books of the hebrew bible

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
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moses
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books of the hebrew bible

Post by moses »

Does anyone know what current scholarship and credible academia says on how far back we can trace the books of the Hebrew bible? Is the oldest we have the dead sea scrolls?
StephenGoranson
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Re: books of the hebrew bible

Post by StephenGoranson »

Basically, yes, the oldest known copies of parts (fragments) of the Hebrew Bible are among the Dead Sea Scrolls. A few Qumran Cave 4 fragments might be as old as the second half of the third century BC/BCE.
Some writing on silver, found at Ketef Hinnom, Jerusalem, contains part of the priestly blessing that is also in the book called Numbers [see, for example, Wikipedia on that]; whether this possibly even earlier text was quoting from the Hebrew Bible or something that was incorporated into the Hebrew Bible is debatable.
The oldest surviving complete copies of the Hebrew Bible—also called the “Old Testament” or TaNaK, from the three parts in the Hebrew ordering, Torah [teaching or law], Nevi’im [Prophets] and Ketuvim [Writings]--are medieval in date.
When the various books of TaNaK were composed is a matter of debate.
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Secret Alias
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Re: books of the hebrew bible

Post by Secret Alias »

Also certain features of the Torah don't make sense if the text wasn't written in the Persian period. The lay out of pardes (a Persian loanword) as a Persian garden with four streams going out from a center point,

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esh dat lamo (Deut. 33:2) all point to a composition in the Persian period. It's also worth pointing out that the Hebrew of Deuteronomy (where esh dat lamo appears) implies a secondary development AFTER the first four books. Deuteronomy = 'second law.' Early Persian period seems like a logical period to date the Torah especially with some of the stories fixing Ezra as its author = "If Moses had not anticipated him, Ezra would have received the Torah" (Tosef., Sanh. 4:7). He restored and reestablished the Torah that had been almost completely forgotten (Suk. 20a).
Japhethite
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Re: books of the hebrew bible

Post by Japhethite »

Khufu's/Cheops' book/books might related to proto-bible (Khufu = Jacob)?
There are supposedly Egyptian words or derived words in Exodus 1-2, like the word for river (Nile).
Songs and Poetry considered oldest parts of Bible (eg Exod 15, Numbers 10, Joshua 10, Judges 5, 1 Sam 19)
Similarities of Hammurabi law code with Mosaic law(s) (Moses is sam time as Hammurabi's dynasty in Rohl's chronology).
The word "write" was first mentioned before/after Dophkah in Exodus.
Inverted Nuns in Numbers 10 might be a signature of Joshua?
(Gezer calendar oldest palaeo-Hebrew?)
Edomite kings are supposed to be between Moses and Saul, so if so then Moses couldn't have written that part of Genesis/Bereshith / Law/Torah/Pentateuch.
The Founding of the Kingdom thread detected in 1 & 2 Samuel is considered one of the oldest parts of the bible (possibly by Abiathar ca 1000 bc).
(David wrote Joab a letter like the Amarna letters.)
(Sinaiaitic & Phoenician oldest alphabet, maybe time of Hiram?)
Sinaiatic inscriptions match Exodus verses (disputed, maybe from Solomon's time).
Psalm 104 similarities with Hymn to Aten.
Proverbs similarities with teaching of Amenmope(t)?
Silver Amulet/Scroll(s) ("Lord bless you and keep you", "dates to United or Divided Monarchy period" or "600" bc, Ketef Hinnom scrolls?)
Book of Deuteronomy found in Josiah's reign.
Samaritan Pentateuch.
Classical references?
Septuagint.
Dead Sea Scrolls & Shapira collection?
Rylands fragment 200-100 bc (Greek).
Faud fragment 100-0 bc (Greek).
Nash fragment 100-0 bc (Hebrew).
Josephus (evidences knwledge of both Massoretic & Lxx traditions).
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