A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

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MrMacSon
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by MrMacSon »

gryan wrote: Thu May 19, 2022 11:18 am Could this line of research suggest (or even "prove") something that I'm suspecting: That the author of Mark and his actual/intended readers were reading and rereading Paul's letters as scripture? And so also, that the Gospel of Mark was composed as a kind of companion volume to Paul's epistles, especially Galatians and 1 and 2 Corinthians which mention the lives of the 12 and James the Lord's brother?
"a kind of companion volume to Paul's epistles" might be a good way to describe the relationship.

Though I personally don't know about the relationship to Galatians and 1 and 2 Corinthians, their mention of the lives of the 12 and James the Lord's brother may be relevant to Mark's mention and elaboration of them, and it seems that Diaz has engaged with them ...

The webpage Sinouhe provided to Díaz's book, https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/en/book/mar ... no_cache=1, includes a link to a 'Table of Contents & Reading Sample', https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/uploads/tx_ ... 595059.pdf, which includes these excerpts:


Introduction

1. Scope and rationale of the subject

For many centuries, the statement of the second century Bishop Papias of Hierapolis was decisive for the interpretation of the Gospel of Mark. It was generally accepted that the Gospel of Mark had been written by John Mark, a figure known from the Acts of the Apostles and the epistles. This John Mark was an aide to Paul and Barnabas (Acts 12.25; 13.5), only to Barnabas (Acts 15.36–41) or only to Paul (Phlm 1.24; Col 4.10; 2Tim 4.11). In addition, the apostle Peter and John Mark himself appear connected in 1Peter 5.13, where Peter calls Mark “my son”. Likewise, Luke’s description of the church in Jerusalem suggests that Peter visited John Mark’s house at least once (Acts 12.11–17).

As a result of Papias’ statements, it was accepted that the Gospel of Mark was a Petrine Gospel, that is, a Gospel in line with the church of Jerusalem and that, therefore, Mark, in his narrative, had interpreted Peter’s teaching as he remembered it. Today, however, many scholars believe that Papias’ arguments were apologetic in intent and aimed at consolidating the authority and prestige of the oldest Gospel, indirectly linking it to the apostle Peter. However, since the beginning of the last century, scholars have reconsidered these ideas transmitted by the early Church Fathers and, contrary to what was claimed, argued that the Gospel of Mark was a Gospel strongly influenced by the apostle Paul ...
.. < . . snip . . >
... More recently, a large group of scholars have identified three or, in some cases, four Pauline elements; however, we have not found any scholar who has argued for these Pauline elements as being important within the Gospel. Therefore, the task before us is arduous, wide-ranging and complex and the scope of the task must be narrowly defined in order to avoid the temptation to discuss related but tangential issues.

We will not be discussing issues of authorship, dating or genre of the Marcan narrative, as we believe that each one of these would, in itself, require an investigation as extensive as the one we are considering here ...

The objective of this study is to search for and analyse passages in Mark’s Gospel that are distinctly Pauline in theology, or are in harmony with Paul’s thought or those in which the evangelist has independently echoed Pauline ideas. Consequently, we intend to find out whether the evangelist, when composing, organising and writing his narrative, had in mind the theology of the apostle Paul as a key to interpreting the words and deeds of Jesus of Nazareth.

Furthermore, we must also make clear what we mean by Paulinisms or Pauline theology. First of all, we must note that the entire Pauline corpus has not been used in the search for elements of confluence between the apostle and the evangelist. We have strictly limited ourselves to the letters considered to be authentically Paul’s: the Epistle to the Romans, the First Epistle to the Corinthians, the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, the Epistle to the Galatians, the Epistle to the Philippians, the First Epistle to the Thessalonians, and the Letter to Philemon. Consequently, we have not engaged with the other letters attributed to the apostle ... the letters that are doubtful as to Paul’s authorship ...

Additionally, we must identify those elements of theology that are recognised as being distinctly Pauline: the importance of the theology of the cross, Christian freedom, criticism of the Law, love of neighbour, openness to pagans, non-patriarchalism, the relationship with Roman power, the concept of ‘Gospel’, Jesus portrayed as the New Adam, issues such as table fellowship and the food laws, justification by faith, the importance of the Temple, the relationship with the disciples and victory over demons, in order to contrast them with the Gospel and find the Pauline imprint.

