, since the truth has anticipated you everywhere, and safeguards the trustworthiness of the message of life. Scholion 7. 'They that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.' (a) Elenchus 7. If they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh too, Marcion, it is plainly in imitation of Christ that Christ's servants have made the flesh, with its affections and lusts, clean—showing that he himself has crucified flesh. Therefore they too have crucified the flesh, with the same intent as their Master. (b) And if they have crucified the flesh, it is inconceivable that flesh which has suffered for Christ does not reign with Christ, as the holy apostle indicates elsewhere, 'As ye are partakers of the sufferings of Christ, so shall ye be also of the glory.'
Adamantius Dialogue 2.5.
Adamantius Dialogue 2.15.

Last edited by Ben C. Smith on Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:19 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 9:13 am

Galatians 6.1-18.

1 Ἀδελφοί, ἐὰν καὶ προλημφθῇ ἄνθρωπος ἔν τινι παραπτώματι, ὑμεῖς οἱ πνευματικοὶ καταρτίζετε τὸν τοιοῦτον ἐν πνεύματι πραΰτητος, σκοπῶν σεαυτόν, μὴ καὶ σὺ πειρασθῇς. 2 Ἀλλήλων τὰ βάρη βαστάζετε, καὶ οὕτως ἀναπληρώσετε τὸν νόμον τοῦ Χριστοῦ. 3 εἰ γὰρ δοκεῖ τις εἶναί τι μηδὲν ὤν, φρεναπατᾷ ἑαυτόν. 4 τὸ δὲ ἔργον ἑαυτοῦ δοκιμαζέτω ἕκαστος, καὶ τότε εἰς ἑαυτὸν μόνον τὸ καύχημα ἕξει καὶ οὐκ εἰς τὸν ἕτερον· 5 ἕκαστος γὰρ τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον βαστάσει. 6 Κοινωνείτω δὲ ὁ κατηχούμενος τὸν λόγον τῷ κατηχοῦντι ἐν πᾶσιν ἀγαθοῖς. 7 Μὴ πλανᾶσθε, Θεὸς οὐ μυκτηρίζεται. ὃ γὰρ ἐὰν σπείρῃ ἄνθρωπος, τοῦτο καὶ θερίσει· 8 ὅτι ὁ σπείρων εἰς τὴν σάρκα ἑαυτοῦ ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς θερίσει φθοράν, ὁ δὲ σπείρων εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα ἐκ τοῦ Πνεύματος θερίσει ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 9 τὸ δὲ καλὸν ποιοῦντες μὴ ἐνκακῶμεν· καιρῷ γὰρ ἰδίῳ θερίσομεν μὴ ἐκλυόμενοι. 10 Ἄρα οὖν ὡς καιρὸν ἔχωμεν, ἐργαζώμεθα τὸ ἀγαθὸν πρὸς πάντας, μάλιστα δὲ πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους τῆς πίστεως. 11 Ἴδετε πηλίκοις ὑμῖν γράμμασιν ἔγραψα τῇ ἐμῇ χειρί. 12 Ὅσοι θέλουσιν εὐπροσωπῆσαι ἐν σαρκί, οὗτοι ἀναγκάζουσιν ὑμᾶς περιτέμνεσθαι, μόνον ἵνα τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ Χριστοῦ μὴ διώκωνται. 13 οὐδὲ γὰρ οἱ περιτεμνόμενοι αὐτοὶ νόμον φυλάσσουσιν, ἀλλὰ θέλουσιν ὑμᾶς περιτέμνεσθαι ἵνα ἐν τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ σαρκὶ καυχήσωνται. 14 ἐμοὶ δὲ μὴ γένοιτο καυχᾶσθαι εἰ μὴ ἐν τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, δι’ οὗ ἐμοὶ κόσμος ἐσταύρωται κἀγὼ κόσμῳ. 15 οὔτε γὰρ περιτομή τί ἐστιν οὔτε ἀκροβυστία, ἀλλὰ καινὴ κτίσις. 16 καὶ ὅσοι τῷ κανόνι τούτῳ στοιχήσουσιν, εἰρήνη ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἔλεος, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ Θεοῦ. 17 Τοῦ λοιποῦ κόπους μοι μηδεὶς παρεχέτω· ἐγὼ γὰρ τὰ στίγματα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματί μου βαστάζω. 18 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί· ἀμήν. 1 Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who are spiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking to yourself so that you also aren’t tempted. 2 Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 3 For if a man thinks himself to be something when he is nothing, he deceives himself. 4 But let each man examine his own work, and then he will have reason to boast in himself, and not in someone else. 5 For each man will bear his own burden. 6 But let him who is taught in the word share all good things with him who teaches. 7 Don’t be [Marcion: you are] deceived. God is not mocked, for whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. 8 For he who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But he who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. 9 Let’s not be weary in doing good, for we will reap in due season, if we don’t give up. 10 So then, as we have opportunity, let’s do what is good toward all men, and especially toward those who are of the household of the faith. 11 See with what large letters I write to you with my own hand. 12 As many as desire to make a good impression in the flesh compel you to be circumcised; just so they may not be persecuted for the cross of Christ might be persecuted. 13 For even they who receive circumcision don’t keep the law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised, that they may boast in your flesh. 14 But far be it from me to boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. 15 For in Christ Jesus neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. 16 As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and on God’s Israel. 17 From now on, let no one cause me any trouble, for I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus [Marcion: Christ] branded on my body. 18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brothers. Amen.


