Rohl's Joseph in Egypt

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Joined: Mon Aug 17, 2015 2:39 am

Rohl's Joseph in Egypt

Post by Japhethite »

I've been unfairly practically banned by Rohl from the Rohl group in (previously in Yahoo groups) and on facebook because of disagreements on which dynasty Joseph was in Egypt, and on the locations of Goshen, Ramses, Yam Suph, Sinai/Horeb.
So I can't reply to the comments on things like this in those groups, so I have to comment in other places like this.

Rohl believes that Joseph's Hebraico-Egyptian name
is really
by metathesis/transposition,
and he equates this with
Ddnf/Djed((u)-)en-ef pa'anakh
"He who is called Ipu/Ipiankhu".

Fro the first part of the name (Zafenat) I wish to point out that although I agree in some cases of metathesis/transposition, this one I think is totally dubious and is visibly a very unlikely "butchering", regardless of if the word/phrase "Zatenaf" in Egyptian means "he who is called" which seems to strike some sort of cord. Just because it is also the opinion of Kitchen doesn't mean it is right. The only possible evidence I can see for it is Tsethaentiphans in Jubilees, but this is not very reliable.

There is not any strong enough evidence reason for assuming/asserting that Zaphenath means "he who is called". In fact it would not make sense for the bible to say they called/named "him he who is called Paneah". Plus "'He who is called' is not a title for someone in high office."

I would also question one or two or three of the letters interchanges between Stnp/Ztnf/Z(t)np(h) and D(j)d(t)nf.

There have been numerous theoretical reconstructions of what Zaphenath-paneah was and meant in Egyptian, and none of the proposed original Egyptian spellings are found as a name of any prominent person in Egyptian history (who matches all the details of Joseph's story).

Besides which, if metathesis is possible then
Djed((u)-)en-ef pa'anakh
can very well match Djedef-re who is one of our 6 major Joseph candidates in the 2nd-5th dynasties period.

I am aware that Rohl also equates the 2nd part of the name (Paneah) with Ipiankhu, but this is also dubious for various reasons.
What happened to the I-? (and the -i/-i-? and the -u?)
It is not even totally definite that Paneah contains Ankh (I use the common spelling of that word not the "expertly correct" Egyptian spelling). And even if it does there are plenty of other persons in Egyptian history with ankh in their names (or with khet which Palmer says similarly means "living").
"Ipiankhu is an artificial construct".
There is no prominent person Ipiankhu, except for a vizier Ipi/Ipu who doesn't much match Joseph very well?
If anything it is more likely the Zaphenath is the name and the paneah extra, rather than the Zaphenath the extra and the Paneah the name.

Rohl says the name (Zatenaf or Ipiankhu?) "is a common name for a foreigner/slave in Egyptian society". But this is not a fit name for Joseph as adon over the land 2nd only to pharaoh.

When it comes down to it Rohl equates Zaphenath-paneah with Ipi/Ipu. I just can not see this names (and persons) match is very convincing or likely at all.

He has no person called Zaphenath-Paneah.
He has no person called Zaphenath.
He has no person called Paneah unless Ipiankh(u) is an attested prominent person's name (but even if he is he seems pretty unknown while Joseph was so famous he should be found easily and match a well known prominent person)?
He has no person called Aneah/Ankhu?
He only has a person called Ipi/Ipu who doesn't match very greatly.

Khety the vizier of Amenemhet III also seems like a poor match for Joseph. He doesn't even have a name Joseph or Zaphenath/Paneah?
And how can Rohl have Joseph as both vizier Ipi and vizier Khety?

As for (Rohl's?) In(yo)tef/Antef as possibly matchig Joseph, where are all the details matches between the 2 persons? And if Inyotef could match Joseph, then why can't Imhotep who has alot more better matches with Joseph?

For the statue of a person in a coloured garment I am very sceptical about that person's details matching Joseph's. But its a long time since I read he book about that person and I don't have the details here to discuss them.