Consequently, we have chosen the subject with the conviction that a comprehensive study of Pauline elements in the second Gospel is an interesting and worthwhile project. Furthermore, it will contribute to an understanding of the process of evangelisation and growth of the early Church, to an understanding of how the message of Jesus of Nazareth was communicated within different communities and the different emphases given in interpreting and understanding that message.

In order to carry out our purpose, we have tracked Paul’s imprint within the Gospel and what is of a specifically Pauline nature, with respect to the words and actions of Jesus, the characters and situations around him, and also the structure and theology that emerges from these. Knowing to what extent the apostle to the Gentiles influenced the writing of the first of the Gospels is of importance in order to understand the functioning, structure and development of Mark’s own Gospel, but also in knowing what was the first message proclaimed inside and outside of Israel.

Nevertheless, we do not intend to affirm that everything we read in Mark is Pauline, but rather we intend to show how the evangelist Mark reworked and changed the sources he received so that they are in agreement with Paul ...

... even though we believe that Mark’s narrative style is imbued with Paulinisms when it comes to making people understand who Jesus is, we do not want to argue that all the traditions that Mark embodies in his Gospel are influenced by Paul, because many of them come from sources that are common to the entire tradition of the Church ...

... we argue that it is the structure of the Gospel which is the cohesive element making the whole narrative Pauline in character, because Mark was the creator of both this new literary form and its structure.

... we believe that because each writer used different literary genres and because the letters were written in very different and specific
contexts...we should not expect to find typical Pauline words or expressions in the Marcan narrative. Mark does not want to present Paul, but rather to interpret Jesus through a Pauline lens. [continues]

https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/uploads/tx_ ... 595059.pdf


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Sinouhe
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by Sinouhe »

gryan wrote: Thu May 19, 2022 11:18 am I just skimmed this, so sorry if it is an ignorant question. But here goes.

Could this line of research suggest (or even "prove") something that I'm suspecting: That the author of Mark and his actual/intended readers were reading and rereading Paul's letters as scripture? And so also, that the Gospel of Mark was composed as a kind of companion volume to Paul's epistles, especially Galatians and 1 and 2 Corinthians which mention the lives of the 12 and James the Lord's brother?
It could be but I would be very surprised if Paul's letters surpass in authority the teachings of Jesus. This major dependence of Mark on Paul's epistles suggests two possibilities in my opinion:

- Mark used Paul's letters and teachings because he had no outside sources for Jesus' speeches and Paul's letters were respected sources among Christians. The main lines of Jesus' teachings would therefore be lost at the time Mark wrote his gospel.

- Or Jesus was not an itinerant preacher, and that is why Mark uses Paul for the teachings of Jesus. The latter possibility would explain why Paul does not rely on Jesus' teachings in his letters either.

In any case, it is amazing that Paul's ideas surpass those of the supposed Messiah. This makes no sense to me, unless one considers that Jesus was not an itinerant Jewish preacher but this conceptual and fantasized Messiah like the one in the Enoch parables or the Qumran texts.
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin »

gryan wrote: Thu May 19, 2022 11:18 am Could this line of research suggest (or even "prove") something that I'm suspecting: That the author of Mark and his actual/intended readers were reading and rereading Paul's letters as scripture? And so also, that the Gospel of Mark was composed as a kind of companion volume to Paul's epistles ...
I don't think it can ever be proven but I suspect so too. :cheers:
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin »

.
Imagine that Galatians is read after GMark.

5 And entering the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were alarmed.
6 And he said to them, “Do not be alarmed. You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen; he is not here. See the place where they laid him.
7 But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you to Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.”
8 And they went out and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had seized them, and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid.


1 Paul, an apostle—not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead—
2 and all the brothers who are with me, To the churches of Galatia:
3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ ...

