The X-Files: Chrēstos / Christos / Χρειστος

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Peter Kirby
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The X-Files: Chrēstos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »

I'd like to build up a database of primary source material and interpretation of it on the subject. The subject is that of these words, their associated abbreviations (if they are abbreviations), and related words in early Christian / Chrestian texts:


I'm going to stake out the first several posts for back-filling with the data, in a way that is organized and easy to browse. Then I'm going to post what I find one by one, adding it back to the first several posts. This will hopefully allow a valuable resource to develop, while also providing for plenty of discussion of things as they are added and refined.

Here's a table of contents.

Noteworthy - New Testament passages with a context that may be relevant to the interpretation of the words now presented as abbreviations or (so-called) nomina sacra

New Testament - New Testament passages with words written out, with reference to the Greek manuscripts

Greek - Literary - passages in Greek from literature by or about Christians that may be relevant

Greek - Non-Literary - papyri and inscriptions

Latin - anything in Latin that may be relevant

Coptic - anything in Coptic that may be relevant

Background Material - primary source material and its interpretation that may be relevant insofar as it sheds some light on the cultural context of these references

Arguments - attempts at evidence-based interpretation of the data

References - past threads, books, articles
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Peter Kirby
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Location: Santa Clara

Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »


This section will focus on passages with possible clues about the use of abbreviations / nomina sacra. Lists of manuscript support are not complete. Transcriptions are from NTVMR. Translations are from the ESV.

Matthew 1:1. The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham*.
* P1: ιυ χυ, υυ δαυιδ, υιου αβρααμ
* Sinaiticus (01): ιυ χυ, υιου δαδ, υιου αβρααμ
* Vaticanus (03): ιυ χυ, υιου δαυειδ, υιου αβρααμ
* PSI 6.719: Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ Δαυέτ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ

Matthew 12:23. And all the people were amazed, and said, “Can this be the Son of David*?”
* Sinaiticus (01): ο υς δαδ
* Vaticanus (03): ο υιος δαυειδ
* Ephraem (04): ο υς δαδ
* Bezae (05): ο υιος δαυειδ̣

Matthew 21:15. But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying out in the temple, “Hosanna to the Son of David*!” they were indignant
* Sinaiticus (01): τω υιω δαδ
* Vaticanus (03): τω υιω δαυειδ
* Ephraem (04): τω υω δαδ
* Bezae (05): τω υιω δαυειδ

Matthew 22:42. saying, “What do you think about the Christ*? Whose son is he?” They said to him, “The son of David*.”
* Sinaiticus (01): του χυ, δαδ
* Vaticanus (03): του χυ, δαυειδ
* Bezae (05): του χρυ, δαυειδ
* GA 18: του χυ, δαδ
* GA 33: του χυ, δαδ
* GA 1241: του χυ, δαδ

Matthew 24:5. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ*,’ and they will lead many astray.
Matthew 24:23 - Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ*!’ or ‘There he is!’ do not believe it.
Matthew 24:24 - For false christs* and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς, ο χς, ψευδοχριστοι
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς, ο χς, ψευδοχρειστοι
* Bezae (05): ο χρς, ο χρς, ψευδοχρειστοι
* GA 18: ο χς, ο χς, ψευδοχριστοι
* GA 33: [illegible], ο χς̣, ψευδοχριστοι
* GA 1241: ο χς, ο χς, ψευδοχριστοι

Mark 8:29 And he asked them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter answered him, “You are the Christ*.”
Mark 8:31. And he began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes and be killed, and after three days rise again.
Mark 8:32. And he said this plainly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.
Mark 8:33. But turning and seeing his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “Get behind me, Satan! For you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of man.”
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς, ο υς του θυ (the son of God)
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς
* Ephraem (04): ο χς
* Bezae (05): ο χρς

Mark 12:35. And as Jesus taught in the temple, he said, “How can the scribes say that the Christ* is the son of David*?"
* Sinaiticus (01): οτι ο χς υιος δαδ εστιν
* Alexandrinus (02): οτι ο χς υς εστιν δαδ
* Vaticanus (03): οτι ο χς υιος δαυειδ εστιν
* Bezae (05): οτι ο χρς υιος δαυειδ εστιν
* 044: οτι ο χς υς δαδ εστιν