Moreover, the 2nd/3rd-4th/5th dynasties period have alot more matches with all the details of the Genesis story of Joseph than the 11th-12th dynasty does. And Rohl has his "Joseph in the (11th? and/or) 12th dynasty too close to his "Moses in the (12th? and/or) 13th dynasty. And the 12th dynasty is too late in over all Egyptian history for Joseph who was earlier in overall Egyptian history (13th generation after Flood, 1st book of the bible, only 290/350/420 + 215 yrs after the Flood in Massoretic). Even if one accepted the longer period between Flood and Abraham iin the Septuagint and Samaritan, placing Joseph in the 11/12th dynasty still means sqeezing 10/11 dynasties (plus Lower Nubia dynasty, plus 1 or 2 or 3 predynastic dynasties) into just 13 generations between the Flood and Joseph (or even less between Babel and Joseph).
Also there is no 7 yrs worldwide famine in the 12th dynasty that I am aware of.
Posts: 79
Joined: Mon Aug 17, 2015 2:39 am

Re: Rohl's Joseph in Egypt

Post by Japhethite »

Various followers of the conventional chronology and of Rohl's chronology have claimed that Joseph can't be in the 2nd/3rd to 4th/5th dynasties period because they claim the dates don't/can't match. So this is just a post showing what dates or dynasties Joseph can match in Egyptian history.

At present it is impossible to resolve the disputes about the correct date of Joseph because (1) it is impossible to prove the correct biblical date because of lack of complete enough data in the bible, and because of differences in different versions such as the Massoretic text and the Septuagint, and (2) the conventional Egyptian chronology has hardly any real reliable dating evidences and what few dating methods they have are unreliable despite their assertions that they are scientific, and the overall ancient Egyptian dynastic chronology is certainly too long/old, but the correct dates of the dynasties in Egyptian chronology can not be proven because lack of enough accurate reliable dating evidences.

Putting aside the issue of the ascribed dates of the dynasties Joseph's dynasties placement range in sources is:

2nd (Palmer, me, one/two/few others)
3rd (Wyatt, Moller, me, Palmer, Walker, Sweeney, Hoeh, Drnhawkins/Prometheo, Warthen, Aardma? Long? Mackay?)
4th (me, Hoeh, Palmer?)
5th (Wyatt, Courville, me)
11th (Rohl, Clarke)
12th (Rohl, Courville, Alford, Bullen, Davodivits/Davidodvidts, Hoeh, AIG/Anderson)
between 12th & 13th dyn (Rohl)?
before 13th dyn (Velikovsky)
13th (Bullen)
14th dyn (PSBA)?
15th/16th dyn (Bey, conventional, Compton)
17th dyn (Jerome)
"immediately before the 18th dyn" (Bey)
18th (Jim S, Sullivan, Marquart, Jeremias, Mercer, Barton, Rancke, Booysen, Albright, Osman, Sullivan, Robichon/Avarille, Davodivits/Davidodvidts/Davidivits)
19th (post/comment in linkedin Egypt group)
19th-20th (Sayce, others, PSBA?)
22nd dyn (PSBA)?

So all sources agree that Joseph can't be before the 2nd dynasty or after the 22nd dynasty. We see there are 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 major placements periods: 2nd-5th, 11th-13th/14th/15th, 15th, 15th/16th/17th-19th/20th, 22nd?

In considering Joseph's date in biblical and Egyptian history we must approach the issue by both counting up from the bottom end, and counting down from the top end.

Counting up from the bottom end Joseph is 430 + 480 + ... + 70 + 490 yrs before Christ in the Massoretic text, or 215 + 440/880 + ... + 70 + 490 yrs before Christ in the Septuagint.
Considering these and other evidences we find that Joseph's dates range in various sources is 2222 bc + 552/501/500 yrs (Palmer), or 2016/2007 or 1980 bc, 1936 bc (Wiki), or 1900-1800 bc (Everett), or 1876 bc, or 1720/1715-1706/1700 (Kitchen, Wiki), or 1706 bc (Usher, Oxford), or 1749/1727-1658 bc (Jerome), or 1670 bc (Rohl), or 1657/1635 bc (NWT/JW), or 1647/1621 (Compton)? or 1522 (Pearlman) or 1465/1330s (George) or 900 bc (PSBA)? Ignoring PSBA's 900 bc one which is too late, and Palmer's one which is too early, Joseph's dates range is 2016/1980 at earliest to 1621/1522/1330s at latest.

