The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

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gryan
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The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

Hypothesis: The "manifested" life of Jesus roots the longer ending of Mark in Pauline thought

Note the multiple appearances of the φαίνω (phainó) word group:
to bring to light, to cause to appear, i.e. to manifest
https://biblehub.com/greek/5316.htm

2 Cor 4:11
For we who live are always being given over to death for Jesus’ sake,
so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested (φανερωθῇ)
in our mortal flesh
.

Mark 4:22
For there is nothing hidden (κρυπτὸν), save that it should be manifested (φανερωθῇ);
neither was anything made secret (ἀπόκρυφον), but in order to manifest (φανερόν).

Mark's Longer Ending
Mk 16:9
Early on the first day of the week, after Jesus had risen, He manifested (ἐφάνη)
first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had driven out seven demons.

Mk 16:12
After this, Jesus manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
in a qualitatively different form
to two of them as they walked along in the country.

Mk 16:14
Later, as they were eating, to the Eleven he manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
and rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart,
because they did not believe those who had seen Him after He had risen.

---------------------

Luke and Matt reject Mark's usage

By contrast to the multiple appearances of the φαίνω (phainó) word group in longer Mark, correct me if I'm wrong, but I find only one usage of the φαίνω (phainó) word group in Luke and/or Matt after the tomb is found empty. This is the one usage, and it does not harmonize with Mark's usage:

Luke 24:11
But they did not believe the women, because their words manifested (ἐφάνησαν, ephanēsan)
to them like nonsense.

----------------------

I think Luke knew Mark's longer ending
with its use of the φαίνω (phainó) word group,
and implicitly criticised Mark's usage.

I suspect Mark's longer ending predates Luke and Matt
and I suspect that Luke's attitude toward Mark's use of the
the φαίνω (phainó) word group led to the erasure
of the longer ending of Mark in some manuscripts.

Based on this hypothesis, I've become sympathetic to arguments that Mark's longer ending was written by Mark:
https://textandcanon.org/a-case-for-the ... g-of-mark/
gryan
Posts: 791
Joined: Fri Jun 01, 2018 4:11 am

Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

gryan wrote: Thu Sep 22, 2022 1:38 am
Mark's Longer Ending
Mk 16:9
Early on the first day of the week, after Jesus had risen, He manifested (ἐφάνη)
first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had driven out seven demons.

Mk 16:12
After this, Jesus manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
in a qualitatively different form
to two of them as they walked along in the country.

Mk 16:14
Later, as they were eating, to the Eleven he manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
and rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart,
because they did not believe those who had seen Him after He had risen.
Re: "as they walked" (περιπατοῦσιν, Mark 16:12)

As in Mark's longer ending highlighted above, so also for Paul: "walking" is an important locus for manifesting the mystery of Jesus' life after death:

2 Cor 10:3
Ἐν σαρκὶ γὰρ περιπατοῦντες οὐ κατὰ σάρκα στρατευόμεθα,
For, walking (περιπατοῦντες) in flesh (Ἐν σαρκὶ), we do not battle according to flesh (κατὰ σάρκα)...
gryan
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Joined: Fri Jun 01, 2018 4:11 am

Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

Note the progression from Cor to Rom to Mark with respect to the antithesis of the sort of "walking in the flesh" Paul approves of: i.e. Paul approves of walking in (Ἐν) but disapproves of walking according to (κατὰ) the flesh:

2 Cor 10:3
Ἐν σαρκὶ γὰρ περιπατοῦντες οὐ κατὰ σάρκα στρατευόμεθα,
For, walking (περιπατοῦντες) in flesh (Ἐν σαρκὶ), we do not battle according to flesh (κατὰ σάρκα)..

Rom 8:4
in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fully met in us, who do not walk according to the flesh (μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν) but according to the Spirit.

Mark 7:5
And the Pharisees and the scribes asked him,
“Why do your disciples not walk according to (οὐ περιπατοῦσιν... κατὰ)
the tradition of the elders, but eat with defiled hands?”

