Chushan-rishthaim as Chammu-rabi?

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Chushan-rishthaim as Chammu-rabi?

Post by Japhethite »

Chushan-rishthaim as Chammu-rabi?

I admit that I am pretty doubtful of this because the name match is maybe not possible and because Hammurabi didn't definitely rule Canaan, and so it is probably wrong, but until there is better evidence for or against this or some other match I can't help liking this seemingly faintly possible match.

We searched through all the Sumerian and Babylonian and Assyrian and Mitanni and Mari and Aleppo/Alalakh and Haran and Hittite and Elamite and Ebla and Eshnunna and Nuzi and Egyptian and other king lists and the only possible matches for the name Cushan &/or rishathaim we could find were:

Enshagkushanna/Rureshtum of Uruk 2 dyn?
Kashushamama of the Gutians?
Shusin of Ur 3 dyn (9 yrs)?
Lipitenlil/Kush of Isin?
Hammu-rabi/Khammu-ragas/Kimta-rapashti (Babylon)?
Shush-shi "moon + see" ("Sumerian/Semitic/Elamite", Sealands)
mDisuen (Sealands)?
"Hyksos afraid of Assyrians" (Josephus)?
Man of Kussara (Labarna)?
Shaushtatar (Mitanni)?
Artashumara (and Udhi/Uthi, Mitanni)?
Tushratta (Mitanni)?
[...]an [...] of Assyrian (between Nurili & Tukultininurta)?
Sarri-Kusuh/Shar-Kushukh (Piyashshili, Carchemish/Ashtata)

We could not find any other possible matches for Cushanrishathaim except the above, and of the above none seem likely re names match & time match & places match except possibly Hammurabi.

The reasons we favour Hammurabi are:

Time about right:
In slight difference to Rohl who places the exodus in the 13th dynasty, I prefer it being at the end of the 12th dynasty. We know there is a synchronism of the 13th dynasty with Yantin of Byblos and Hammurabi. (Childe also possibly implies that the Mari period is synchronous with the Middle Kingdom?) This would place Hammurabi shortly after the exodus like Cushanrishathaim is in the bible.
Rohl dates the Venus tablets of Ammisaduga shortly after Hammurabi to 1419 bc, which is near-after the date of the exodus. The Venus tablets could possibly relate to "the stars fought in their courses" of time of Barak shortly after Cushanrishathaim?
Hammurabi's law code has similarities to the law of Moses in the bible, which may suggest the two were near in time?

Names match?
First consider the various renderings of the two names:




(We add the third name Semiramis because we have previously noticed that Semiramis of Babylon might match Hammurabi of Babylon. This might give us further various renderings of some of the letters of the name Hammurabi?)

Both the Biblical and Babylonian names have two main words parts of the names (separated by hyphens). The Biblical name has 2 & 4 syllables; the Babylonian name has 2 & 2 or 3 syllables. The first half of each name both begin with Ch-. The second half of each name both begin with r-; and the ending of both is similar -i/-im. The second half of both are similar rishathaim & rapashti, perhaps with the a & i transposed? (Perhaps also note that b can interchange with sh in some related language?) The first half of both names both have similar letters: Ch a m (n) u & Ch u a n, with the a & u transposed, and the m & n possibly interchanging? For the sh in Chushan one possibility is that Sh is an alternative version of the Ch in Chammurabi if he matches Semiramis, so the Hebrew Chsh could match the Babylonian Ch/Sh? Or possibly the Babylon word was Khammus, and the Hebrew name transposed the us & am/an? Alternatively we notice that Hammurabi is supposed by some to mean "the god Hammu is a healer" or "Ham the great", while the biblical name Cushan-rishathaim is related by some to Cush who was son of Ham (and the meanings of Ham & Cush are also related)?

Similar meanings of names?

The meaning of the name Chushan-rishthaim is variously suggested to be "great conquerer" or "double wickedness" or "blackness".
The meaning of Hammurabi is suggested to be either "the great lotus", "plant + great", or "Ham the great", or "the god Hammu is a healer", or "the kinsman is a healer", "a male (paternal) family member + healer", "paternal kinsman + healer".
The meanings "great conquerer" and "great lotus" are perhaps similar.

Similar places:
Chushan-rishathaim was king of Aram-Naharaim "highlands of the two rivers" or "Syria of the two rivers" or "Mesopotamia" (Bible), or of Aram "high, height, highlands" or "Syria" (Bible), or of Assyria (Josephus). He crossed the Euphrates (Josephus). And he had rule over Canaan/Israel for 8 years.
Hammurabi is supposed to have been an Amorite. He had rule over Babylonia, was called king of Sumer & Akkad. He conquered Mari in the middle Euphrates, and he later conquered Assyria, ruling the whole of Mesopotamia. A source says one stele of Hammurabi has been found as far north as Diyarbekir, where he claims the title "King of the Amorites". Waddell says there is evidence that his empire included Muru or Amorite land of northern Syria and part at least of the eastern Taurus region in Asia Minor. Amurru/Martu was used as a name for Syria-Palestine in some Sumerian/Akkadian/Babylonian sources. Hammurabi had the title "king of the 4 corners/quarter of the world" and/or "king of the universe". One of the 4 quarters in some sources was Amurru. At Hazor in northern Canaan Hazor was found a tablet "containing laws clearly derived from the code of Hammurabi". McEvedy's atlas of ancient history shows Amorites covered Mesopotamia and extended as far as the border of Canaan/Israel/Palestine at the time of the 12th dynasty.

Chedorlaomer & Chushanrishathaim:
The invasion of Chedorlaomer in Abraham's time and the later invasion of Chushanrishathaim in the time of the Judges are a parallel similarity.
Hammurabi was once supposed to match Amraphel the companion of Chedorlaomer. Sitchin claimed Hammurabi demanded the return of the statues taken by Khedorlaomer?
We now think that Hammurabi might possibly be Chushanrishathaim, which is an interesting coincidence.