Tertullian, Against Marcion 4.5.1: [1] In summa, si constat id verius quod prius, id prius quod et ab initio, id ab initio quod ab apostolis, pariter utique constabit id esse ab apostolis traditum quod apud ecclesias apostolorum fuerit sacrosanctum. Videamus quod lac a Paulo Corinthii hauserint, ad quam regulam Galatae sint recorrecti, quid legant Philippenses, Thessalonicenses, Ephesii, quid etiam. Romani de proximo sonent, quibus evangelium et Petrus et Paulus sanguine quoque suo signatum reliquerunt. / [1] On the whole, then, if that is evidently more true which is earlier, if that is earlier which is from the very beginning, if that is from the beginning which has the apostles for its authors, then it will certainly be quite as evident, that that comes down from the apostles, which has been kept as a sacred deposit in the churches of the apostles. Let us see what milk the Corinthians drank from Paul; to what rule of faith the Galatians were brought for correction; what the Philippians, the Thessalonians, the Ephesians read by it; what utterance also the Romans give, so very near (to the apostles), to whom Peter and Paul conjointly bequeathed the gospel even sealed with their own blood.
Tertullian, Against Marcion 5.4.13-15: [13] Aut si sic vult intellegi, Adimpleta est, quasi iam non adimplenda, ergo non vult ut diligam proximum tanquam me, ut et hoc cum lege cessaverit. Sed perseverandum erit senaper in isto praecepto. Ergo lex creatoris etiam ab adversario probata est, nec dispendium sed compendium ab eo consecuta est, redacta summa in unum iam praeceptum. Sed nec hoc alii magis competit quam auctori. Atque adeo cum dicit, Onera vestra invicem sustinete et sic adimplebitis legem Christi, si hoc non potest fieri nisi quis diligat proximum sibi tanquam se, apparet, Diliges proximum tibi tanquam te, per quod auditur, Invicem onera vestra portate, Christi esse legem, quae sit creatoris, atque ita Christum creatoris esse, dum Christi est lex creatoris. [14] Erratis, deus non deridetur. Atquin derideri potest deus Marcionis, qui nec irasci novit nec ulcisci. Quod enim severit homo, hoc et metet. Ergo retributionis et iudicii deus intentat. Bonum autem facientes non fatigemur, et Dum habemus tempus, operemur bonum. Nega creatorem bonum facere praecepisse, et diversa doctrina sit diversae divinitatis. Porro si retributionem praedicat, ab eodem erit et corruptionis messis et vitae. [15] Tempore autem suo metemus, quia et Ecclesiasticus, Tempus inquit erit omni rei. Sed et mihi, famulo creatoris, mundus crucifixus est, non tamen deus mundi, et ego mundo, non tamen deo mundi. Mundum enim quantum ad conversationem eius posuit, cui renuntiando mutuo transfigimur et invicem morimur. Persecutores vocat Christi. Cum vero adicit stigmata Christi in corpore suo gestare se (utique corporalia competunt), iam non putativam, sed veram et solidam carnem professus est Christi, cuius stigmata corporalia ostendit. / [13] If, indeed, he will have it that by the words "it is fulfilled" it is implied that the law no longer has to be fulfilled, then of course he does not mean that I should any more love my neighbour as myself, since this precept must have ceased together with the law. But no! we must evermore continue to observe this commandment. The Creator's law, therefore, has received the approval of the rival god, who has, in fact, bestowed upon it not the sentence of a summary dismissal, but the favour of a compendious acceptance; the gist of it all being concentrated in this one precept! But this condensation of the law is, in fact, only possible to Him who is the Author of it. When, therefore, he says, "Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ," since this cannot be accomplished except a man love his neighbour as himself, it is evident that the precept, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself" (which, in fact, underlies the injunction, "Bear ye one another's burdens"), is really "the law of Christ," though literally the law of the Creator. Christ, therefore, is the Creator's Christ, as Christ's law is the Creator's law. [14] "Be not deceived, God is not mocked." But Marcion's god can be mocked; for he knows not how to be angry, or how to take vengeance. "For whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." It