-------

The walking "according to the flesh" (κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν) ) of Rom 8:4
morphs into walking "according to" (οὐ περιπατοῦσιν... κατὰ)
"the tradition of the elders" in Mark 7:5
Last edited by gryan on Thu Sep 22, 2022 5:25 am, edited 4 times in total.
schillingklaus
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Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by schillingklaus »

Markan Prioritism is once more the broad way to failure and igniorance, and most scholars are bound thither. Narrow is the way to deeper insights, and only excessively few may walk thither, whether according to the flesh or not.

Mk has of course brutally mutilated the account of the encounter at Emmaus, as already figured by Jean Magne in LOGIQUE DES SACREMENTS. The reason for the disciples not recognizing Jesus is because they had incorrect messianic expectations, not because of a different shape as Mk tries to force us to believe.
gryan
Posts: 791
Joined: Fri Jun 01, 2018 4:11 am

Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

gryan wrote: Thu Sep 22, 2022 1:38 am Hypothesis: The "manifested" life of Jesus roots the longer ending of Mark in Pauline thought

Note the multiple appearances of the φαίνω (phainó) word group:
to bring to light, to cause to appear, i.e. to manifest
https://biblehub.com/greek/5316.htm

2 Cor 4:11
For we who live are always being given over to death for Jesus’ sake,
so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested (φανερωθῇ)
in our mortal flesh
.

Mark 4:22
For there is nothing hidden (κρυπτὸν), save that it should be manifested (φανερωθῇ);
neither was anything made secret (ἀπόκρυφον), but in order to manifest (φανερόν).

Mark's Longer Ending
Mk 16:9
Early on the first day of the week, after Jesus had risen, He manifested (ἐφάνη)
first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had driven out seven demons.

Mk 16:12
After this, Jesus manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
in a qualitatively different form
to two of them as they walked along in the country.


Mk 16:14
Later, as they were eating, to the Eleven he manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
and rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart,
because they did not believe those who had seen Him after He had risen.

---------------------

Luke and Matt reject Mark's usage

By contrast to the multiple appearances of the φαίνω (phainó) word group in longer Mark, correct me if I'm wrong, but I find only one usage of the φαίνω (phainó) word group in Luke and/or Matt after the tomb is found empty. This is the one usage, and it does not harmonize with Mark's usage:

Luke 24:11
But they did not believe the women, because their words manifested (ἐφάνησαν, ephanēsan)
to them like nonsense.


----------------------

I think Luke knew Mark's longer ending
with its use of the φαίνω (phainó) word group,
and implicitly criticised Mark's usage.

I suspect Mark's longer ending predates Luke and Matt
and I suspect that Luke's attitude toward Mark's use of the
the φαίνω (phainó) word group led to the erasure
of the longer ending of Mark in some manuscripts.

Based on this hypothesis, I've become sympathetic to arguments that Mark's longer ending was written by Mark:
https://textandcanon.org/a-case-for-the ... g-of-mark/
Re: Luke's rejection of Mark's word choices in the "two on the road" story (assuming Markan priority)

Looking closer at Luke's version of Mark's story of two on the road, I found another use of the φαίνω (phainó) word group, but again, I'm struck how, instead of following Mark's positive use of the φαίνω (phainó) word group, Luke chooses an usual negative form that appears only this once in the NT:

Lk 24:31
Then their eyes were opened and they recognized [Jesus]— then, He became un-manifested (ἄ-φαντος) from them.
andrewcriddle
Posts: 2316
Joined: Sat Oct 05, 2013 12:36 am

Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by andrewcriddle »

gryan wrote: Thu Sep 22, 2022 1:38 am Hypothesis: The "manifested" life of Jesus roots the longer ending of Mark in Pauline thought

Note the multiple appearances of the φαίνω (phainó) word group:
to bring to light, to cause to appear, i.e. to manifest
https://biblehub.com/greek/5316.htm

2 Cor 4:11
For we who live are always being given over to death for Jesus’ sake,
so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested (φανερωθῇ)
in our mortal flesh
.