In the conventional Egyptian chronology the 2016/1980-1621/1522/1330s dates range matches the 11th/12th to the (14th? or) 15th/16th/17th/18th dynasties. Since Egyptian dynastic history is too long/old when comparing with the bible we can be sure that the dates of the dynasties can't be older/longer and so Joseph can't come after the 14th/15th/16th/17th/18th dynasty. I think most people would agree that conventional Egyptian chronology can't be too short (or the true dates older/longer), but it can be too long (or the true dates can be lower). (Sources also agree that conventional Biblical chronology is not too long/old but is too short.) Since Egyptian dynastic history is too long/old, the dates of the dynasties are too old/long and the real dates must be at least a couple/few or more centuries lower/later than the conventional dates, and so Joseph must really be before the 11th/12th/13th/14th/15th/16th/17th/18th dynasty.

In Rohl's New chronology which has more correct lower dates for the 13th and following dynasties, 2016/1980-1621/1522/1330s matches from the 9th/10th to 13th/14th/15th dynasties.

Since Rohl has Moses in the 13th dynasty Joseph must come at least 215-430 yrs before Dudimose of the 13th dynasty (which means 1661-1876 bc or 9th/10th-12th dyn in Rohl, or 1905-2120 bc or 10th/11th-12th dyn in conventional).

So in Rohl's Egyptian-Biblical chronology Joseph would be anywhere in the 9th/10th/11th/12th dynasties.

But since evidences are more in favour of a 430 yrs stay in Egypt rather than 215 yrs we would be looking at Joseph being rather in the 9th/10th dynasty top end (ca 2016/1980/1876 bc in Rohl or 2120 in conventional) rather than the 12th dynasty bc bottom end (1670/1661/1621/1522/1330s bc in Rohl or 1980/1905 in conventional).
Moreover if we consider that Rohl's overall Egyptian chronology is still too long (in particular the 00/0/1st to 13th dynasties half is too long, not the 14th-last dynasties period) (start of 1st dynasty at 2770) when we compare it with the Massoretic Text version of the Bible, we can assume Joseph was before the 9th/10th/11th/12th dynasty. Though if Rohl is using the Septuagint's 1070 yrs from the Flood to Abraham and since he uses the Septuagint's 215 yrs from Jacob to the exodus then Rohl's chronology might not be too long and Joseph might not be before or in the top end of the 9th-12th dynasties period.

Now counting downwards from the top end we have the following rough calculations:

We know that all the ancient Egyptian dynasties must come after the Flood of Noah, and they probably also come after Babel, and/or the 1st dynasty must be close to or near-contemporary of Abraham.

Egyptian has a number of memories of the Flood evidencing that dynastic Egypt is post-flood, eg:
Nun the primeval watery chaos.
"Nu told Ra to Flood earth"?
Hathor & Sekhmet wade in human blood. Ra floods world with beer.
Atmu caused waters great deep to overflow & drown everyone.
Thoth sent flood.
Bennu bird glyph associated with flood. The Phoenix lived in a mountainous land that escaped the ravages of the Flood.
Atlantis sinking.
1st of 3 seasons named 'Inundation'.
Siriadic columns made to survive flood & fire.
Osiris drowned, saved from water.
Surid 300 yrs before Flood.
Dyking myths of Ptah? and Menes.
Sphinx considered by some to represent Leo/Cancer/fire to Capricorn/Aquarius/water/flood (compare Berosus, Druids).
Mizraim "Egypt" (son of Ham son of Noah) is first mentioned after the Flood in the bible.
8 gods of Ogdoad may match 8 souls in Ark in Genesis.
10 god-kings match 10 patriarchs.
The bible clearly implies in a umber of verses words/details that the Flood was worldwide.

In the MT Joseph is 215 yrs after Abraham.
In the MT Joseph is 290/292/352/420/427 + 215 yrs = 506/567/635/642 after the Flood.
In the MT Joseph is 190/251/319/326 + 215 yrs = 405/466/534/541 after Babel (Eber/Peleg).

In the Septuagint Jose is 1070 + 215 yrs = 1285 after the Flood.
In the Septuagint Joseph is 215 after Abraham.
In the Septuagint Joseph is 539 + 215 yrs = 754 after Babel.