is then the God of recompense and judgment who threatens this. "Let us not be weary in well-doing; " and "as we have opportunity, let us do good." Deny now that the Creator has given a commandment to do good, and then a diversity of precept may argue a difference of gods. If, however, He also announces recompense, then from the same God must come the harvest both of death and of life. [15] But "in due time we shall reap; " because in Ecclesiastes it is said, "For everything there will be a time." Moreover, "the world is crucified unto me," who am a servant of the Creator----"the world," (I say, ) but not the God who made the world----"and I unto the world," not unto the God who made the world. The world, in the apostle's sense, here means life and conversation according to worldly principles; it is in renouncing these that we and they are mutually crucified and mutually slain. He calls them "persecutors of Christ." But when he adds, that "he bare in his body the scars of Christ"----since scars, of course, are accidents of body ----he therefore expressed the truth, that the flesh of Christ is not putative, but real and substantial, the scars of which he represents as borne upon his body.
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.11.8: <η>. «Οὐδὲ γὰρ οἱ περιτεμνόμενοι αὐτοὶ νόμον φυλάσσουσιν». / 8. 'For neither do they themselves who are circumcised (now) keep the Law.'
Epiphanius, Panarion 42.12.3: <Σχόλιον> <η>. «Οὐδὲ γὰρ οἱ περιτεμνόμενοι αὐτοὶ νόμον φυλάσσουσιν». <Ἔλεγχος> <η>. Οὐκ ἀπηγόρευτο τοίνυν ἡ προτέρα περιτομὴ ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ καιρῷ, εἰ νόμον ἐφύλαξε. νόμος δὲ Χριστὸν κατήγγελλεν ἐρχόμενον νόμον ἐλευθερίας παρασχέσθαι, καὶ οὐκέτι ἡ περιτομὴ ἐν σαρκὶ τῷ χρόνῳ τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐξυπηρετήσειεν· ἦλθεν γὰρ ἡ διὰ Χριστοῦ ἀληθινή, ἧς τύπος ἐκείνη ἦν. οἱ δὲ ἔτι ἐν ἐκείνῃ σφραγιζόμενοι, κἄν τε πάντα τὸν νόμον φυλάξωσιν, οὐκέτι αὐτοῖς λογισθήσεται νόμου φύλαξις· ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ὁ νόμος ἔλεγεν περὶ Χριστοῦ ὅτι «προφήτην ἐγερεῖ ὑμῖν κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐκ τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου ὡς ἐμέ, αὐτοῦ ἀκούσετε». αὐτῶν δὲ τοῦ Χριστοῦ μὴ ἀκουσάντων, «ἡ περιτομὴ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῖς γίνεται» καὶ ἡ φύλαξις τοῦ νόμου οὐκέτι φύλαξις. καλὸς τοίνυν ὁ νόμος καὶ καλὴ ἡ περιτομή, ἀφ' οὗ καὶ ἀφ' ἧς ἔγνωμεν Χριστὸν καὶ τὸν ἐντελέστερον αὐτοῦ νόμον καὶ τὴν ἐντελεστέραν αὐτοῦ περιτομήν. / Scholion 8. 'For neither do they themselves who are circumcised (now) keep the Law.' (a) Elenchus 8. Thus the former circumcision had not been forbidden in its own day, if it kept the Law. But the Law announced that Christ would come to provide a law of liberty, and in Christ's time physical circumcision would no longer serve. For the true circumcision through Christ, of which it was a type, has come. (b) And even if they who are still marked by the earlier circumcision keep the whole Law, this will no longer count for them as observance of the Law. For the Law said of Christ that 'The Lord God will raise up unto you a prophet, of my brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken.' But since they have not hearkened to Christ 'Circumcision is made uncircumcision unto them,' and their observance of the Law is no longer observance. (c) The Law is good, then, and circumcision is good, since from the Law and circumcision we have come to know Christ, his more perfect Law, and his more perfect circumcision.
From Jerome, Commentary on Galatians 6.6: Communicet autem is qui catechizatur verbum, ei qui se catechizat in omnibus bonis. Marcion hunc locum ita interpretatus est, ut putaret fideles, et catechumenos simul orare debere, et magistrum communicare in oratione discipulis; illo vel maxime elatus, quod sequatur, in omnibus bonis. / "Let the one who is taught the word share all good things with the one who teaches." Marcion interpreted this verse to mean that catechumens and the faithful ought to pray at the same time and that the master must share in prayer with his disciples. He got especially carried away by the phrase 'all good things.'"
Adamantius Dialogue 2.5.
Adamantius Dialogue 5.22.