Mark 4:22
For there is nothing hidden (κρυπτὸν), save that it should be manifested (φανερωθῇ);
neither was anything made secret (ἀπόκρυφον), but in order to manifest (φανερόν).

Mark's Longer Ending
Mk 16:9
Early on the first day of the week, after Jesus had risen, He manifested (ἐφάνη)
first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had driven out seven demons.

Mk 16:12
After this, Jesus manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
in a qualitatively different form
to two of them as they walked along in the country.

Mk 16:14
Later, as they were eating, to the Eleven he manifested (ἐφανερώθη)
and rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart,
because they did not believe those who had seen Him after He had risen.

---------------------

Luke and Matt reject Mark's usage

By contrast to the multiple appearances of the φαίνω (phainó) word group in longer Mark, correct me if I'm wrong, but I find only one usage of the φαίνω (phainó) word group in Luke and/or Matt after the tomb is found empty. This is the one usage, and it does not harmonize with Mark's usage:

Luke 24:11
But they did not believe the women, because their words manifested (ἐφάνησαν, ephanēsan)
to them like nonsense.

----------------------

I think Luke knew Mark's longer ending
with its use of the φαίνω (phainó) word group,
and implicitly criticised Mark's usage.

I suspect Mark's longer ending predates Luke and Matt
and I suspect that Luke's attitude toward Mark's use of the
the φαίνω (phainó) word group led to the erasure
of the longer ending of Mark in some manuscripts.

Based on this hypothesis, I've become sympathetic to arguments that Mark's longer ending was written by Mark:
https://textandcanon.org/a-case-for-the ... g-of-mark/
Before arguing that the longer ending is original one has to deal with the differences in vocabulary from the rest of Mark e.g. πορεύομαι occurs 3 times in Mark 16:9-20 bur nowhere else in the standard text of Mark.

Andrew Criddle
gryan
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Joined: Fri Jun 01, 2018 4:11 am

Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

andrewcriddle wrote: Thu Sep 22, 2022 8:34 am
Before arguing that the longer ending is original one has to deal with the differences in vocabulary from the rest of Mark e.g. πορεύομαι occurs 3 times in Mark 16:9-20 bur nowhere else in the standard text of Mark.

Andrew Criddle
Wow. Point well taken!

By contrast to Mark (without the longer ending): Matt, Luke-Acts, John and Paul use πορεύομαι often.

Also, with respect to the vocabulary of the "Longer Ending of Mark":

"...two features suggest a different author: the frequent use of the pronoun “that” or “those” (ἐκεῖνος) referring to people (v. 10: ἐκείνη; v. 11: κἀκεῖνοι; v. 13: κἀκεῖνοι, ἐκείνοις; v. 20: ἐκεῖνοι), and the general shift in connectives away from a simple “and” kai (καί) to the post-positive “but” de (δέ; vv. 9, 12, 14, 17, 20 [in a μέν … δέ construction])—Mark generally uses de to signal a change of subject, but in 16:9–20 it becomes the default connective."
https://textandcanon.org/a-case-against ... g-of-mark/

As noted in Wikipedia, Mark's longer ending may be a fifth canonized witnesses to the resurrection of Christ:

"Since Mark was not responsible for the composition of the last 12 verses of the generally current form of his Gospel and since they undoubtedly were attached to the Gospel before the [Christian] Church recognized the fourfold Gospels as canonical, it follows that the New Testament contains not four but five canonized witnesses to the Resurrection of Christ. and Ehrman note that:

'Since Mark was not responsible for the composition of the last 12 verses of the generally current form of his Gospel and since they undoubtedly were attached to the Gospel before the [Christian] Church recognized the fourfold Gospels as canonical, it follows that the New Testament contains not four but five canonized witnesses to the Resurrection of Christ.'"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_16#Intertextuality

So, now I'm guessing that the writer of "the longer ending" was familiar with the writings of Paul and Mark, but was not even trying to fake Mark.
gryan
Posts: 791
Joined: Fri Jun 01, 2018 4:11 am

Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

gryan wrote: Thu Sep 22, 2022 9:16 am
As noted in Wikipedia, Mark's longer ending may be a fifth canonized witnesses to the resurrection of Christ:

"Since Mark was not responsible for the composition of the last 12 verses of the generally current form of his Gospel and since they undoubtedly were attached to the Gospel before the [Christian] Church recognized the fourfold Gospels as canonical, it follows that the New Testament contains not four but five canonized witnesses to the Resurrection of Christ. and Ehrman note that:

'Since Mark was not responsible for the composition of the last 12 verses of the generally current form of his Gospel and since they undoubtedly were attached to the Gospel before the [Christian] Church recognized the fourfold Gospels as canonical, it follows that the New Testament contains not four but five canonized witnesses to the Resurrection of Christ.'"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_16#Intertextuality
Re: Use the φαίνω (phainó) word, translated "manifest"

From Mark's non-Markan longer ending

Jesus Manifested to Mary Magdalene
(John 20:10–18)

9Early on the first day of the week, after Jesus had risen, He manifested (ἐφάνη, https://biblehub.com/greek/ephane__5316.htm )
first to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had driven out seven demons. 10She went and told those who had been with Him, who were mourning and weeping. 11And when they heard that Jesus was alive and she had seen Him, they did not believe it.

Jesus Manifests to Two Disciples
(Luke 24:13–35)

12After this, he manifested (ἐφανερώθη,
https://biblehub.com/greek/ephanero_the__5319.htm )
in a different form to two of them as they walked along in the country.

13And they went back and reported it to the rest, but they did not believe them either.

Jesus Manifests to the Eleven
(Matthew 28:16–20)

14Later, as they were eating, he manifested (ἐφανερώθη,
https://biblehub.com/greek/ephanero_the__5319.htm )
to the Eleven and rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen Him after He had risen.

-----------------

By contrast, as far as I have seen, Matt does not use the φαίνω (phainó) word group to describe the resurrection manifestations of Jesus, but he does use a φαίνω (phainó) word here:

Many saints manifested to many people, Matt 27:50-53
When Jesus had cried out again in a loud voice, He yielded up His spirit. At that moment the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth quaked and the rocks were split. The tombs broke open, and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised. After Jesus’ resurrection, when they had come out of the tombs, they entered the holy city and manifested (ἐνεφανίσθησαν
https://biblehub.com/greek/strongs_1718.htm
to many people

Unlike Matt and Lk, Gospel of John uses the φαίνω (phainó) word group in harmony with Mark's non-Markan, longer ending:

Jesus manifested himself to the disciples, John 21:1
After this Jesus manifested (ἐφανέρωσεν) himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias, and he manifested (ἐφανέρωσεν) himself in this way.
https://biblehub.com/greek/ephanero_sen_5319.htm

Jesus manifested in sharing bread, John 21:10
Jesus told them, “Bring some of the fish you have just caught.” 11So Simon Peter went aboard and dragged the net ashore. It was full of large fish, 153, but even with so many, the net was not torn.

12“Come, have breakfast,” Jesus said to them. None of the disciples dared to ask Him, “Who are You?” They knew it was the Lord. 13Jesus came and took the bread and gave it to them, and He did the same with the fish.

14This was now the third time that Jesus manifested (ἐφανερώθη) to the disciples after He was raised from the dead.
https://biblehub.com/greek/ephanero_sen_5319.htm
Kunigunde Kreuzerin
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Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by Kunigunde Kreuzerin »

.
Hi Greg, I'm not sure if there's anything for you, but five years ago imho we had quite an interesting discussion on the longer ending. Greetings, Kunigunde
gryan
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Re: The "manifested" life of Jesus: Paul's influence on Mark's longer ending

Post by gryan »

Kunigunde Kreuzerin wrote: Sat Sep 24, 2022 2:55 am .
five years ago imho we had quite an interesting discussion on the longer ending.
Kunigunde, Thanks for that link!

Before this week, I had not studied the details of the longer ending. As far as I can tell from the past discussion (in your link), and from a little googling, past studies of the LE have not focused on the language of "manifestation", i.e. φαίνω (phainó) word group.
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