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MrMacSon
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by MrMacSon »

To elaborate on what Kunigunde posted

DeDuhn's
Marcionite Evangelion
Klindhardt's
Marcionite Evangelion
Mark
16:1, 5—8
Now on the first (day) of the week they [two women] went well before dawn to the tomb, carrying the aromatics they had prepared.
But when they entered they did not find the body ... two men in shining clothing
.
said to them, "Why are you looking for the living one among the dead? He was awoken. Remember what he spoke to you in Galilee, saying that is is necessary that the Human Being be handed over, and be staked, and awaken on the third day."
.
And when they returned from the tomb, they reported all these things to the pupils. Yet...they distrusted them. [continues]
And on the first day of the week
[the two women] came to the tomb early at dawn ... bringing what they had prepared ...

when they went inside ...two men in dazzling clothes approached them ... they became fearful and they [the men]
said to them, "Why do you look for the living among the dead? Remember what he said to you when he was still with you? It is necessary that the Son of Man be extradited and be crucified and after three days rise again."
And they remember his words.
.
And they returned from the tomb and told all this to [the apostles] and to all the others, Mary Magdalene and Joanna and Mary (the wife) of James. But these word seemed to them like idle talk, and they did not believe them [continues with the Emmaus story]
1 ... Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body.

5 And entering the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were alarmed.
6 And he said to them, “Do not be alarmed. You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen; he is not here. See the place where they laid him. 7 But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you to Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.”
.
8 And they went out and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had seized them, and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid.

(Klinghardt's version also has Mark 16:3–4 :
(.' “Who will roll the stone away from the entrance of the tomb?” 4 ... they saw that the stone, which was very large, had been rolled away' )


Galatians 1


1 Paul, an apostle—not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead—
2 and all the brothers who are with me, To the churches of Galatia:
3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ 4 who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, 5 to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

18 ... after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to get acquainted with Cephas/Peter ... 19 I saw none of the other apostles—only James, the Lord’s brother ... 21 Then I went to Syria and Cilicia. 22 I was personally unknown to the churches of Judea that are in Christ ...


Galatians 2:16a

.... a person is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ ...

And 1 Cor 15:27


Christ died for our sins, in accordance with the Scriptures ... he was buried ... he was raised to life on the third day according to the Scriptures ... he appeared to Cephas/Peter and afterwards to the Twelve.* Then he appeared to over five hundred of our brothers at once, most of whom are still alive, though some have died. Then he appeared to James, and afterwards to all the apostles


* cf. G.Matthew and G.Luke have him appearing to the Eleven


Paul was unaware of the accounts of the Empty Tomb
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Giuseppe
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by Giuseppe »

The only Markan prioritist I admire among modern scholars is Adamczewski. So a reviewer:

Adamczewski elaborates on his thesis that the four canonical gospels are ‘hypertextual’ (96) and concludes that they are thus not to be considered reliable sources for the life of the historical Jesus (97). With regard to the prologue of the Gospel of Luke (Lk 1:1-4), for example, Adamczweski states, ‘Luke’s statement concerning the preservation of an or-derly sequence in his narrative ... refers to the sequence of the contents of the main Pauline letters, and not the sequence of events of the life of the historical Jesus’ (106). In accordance with his denial of the historicity of the gospels, Adamczewski then states that ‘the quest for the historical Jesus should primarily be based on the biographical data which can be found in Paul’s letters and in Josephus’ writings’ (139). Adamczewski presents a list of all the events that, according to him, belong to the life of the historical Jesus (145).

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source= ... EidXaVAi5C
schillingklaus
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by schillingklaus »

So Ferguson just spreads the usual apologist propaganda of Markan priorists and Pauline authenticists, like his brethren Ehrman, Dykstra, Goodacre, and so on; whence it is nowhere near worth my trouble.
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Re: A New Perspective on the Use of Paul in the Gospel of Mark

Post by lsayre »

I don't believe that the earliest author(s) of Mark directly possessed any of a purported Paul's letters, but rather that certain derivations of already extant and thus becoming sloganized near-dogma were adrift in the air (oral transmission air) within certain expanding and fluctuating regional circles, and thus available to anyone upon whom they randomly fell (anyone with ears to hear) whereby to beneficially utilize them whenever an occasion warranted it.

Paul even randomly perceived spur of the moment benefit in utilizing such extant floating creed, even while likely not personally believing it. Romans 1:4 for example. Did Paul likely believe that Jesus became the son of god at his resurrection? (credit Bart Ehrman for pointing this out)
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