In the SP Joseph is 940/942 + 215 yrs = 1156 after the Flood.
In the SP Jose is 215 yrs after Abraham.
In the SP Joseph is 540 + 215 yrs = 755 after Babel.

In Josephus Joseph is 993 or "290" + 215 yrs = 1208 or 505 after the Flood.
In Josephus Joseph is 215 yrs after Abraham.
In Josephus Joseph is 582 + 215 yrs = 797 after Babel.

Using the Massoretic dates:
3330/3300/3170/3150/3100/3050/3000/2920 bc (start of majority short Egyptian chronology) minus 215 / 405/466/534/541 / 505/506/567/635/642 yrs = 3115-2705-2688-2278 bc = 0 to 2nd to 6th dyn.

Using the Septuagint/Samaritan/Josephus' dates:
3330/3300/3170/3150/3100/3050/3000/2920 bc (start of majority short Egyptian chronology) minus 215 / 754/755/797 / 1156/1208/1285 yrs = 3115-2705-2045-1635 = 0 to 2nd to 10th/11th to 14th/15th/16th/17th dyn.

Using the Massoretic dates:
3400 bc (start of minority long Egyptian chronology) minus 215 / 405/466/534/541 / 505/506/567/635/642 yrs = 3185-2758 bc = 1st-2nd to 4th dyn.

Using the Septuagint/Samaritan/Josephus' dates:
3400 (start of minority long Egyptian chronology) minus 215 / 754/755/797 / 1156/1208/1285 = 3185-2115 = 1st-2nd to 10th/11th dyn

Using the Massoretic text dates:
4000/2830/2770 bc (start of Rohl's chronology) minus 215 / 405/466/534/541 / 505/506/567/635/642 yrs = 3785-3358-2555-2128 bc = predynastic to 2nd to 6th dyn.

Using the Septuagint/Samaritan/Josephus' dates:
4000/2830/2770 bc (start of Rohl's chronology) minus 215 / 754/755/797 / 1156/1208/1285 yrs = 3785-2715-2555-1485 bc = predynastic to 1st to 2nd to 13th dyn.

(Note the Turin king list has 949/955 yrs for the 1st-8th dynasties. The Book of Sothis has 700 or 955 yrs from the 1st to the 13th or 15th/16th dynasties. The Massoretic has a 1000/1048 yrs from the Flood in 1656 am to the exodus in 2666 am. Usher's blend of the Massoretic and Septuagint has 857 yrs from the Flood to the exodus.)

Though Joseph is only the 13th or 14th generation after the Flood. To have Joseph in the 12th (Rohl, Courville) or 15th/16th (Conventional) or 18th (Jim S, George) dynasty would require squeezing 11 or 14/15 or 17 dynasties into just 13/14 generations. So we are looking at the top end rather than the bottom end of Joseph's dates/dynasties range. (Perhaps compare that Djoser/Zoser Netjerikhet is approximately the 15th Horus name in king lists.)

So to recap:
Joseph's maximum range in all the main sources: 2nd-22nd dyns.

Counting up from the bottom Joseph's dates range in conventional is 11th/12th/13th/14th/15th/16th/17th/18th dyn. But since conventional is too long Joseph can't be later than this, and Joseph's date can't match the conventional date, and Joseph must be earlier.
Counting up from the bottom Joseph's estimated dates range in Rohl is the 9th/10th/11th/12th dyn. Since Rohl's chronology before the 13th dynasty and/or overall is also too long Joseph can't be later, and Joseph's date can't match Rohl's dynasty, and Joseph may be earlier.
So counting up from the bottom Joseph must be between the 2nd and 12th dynasty.

Counting downwards from the top, in majority short Egyptian chronology Joseph is 0 to 2nd to 6th dyn using the Massoretic, or 0 to 2nd to 10th/11th to 14th/15th/16th/17th using the Septuagint.
In minority long Egyptian chronology Joseph is 1st-2nd to 4th dyn using the Massoretic text, or 1st-2nd to 10th/11th dyn using the Septuagint.
In Rohl's chronology Joseph is predynastic to 2nd to 6th dyn using the Massoretic text, or predynastic to 1st to 2nd to 13th using the Septuagint.
So counting down from the top Joseph must be between the 2nd to 4th/6th to 10th/11th to 13th/14th/15th/16th/17th dynasty.

