Did Cyrus write the 10 commandments?

Discussion about the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus, Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, archaeology, etc.
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Ethan
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Did Cyrus write the 10 commandments?

Post by Ethan »

Xenophon, Cyropaedia 1.2.2
Such then were the natural endowments, physical and spiritual, that he is reputed to have had; but he was educated in conformity with the laws of the Persians; and these laws appear in their care for the common weal not to start from the same point as they do in most states. For most states permit every one to train his own children just as he will, and the older people themselves to live as they please; and then they command them not to steal and not to rob, not to break into anybody's house, not to strike a person whom they have no right to strike, not to commit adultery, not to disobey an officer, and so forth; and if a man transgress anyone one of these laws, they punish him.

Transgress in Xenophon is παραβαίνω and the Hebrew for which is העביר

Deuteronomy 26:13 לא עברתי ממצותיך οὐ παραβέβηκα τά θέσμια σου
"I have not transgressed thy laws"

The verb עברתי could also be ἁμαρτάνω here.

Xenophon
μὴ κλέπτειν
μηδὲ ἁρπάζειν
μὴ βίᾳ εἰς οἰκίαν παριέναι
μὴ παίειν ὃν μὴ δίκαιον
μὴ μοιχεύειν
μὴ ἀπειθεῖν ἄρχοντι

Exodus
οὐ φονεύσεις
οὐ μοιχεύσεις
οὐ κλέψεις

Most interesting is "not to commit adultery". The Greek verb μοιχεύω "to commit adultery" comes from נאף / ἅπτομαι ; have intercourse with a woman.

ἅπτομαι means fasten upon, attack, lay hands on, this suggest the commandment meant "Thou shalt not rape" without any notion to gender or marital status.

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Last edited by Ethan on Sat Oct 02, 2021 7:25 pm, edited 1 time in total.
andrewcriddle
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Re: Did Cyrus write the 10 commandments?

Post by andrewcriddle »

One should note that the Cyropedia is in effect a historical novel. It is very unreliable about Cyrus.

Andrew Criddle
Ethan
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Re: Did Cyrus write the 10 commandments?

Post by Ethan »

andrewcriddle wrote: Sun Sep 26, 2021 6:52 am One should note that the Cyropedia is in effect a historical novel. It is very unreliable about Cyrus.

Andrew Criddle
Why would Greeks produce such a novel about a foreign King and perhaps the Bible is also this type of novel.

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Last edited by Ethan on Sat Oct 02, 2021 7:25 pm, edited 1 time in total.
andrewcriddle
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Re: Did Cyrus write the 10 commandments?

Post by andrewcriddle »

Ethan wrote: Sun Sep 26, 2021 12:58 pm
andrewcriddle wrote: Sun Sep 26, 2021 6:52 am One should note that the Cyropedia is in effect a historical novel. It is very unreliable about Cyrus.

Andrew Criddle
Why would Greeks produce such a novel about a foreign King and perhaps the Bible is also this type of novel.
See Cyropaedia

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Ethan
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Re: Did Cyrus write the 10 commandments?

Post by Ethan »

andrewcriddle wrote: Mon Sep 27, 2021 8:13 am See Cyropaedia
Andrew Criddle
Xenophon was active during the reign of Artaxerxes who so happen to list "Thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not commit adultery" at the same time Ezra scribed the Law of Moses?

Ezra 7:1
— Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia
Ezra 7:1
— Ezra went up from Babylon and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses

"ready scribe" is mistranslated.
συγγραφεύς ἔμπειρος ספר מהיר : Experienced Historian

ξένος in Hebrew is זר (zár)

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