Andries Van Aarde a theology professor of the University of Pretoria has set out a case that the Twelve Disciples do not go back to Jesus but were created by the Jerusalem church (http://www.hts.org.za/index.php/HTS/art ... /1634/2926 ). There are lots of things that he states which I disagree with but I am almost convinced that his solution is the most likely.
I am not convinced that 1 Cor 15:3-11 was written by Paul. I am not convinced that the Matthew version of the Q saying was the Q version, I prefer a mixture of both Matthew and Luke.
Aarde states that Matthew and Luke have a list of the twelve disciples from Q.
|Matthew (10:1-4)||Luke (6:12-16)||Mark (3:13-19)|
|Simon Peter||Simon Peter||Simon Peter|
|Andrew br. PS||Andrew br. PS||James bar Zebedee Boanerges|
|James bar Zebedee||James||John br. J Boanerge|
|John br. J||John||Andrew|
|James of Alphaeus||James of Alphaeus||James of Alphaeus|
|Thaddacus||Simon the Zealot||Thaddacus|
|Simon the Cananaean||Judas of James||Simon the Cananaean|
|Judas Iscariot||Judas Iscariot||Judas Iscariot|
The list of disciples are often considered in groups of four. It seems that both Matthew and Luke had at least a list of 4. However it might have been a list of apostles as both Matthew and Luke both use the word, but Mark does not (except in a few versions). If Matthew had Judas of James then it might be likely that Q had a list of 12, but without that change the evidence is reduced and Luke might have had his own source.