So counting both down and up Joseph is between the 2nd and 12th dynasty.

Going back to the list of Joseph placements theories we can further reduce the choice to one of two periods of placements: the 2nd-5th dynasties, or the 11th-13th/14th/15th dynasties (which we have reduced to 11th-12th dynasties). If we favour the shorter Massoretic length from the Flood to Abraham (290/350/420 yrs), and the longer Massoretic length from Jacob to the exodus (430 yrs) and/or the longer 10 generations from Joseph to Ephraim, and/or some Septuagint versions' longer length from the exodus to Solomon (880 yrs) then Joseph will be closer to the top 2nd-5th dynasties end. If one favours the Septuagint longer length from the Flood to Abraham (940/1070 yrs), and the Septuagint shorter length from Jacob to the exodus (215 yrs) and/or the shorter 4 generations from Levi to Moses, and/or the conventional shorter length from the exodus to Solomon (12 generations) then Joseph will be at the bottom 11th-12th dynasties end. The only way to resolve and prove this dispute is whether the earlier or later dynasty has more quality and quantity matches with all the details of Joseph's story (and same with the preceding and succeeding Egyptian-Biblical matches).

Now that we have shown above that Joseph falls somewhere between the 2nd to 12th dynasties (contrary to critics/skeptics/deniers assertions), we must now go back and cover in a bit more detail some evidences for why/how the conventional Egyptian chronology is too long/old, and some evidences for the true dates of the dynasties being some centuries lower/shorter.

We know that the conventional Egyptian-Biblical "synchronisms" are wrong because they have Abraham too late in overall Egyptian history and have no matches with biblical before the 11th/12th dynasty, they admit they can find no trace of Joseph or Moses or the exodus in the dynasties that they suppose they were in Egypt during, they have the exodus too close to the Israel stele, they admit there is no trace of Joshua's Jericho in their iron age strata, they have less than 480 yrs between the exodus and Shishak, and the camapign list of their Shishak candidate Sosenq doesn't match Shishak's.

1st dynasty date:
In modern Egyptological sources the date of Menes the 1st pharaoh/king of the 1st dynasty has ranged from 5867 bc (Champollion), 5770 (Lesueur), 5702 (Bokh/Boeckh), 5613 (Unger), 5510 (Petrie), 5004 (Mariette), 4455 (Brugsch), 4400 (Brugsch-Bey), 4157 (Lauth), 4000 (Chabas), 3892 (Lepsius), 3623 (Bunsen), 3400 (Breasted, Berlin), 34th cent (scholarly opinions), 3200 (Meyer, Steindorff), 32nd cent (2013 carbon dating study), 3180 (Meyer), 3150 (Clayton), 3113 (Alford), 3100, 31st cent (carbon dating study), 3050 (Clayton), 3000 yrs bc (Shaw, Clayton), 30th cent (scholarly opinions), 2920 (conventional), 2900 ("newest research", Ceram), 2850 (Lissner), 2770 (Rohl), 2399 (Josephus), 2320 (Wilkinson), 2300 (Josephus), 2254 (Hoeh), 2224 (Palmer).
Some decades ago the conventional date of Menes was suddenly lowered by "400 yrs" from 3400 to 3100 (and since then to 3000 or 2920), though a minority of Egyptologists still hold the long 3400 date.
Some conventional sources say that the conventional dates of the Early/Old dynasties may fluctuate by as much as 200 yrs (up &/or down).
There is no known Siriadic/Sothaic date for the Old Kingdom. (Though there was a new claim a few years ago of one found for the 1st dynasty, and another recent source claims one of "2105" bc 600 yrs after the 4th dynasty.)
All these facts (the modern range/span/spectrum of Menes, the sudden lopping off of 400 yrs, and the 200 yrs leeway of error) shows just how fluid conventional Egyptian chronology is, and it implies their dates are not so certain or concrete or reliable or infallible as they assert/imply.
Furthermore, ancient sources support a date of ca 2300s/2200s rather than the higher dates:
Considering the bible we see that all of dynastic ancient Egyptian history must come after the Great Flood.
Tacitus said there had only been 4 phoenixes in Egyptian ancient history, and he had a phoenixes lifespan as 500 yrs.
Herodotus said Menes was (1)1340 (or 1134(0)?) yrs before Seti.
Josephus said Menes was only 1300 yrs before Solomon/Shishak. This means Menes is not earlier than 2300s bc.
Abraham's famine and plague(s) may match the one in the 1st dynasty in Clayton & Bey.
So from all the above information about the date of the 1st pharaoh we can assume that the true date of the start of the 1st dynasty must be lower than the conventional "3000" bc ascribed date, which means that all the dynasties dates must also be lower and means that Joseph will match an earlier/higher dynasty than pro-conventional scholars suppose.