However, there are worrying doubts that Chushan-rishathaim can/does match Chammu-rabi because the first half of the names maybe can't match, and there doesn't seem much evidence that Hammurabi could have ruled Canaan (and that he could have been overpowered by Othniel).
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Re: Chushan-rishthaim as Chammu-rabi?

Post by Japhethite »

I've since discarded my Chushan-rishathaim candidate Chammurabi/Kimtarapashti and have now changed my tentative candidate to Shamshi-adad I of Assyria. (Since my OP here I had later changed my candidate to Shaushtatar of Mitanni, but I have also now discarded this candidate too.) Below is what I have written on possible matches of Shamshi-adad I with Chushan-rishathaim.

We searched all through the king lists of the ancient near/middle east and only found a score or so possible candidates for Cushan-rishathaim, and going through all those candidates there are only a few that could very well match Cushan-rishathaim in name and nature and date, and of those few the best match is maybe Shamshi-adad I. We will now list the possible details matches evidences for this candidate.

Name/meaning match:
The name C(h)ushan-rishathaim / Chusarsathaim is vaguely similar to the name Shamshi-adad/Shamshi-hadad (alternatively read Samas-rimmon/Samas-ramman / Sosarmos/Sosares or Samsi-vul or Dagshi-ash-muru). The -shan- or Cusha- is like Sham- or Sosa-, the -rish(a)- like -shi(-ash)-, and the -atha- like -adad, or the -rishathaim like the -rimmon or -rm-. The K/C(h)- could be like a click prefix before the Sh-, or Shamash is supposed to match Chemosh/Kemos is Moabite/Ammonite. (Shamash has also been read San/Sansi.) Shamshi-adad's name is also similar to Shaushtatar/Sausadat of Mitanni's name, which latter name is also similarish to Chushan-risthathaim (Shaush & Cushan, tatar & rishatha).
(Additionally possibly also note that Waddell corresponded Shamshiadad/Dagshiashmuru with Ur-ninurta/Dashashi-uruash of Isin and Dasha-ratha of Indian. The latter name is also vaguely similar to Cushan-rishathaim except for the Cu- & Da- and the -im. The Old Assyrian Empire also included the place Til-sha-annim which is also maybe similar to Cushan-rishathaim.)
Shamshi-adad also claimed decsent from Usha/Ushpia, which latter name is also similar to Cushan.
Shamshi-adad was Issi'ak Assur "rep/viceroy/governor/regent of Assur" (later Sarmat Assur "king of Assur/Assyria") which title/name is also/alternatively similar to rishathaim.
Cush means "black/burnt" which could be like Shamshi is "sun".

Time/date match:
In our chronology we have the Exodus at the end of the 12th dynasty of Egypt, David in the 18th dynasty Amarna period, and Shishak as Ramses II of the 19th dynasty. Shamshi-adad I came shortly before Hammurabi who was contemporary with a 13th dynasty pharaoh/king (established synchronism). Waddell also has Shamshi-adad as a contemporary of the 6th king of the Isin dynasty which comes immediately before Hammurabi's dynasty of Babylon. So Shamshi-adad I is about the right time for Cushan-rishathaim.

Place match:
Cushan was suzerain/overlord/conqueror of Israel/Palestine, and he was from Aram(-Naharaim "Mesopotamia" or) "Aram/Syria (of the two rivers)" or "the heights/highlands (of the two rivers)". Aram "highlands" is supposed to be Syria. Naharaim "two rivers" is Mesopotamia "two rivers" (and compare Shinar "two rivers"). The Tigris & Euphrates flow through Iraq/Mesopotamia, Syria, Turkey. Shamshi-adad was from Assyria in northern Mesopotamia/Iraq, and he claimed the name "unifier of the land between the Tigirs and Euphrates".
Josephus says Chushan was Assyrian, like Shamshi-adad is Assyrian. Nahrina in Egyptian was the Mitanni area near Harran, which area Rohl and Hrozny have as western Assyria.
Shamshi-adad's Old Assyrian Empire included Assur/Ashur and Nineveh in Assyria, Subat-enlil on the Habur, Til-sha-annim (Chagar Bazar in n.e. Syira), Qatna, Subat-enlil (Shekhna or Tell Leilan), Ekallatum, the area between the 2 Zab rivers, and Mari on the middle Euphrates, so his empire could have briefly included Syria-Palestine even though it seems abit far a distance or big an area. Shamshi-adad is said to be a conqueror who had conquered much of Syria, Anatolia and the whole of upper Mesopotamia. He claimed to have erected triumphal stelae on the coast of the Mediterranean.
We have the exodus at the end of the 12th dynasty, and it is interesting that Josephus said the Hyksos (14th/15th-16th dyns) were afraid of the Assyrians.
Also, the Muru in the alternative reading of Shamshi-adad's name could match Martu/Amurru/Amorites which was a name for the Syria-Palestine area. Muru also means "invader".
Shamshi-adad claimed the king of the upper land had paid tribute to him. The Mediterranean was called the Upper Sea.

Reign length match?
Waddell equated Shamshi-adad/Dagshi-ash-muru I of Assyria with Ur-ninurta/Dashashi-uruash of Isin who reigned 28 years, which reign lenth is maybe similar to Chushan's 8 years in the Bible?

(Previous Cushan-rishathaim candidates in order of adoption have been Shusin, Kush/Lipitenlil, Artashumara, Chammurabi/Kimtarapishti, Shaushtatar, Shamshi-adad I. See some of them at: . . ... s/75960537 .
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