Keeping up with the Hyksos

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billd89
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Keeping up with the Hyksos

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https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-ne ... 180975354/

Beni Hasan Tomb 3 Khnumhotep II (BH3) is notable for the depiction of caravans of Semitic traders ("Procession of the Aamu").
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Is that animal at the far right the Rhim or Slender-Horned Gazelle, Gazella leptoceros? I think of the Canaanite god Resheph: that is His Symbol.

Henry O Thompson, Mekal, the God of Beth-Shan [1970], pp.153-5:

{p.153}

Of particular interest is the Karatepe gate inscription, in which Resheph (Phoenician text) is represented in the Hittite hieroglyphic text

53 JAOS LXXIII, 88. He sees this analogy as the “‘key’”’ to understanding the gazelle’s relationship to Resheph. It is of interest of course, that Egyptian thought related the vulture and “harm” in the light of the Nergal/Resheph relationship just discussed. We can add to this that it formed a determinative in the hieroglyphic word for “terror” (GEG, p. 469, No. G. 14). However, the Egyptian usage varied, for the vulture also means “‘mother.”’ The goddess was Nekhbet, who, combined with the cobra goddess, Edjo, meant, ‘““IT'wo Ladies,” a title for the king (¢bid., No. G. 16). Gardiner also notes that the queen was the incarnation of Edjo, commonly known as Buto, as the pharaoh was the incarnation of Horus, the falcon. The two were hence used as determinatives in hieroglyphic inscriptions (bid., p. 32 n. 1).
54 She wears a feather headdress similar to the one worn by the Philistines. Cf. ANEP, No. 573: 2; RAPLA, pp. 144f, indicates she was a member of a triad at Elephantine.
55 JAOS LXXIII, 88. Cf. the same idea in relation to the hippo, chap. VI, p. 141. BGE II, 283, sees the gazelle as symbolic of Resheph’s sovereignty over the desert. Set of course, was the desert god par excellance. Simpson (p. 88), calls special attention to the “cippi” of Horus in which the young god is shown triumphantly standing on crocodiles, and clenching scorpions, snakes, a lion, and an antelope or a gazelle (e.g., N. E. Scott, “The Metternich Stela,’ BMMA IX [1950-1951], 206, who says, however, that the animal is an orynx). He fails to note that these are all animals of Set, the ancient enemy of Horus. So far as the writer knows, there is no evidence that Resheph was singled out as the enemy of Horus, although as an Asiatic god who could be identified with Set, he would fill this role (cf. chap. VI, n.92.)


{p.154} by the antlered head of a stag. “It might therefore be suggested that the animal associated with Reshef is a stag in Anatolia and a gazelle in Egypt, where the stag is uncommon.” He feels that the gazelle and antelope leading the procession of ‘Amu in the Beni Hassan tomb, supports this view, for the Egyptians specifically associated these animals with the ‘Amu over a century before the ‘Eper-Resheph text.56

Simpson's whole point is to show that Resheph really was somehow related to the gazelle. Surely the presence of the gazelle head on his forehead is sufficient for this. Its occasional presence elsewhere does not detract from this.57 The argument presented above is a bit obscure also in that it does not explain why the antelope and the goat did not share in the development. Since there apparently is no lack of gazelles in Anatolia (nor Syria), one wonders why there should be a sharp distinction between stags and gazelles in that area. Actually, ancient art did not always make a clear distinction among these animals. This is particularly apparent in glyptic art.58 Simpson goes on the refer to Albright’s identification of the gods of pestilence, Nergal and Resheph, as gazelle gods.59 We should note that Albright is also presenting them as fertility gods, and the gazelle as a fertility emblem. This dichotomy of destruction/fertility is quite appropriate to chthonic deities. The fertility aspect, however, removes the entire foundation of Simpson’s suggestion for the significance of the gazelle as paralleling the Egyptian cobra and vulture. If the gazelle did bear this analogy in Egypt, there would of course be no guarantee that it would have such a significance in Asia.

Other Relationships.
The gazelle, as already indicated, was not restricted to Resheph.60 Prominent among these associations with the gazelle and/or related animals, was the Great Mother, or fertility goddess.61 We would include here the “‘potnia théron” with her goats, {p.155} from Ras Shamra.62 One of the more interesting examples of a gazelle goddess is the wild huntress from Lebanon, known at an early date in Egypt. She is probably the nude woman astride a horse illustrated on a potsherd from XIXth Dynasty Thebes. Her name, “Asiti” or “‘Asith,” may be a feminine form of Esau. 63

The last has been identified with a Phoenician deity, ‘“Usous,” “Ousoos” or the like, as well as the more usual, “Edom,” either as a deity, or the progenitor of the country.64 He was connected with the thunderbolt, and he and his twin brother (in Phoenicia) were mighty sons of Light, Fire, and Flame. In addition, he was a hunter. This leads rather naturally to the biblical Esau. While the gazelle was not used as a sacrificial animal by the Hebrews, it is not impossible that a sacrificial meal may be the background for the blessing of Isaac story.65 We should note that the gazelle and related animals were used on occasion for sacrifice by other peoples.66
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Peter Kirby
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Re: Keeping up with the Hyksos

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Interesting. I don't have anything to add, but thanks for posting this.
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billd89
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Resheph, Patron of Shechem?