1st, 12th & 19th dynasty dates:
Herodotus said Menes was (1)1340 yrs before Seti. Josephus said Menes was 1300/1399 yrs before Solomon/Shishak. Herodotus and Josephus together makes Menes not earlier than ca 2300s bc, and makes Seti & Shishak near contemporaries.
Herodotus said Moeris was 900 yrs before [Amasis or Amyrtaeus or Herodotus], which is comparable to Moses is 480 yrs before Solomon (1000s/900s bc). (Herodotus also said the chariots were stopped in the reign of Sesostris (12th dyn), which further confirms the exodus being in the 12th dynasty.)
If Menes was ca 2300s bc (lower than conventional & Rohl), Moeris was ca 1400s bc (lower than conventional & Rohl), and Seti was ca 1000s/900s (lower than conventional, agreeing with Rohl) then Joseph must be a couple/few hundred years after Menes (1st dyn) and a couple/few centuries before Moeris (12th dyn) (higher than in conventional & Rohl).

Two good evidences that the conventional dates of the dynasties are at least a couple/few centuries too old/long/high are Shiphrah of Exodus 1 and Jabin of Judges.

Shiphrah in Exodus is ca 1491 (480 yrs before Solomon of "1000s/900s" bc).
Spra in Egyptian 12th dyn is "1745" bc.
Which shows that Egyptian chronology is about 300-400 yrs too long at the time of the 12th dynasy.

Jabin of Hazor is ca 1300s in Judges (not "late 1200s" or "1125" as in conventional chronology).
Ibni(-Addad) / Yabni-Hadad of Hazor is ca "1796-1780" bc or "18th" century bc (Akadian tablet in Mari letters).
Ibni(-Addi/Addu) is "1760s" or "18th-17th" cents bc (Hazor fragment).
And/or Jaib/Iayib/Ibiau of the 13th dynasty is "1725-1714" or "1712-1701", or Yakbim of the 14th dynasty is "1805-1780" bc.
Which shows that Mesopotamian chronology is about 400 yrs out at the time of Mari letters.
(Though there is also a "Qishon of Ybn" in a topographical list of Ramses 2 "1303-1273" bc.)

So we can see that the conventional dates are a few centuries too long/old/high.

(* Jabin/Yavin has variously been proposed to match either Ibni/Yabni, Iehaenu king of Hazor, Beon/Bnon/Bebnum, Apepi, Yakbim, Jaib/Ibiau, Yantin, Ibbisin, Belibni?
Hazor or Harosheth of the Goyim/Gentiles might possibly be Hutwaret/Hatwaret/Hawara/Hauar/Avaris / Khatana or El-Arish?
The head wounds of Seqenenre/Seqenera/Seknener/Sekenenra are described very similar to Sisera's. The name Sisera or See-ser-aw' or Ciycara' Siys'ra or Sisra has been suggested to be from sus + sera or ses + Ra. (K & s sometimes interchange in Egyptian, eg Khent/Shent, Keb/Seb.) "Sisera's name has been variously identified as Philistine, Hittite, Hurrian, or Egyptian"; "most historians are not sure or agreed on where Sisera was from"; "he was apparently a foreign commander who turned his hand to help the Canaanite Jabin attack the Jews".
Or other similar names of the same period are Aasehre, Sheshi, Seuserenre.)

As to assertions that various "scientific" dating methods of conventional chronology and Rohl's chronology are accurate/reliable, the fact is that all their dating methods have problems and are not as/so reliable as they assert.
Astronomical dating (Sirius, Venus tablets, eclipses, precession, alignments) is unreliable because ancient sources like the bible attest that there were sometimes changes in the movements of the Earth and/or other heavenly bodies, eg Joshua's long day, Hezekiah's sun goes back 10 steps, Maui slows down the sun.