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Kunigunde Kreuzerin
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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin » Thu Sep 17, 2015 10:32 am

Ben C. Smith wrote:Galatians 2.1-21.
9 καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάνης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στῦλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρνάβα κοινωνίας, ἵνα ἡμεῖς εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν·9 and when they perceived the grace that was given to me, Peter and James and Cephas and John, those who were reputed to be pillars, gave to Barnabas and me the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision.

Great work Ben! Chapeau!

A question: Did I understand correctly, that the Marcionite version has "Peter" and not "Cephas"?

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Ben C. Smith
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Re: The Marcionite epistle to the Galatians with sources.

Post by Ben C. Smith » Thu Sep 17, 2015 11:10 am

Kunigunde Kreuzerin wrote:
Ben C. Smith wrote:Galatians 2.1-21.
9 καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάνης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στῦλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρνάβα κοινωνίας, ἵνα ἡμεῖς εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν·9 and when they perceived the grace that was given to me, Peter and James and Cephas and John, those who were reputed to be pillars, gave to Barnabas and me the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision.

Great work Ben! Chapeau!

A question: Did I understand correctly, that the Marcionite version has "Peter" and not "Cephas"?
Thanks for the compliment. :)

That is a straightforward reading of Tertullian on this point: "Rightly, then, did Peter and James and John give their right hand of fellowship to Paul...." BeDuhn remarks in the note on this verse that several manuscripts (D, F, G, some Old Latin ones) and Ephrem attest to the names Peter, James, and John here, too.

He also points out, however, that this arrangement of names appear in the transfiguration. So has there been some harmonization?

Ben.
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