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Primarily, we recognize Resheph by the gazelle-head on his crown. (I very much doubt the interpretation of the gazelle 'noxious, pestilential and harmful' symbol/animal in the passage below, however.)
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Fierce! When cornered, the gazelle uses these horns as spears; there are reported human deaths from such gazelle 'attacks'.
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Maciej M. Münnich, The God Resheph in the Ancient Near East [2013], p.119:
Finally, the Egyptian symbol of Resheph, i.e. gazelle, is probably connected with diseases. Its head is often used instead of the uraeus on the crown the deity wears. It seems that it was caused by the negative connotation of the gazelle in the world of the Egyptian symbolism. The gazelle - animal living in deserts, i.e. the sphere man finds unfriendly – was regarded as a 'noxious, pestilential and harmful' animal. For the god that controls illness it was an ideal symbol, disregarding the fact that in Syria and Anatolia Resheph was also associated with long horned-animals , i.e. bucks or stags. On should add that the gazelle in the Egyptian iconography can symbolise an alien, especially someone from Asia. Needless to say, for Resheph this symbol is perfectly ideal. But the connection between the gazelle and Resheph on the basis of their alleged common desert provenance is not clear. The connection is obvious for the gazelle but as for Resheph his association with the desert is not quite explicit. Thus defining Resheph as a 'desert god' is rather groundless.215 We can only indirectly conclude that if he is a protective god, helping in illness and the demons of illness dwell eagerly in the wilderness, Resheph must be somehow related to the desert. However, there is no text directly pointing to Resheph as a god of desert. All the more, one cannot say that the gazelle on Resheph's crown is a proof of the identification between Resheph and Seth because the latter was a god of desert and the gazelle is a typical animal of wilderness. It should be stressed that there is no text identifying Resheph with Seth.


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Well, this is significant (blog post, citing Thomson [1970], p.160, mentioned above):
Resheph’s connection with Israel may have been even closer to home. According to a text from Ebla, Resheph was the patron god of Shechem, an important Canaanite city that eventually became the capital of Samaria (Israel).

Thesis: Semitic Resheph became Egyptian Shed and so Judeo-Egyptian El Shaddai. If correct, this would be very significant also (see Scriptural Research Institute, Septuagint: Numbers [2020], p.319}:
The gazelle or oryx was also the symbol of the Amorite god Resheph, and his subsequent reinterpretation as Shed during the Egyptian New Kingdom era. As Resheph, later reinterpreted as Shaddai, appears to be the god of Abraham and Moses, this would be a reference to his power leading the Israelites out of Egypt.

On gazelle-deer in the Bible, generally. More to the point, see this summary at Aleksander Krogevoll (Ph.D.) I Appeared as El Shaddai: Exploring the Mountain Motif as an Element for the Equation Between Yahweh and El Shaddai, pp.58-60:
Although the occurrences of Shaddai in Job are too multifaceted to be reduced to a simple scheme, scholars have attempted to systematize the meaning of the divine name in the book. Shaddai often appears in relation to the motif of blessing in Job, like when Job tells how Shaddai was with him and his children in his days of prosperity (29:5) and Eliphaz tells of how Shaddai can fill a house with good things (22:17-18). This imagery is further developed when Elihu equates “spirit of God” with the “breath of Shaddai” in Job 33:4, indicating that Shaddai is the source of human life. Shaddai is also portrayed positively when Eliphaz urges Job to turn to Shaddai as his instructor in the search for wisdom (22:21-30). Conversely, Shaddai is also strongly connected to plagues in Job, most notably in the words of Job who depicts Shaddai in similar manner as the deity Resheph, god of plague and war, in the references to Shaddai, the Archer (cf. 6:4; 16:9-14), and the “Arrows of Shaddai.”216 It is clear that for Job, Shaddai has become his enemy not his friend (cf. 6:4; 7:12, 20; 16:11-14; 19:6-12; 30:21), as Shaddai is the one who inflicts pain.217 The dispute over Shaddai’s nature is never fully resolved in Job, and to this Moore points out, “the most fundamental point about which Job and Eliphaz disagree is that of the essential characteristics of this mysterious deity both men call Šadday.”218

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