Places where the ancient Egyptian dynastic history might be shortened include:
The 1st Intermediate Period is a lacuna of uncertain length/duration.
The 3rd-8th Memphite dynasties might have overlapped with the 9th-10th Heracleopolitan dynasties and the 11th-13th Theban dynasties.
Some scholars like Rohl have shown that the 3rd Intermediate Period is also a most uncertain period. Rohl gave evidences for the 21st & 22nd dynasties being contemporary.
The princes of Zoan/"Tanis" in Isaiah might be the 21st or 22nd or 23rd dynasty (Tanite dynasties).

Another evidence that Joseph must date before the 12th dynasty is that Shechem was founded by Hamor's sons in the time of Jacob in Genesis, and Shechem occurs in the 12th dynasty Execration texts, which means Jacob can't be later than the 12th dynasty.
The name Edom also may occur any one of four times in the story of Sinuhe which is set in the 12th dynasty.
Also the occurence of two or more Jacob names in the 2nd Intermediate Period or Hyksos period (Yakub-har, Yakobaam, Jacob-baal, Jacob-el, Yakbim?) may implicate that Jacob was some time before then. Moreover, when we add the evidences for Jacob matching Khufu/Cheops of the 4th dynasty (and Philitis of the 4th dynasty), the case for Joseph being in the 3rd-4th dynasty is even stronger.

Another evidence that Joseph dates to the Old Kingdom and not the Middle Kingdom or 2nd Intermeidate Period or New Kingdom is that there are only two conventional candidates for the worldwide 7 years famine of Genesis, one in "2400/2200/2100/2000" bc or "4200" yo/ya/bp (advent of MBA I, 6th dynasty, Akkadian), the other in the LBA (1st 150 yrs of LBA and the next 200 yrs, and/or end of LBA). The one in the LBA is too late, but the earlier one could match. Or alternatively the EBA climate was "wettest"/"best", and Cambridge Ancient History allegedly gives evidence that the Old Kingdom was wetter/cooler, which might relate to the 7 yrs plenty?
Moreover, the presence of models of granaries on Old Kingdom tombs is evidence that Joseph's storehouses can't have been later than the Old Kingdom.
The 7 yrs famine of Joseph is also mentioned in the Bull of Heaven chapter of the Epic of Gilgamesh, which also suggests an early date for Joseph.
Egyptian wheat was found in neolithic Swiss Lake Dwellings which were built on the shores of dried up lakes, which also points to Joseph's famine being early. Neolithic Danubians also had a 7 yrs agricultural cycle.
There are quite a few evidences for the 7 years famine in the 2nd/3rd to 4th/5th dynasties period including:
2nd dynasty king Neferkasokar saved Egypt from a long lasting drought (Old Kingdom legends).
"Famine in pictures/glyphs of a tomb of Khasekhemwy's reign" (Palmer)?
7 yrs famine of Djoser/Zoser & Imhotep (Sehel/Philae inscription, Wyatt).
"Grain storage bins in the Step Pyramid complex" (Wyatt)?
The Bent Pyramid may symbolise the 7 yrs plenty and 7 yrs famine (Bambrough)?
Unas famine scenes (Courville).
Models of granaries in Old Kingdom tombs.

Confirmation of Joseph being Old Kingdom is also maybe seen in that the 3 Hermes Set, Shu/Num, Thoth match the 3 reincarnations Seth, Moses, Samuel. The 3 Hermes and the 3 reincarnations may roughly match the 3 Kingdoms Old, Middle, New. In our chronology we have (Abraham and) Joseph in the Old Kingdom, Moses in the Middle Kingdom, and David in the New Kingdom. In the 3 reincarnations Seth could be Shem who is also known as "Seth", and so the 3 reincarnations Seth, Moses, Samuel may match Abraham/Joseph (Shemite), Moses & David. Shu also appears in the El-Arish Inscription which has matches with the exodus account, and we place the exodus at the end of the Middle Kingdom, all of which may confirm the matches of Shu, Moses and the Middle Kingdom.
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