Mark 13:21. And then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ*!’ or ‘Look, there he is!’ do not believe it.
Mark 13:22. For false christs* and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect.
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς, ψευδοχριστοι
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς, φευδοχριστοι
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς, ψευδοχρειστοι
* Ephraem (04): ο χς, ψευδοχριστοι
* Bezae (05): ο χρς, [For false prophets will arise...]
* 044: ο χς, ψευδοχριστοι

Mark 14:61. But he remained silent and made no answer. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ*, the Son of the Blessed?”
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς, ο υς του θυ (the son of God)
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς, ο υς του θυ, του ευλογητου (the son of God the Blessed)
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς, ο υιος του ευλογητου
* Ephraem (04): ο χς, ο υς του ευλογητου
* Bezae (05): ο χρς, ο υιος του ευλογητου
* GA 044: ο χς, ο υς του ευλογημενου

Mark 15:32. "Let the Christ, the King of Israel*, come down now from the cross that we may see and believe.” Those who were crucified with him also reviled him.
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς ο βασιλευς ισραηλ
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς ο βασιλευς ισραηλ
* Ephraem (04): ο χς ο βασιλευς του ιηλ
* Bezae (05): ο χρς ο βασιλευς ισραηλ
* 017: ο χς ο βασιλευς ιηλ
* 019: ο χς ο βασιλευς ιηλ
* 037: ο χς ο βασιλευς ισλ
* 038: ο χς ο βασιλευς του ιηλ
* 041: ο χς ο βασιλευς ιηλ
* 044: ο χς ο βασιλευς ιηλ
* 083: ο χς ο βασιλευς ιηλ

Luke 1:32. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David*.
* Sinaiticus (01): τον θρονον δαδ του πρς αυτου
* Alexandrinus (02): τον θρονον δαδ του πρς αυτου
* Vaticanus (03): τον θρονον δαυειδ του πατρος αυτου
* Ephraem (04): τον θρονον δαδ του πατρος αυτου
* Bezae (05): τον θρονον δαυειδ του πατρος αυτου

Luke 3:15. As the people were in expectation, and all were questioning in their hearts concerning John, whether he might be the Christ*,
* P4: ο̣ χς̣
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς
* Ephraem (04): ο χς
* Bezae (05): ο χρς

Luke 20:41. But he said to them, “How can they say that the Christ is David's son*?"
Sinaiticus (01): τον χν ειναι δαδ υν
Alexandrinus (02): τον χν υιον δαδ
Vaticanus (03): τον χν ειναι δαυειδ υιον
Bezae (05): τον χρν υιον δαυειδ

Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse him, saying, “We found this man misleading our nation and forbidding us to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king*.”
* Sinaiticus (01): εαυτον χν βασιλεα ειναι
* Alexandrinus (02): εαυτον χν βασιλεα ειναι
* Vaticanus (03): αυτον χν βασιλεα ειναι
* Bezae (05): εαυτον χρν βασιλεα ειναι

John 1:41. He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which means Christ)*.
* P66: ευρηκαμεν τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς
* P75: ευρηκαμεν τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς
* P106: ευρηκαμε[ν] τον μ[ε]σ[σ]ιαν ο εστι[ν] [με]θερμηνευ[ο]μενο[ν] χρς
* Sinaiticus (01): ευρηκαμεν τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ευρηκαμεν τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς
* Vaticanus (03): ευρηκαμεν τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς
* GA 18: ευρηκαμεν τον μεσιαν ο εστι μεθερμηνευομενον χς

John 4:25. The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming (he who is called Christ)*. When he comes, he will tell us all things.”
* P66: οτι μεσσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* P75: οτι μεσσειας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* Sinaiticus (01): οτι μεσσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* Alexandrinus (02): οτι μεσσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* Vaticanus (03): οτι μεσσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* Ephraem (04): οτι μεσσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* Bezae (05): οτι μεσσειας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χρς
* GA 18: οτι μεσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς
* GA 33: οτι μεσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς

John 7:26. And here he is, speaking openly, and they say nothing to him! Can it be that the authorities really know that this is the Christ*?
John 7:27. “But we know where this man comes from, and when the Christ* appears, no one will know where he comes from.”
John 7:31. Yet many of the people believed in him. They said, “When the Christ* appears, will he do more signs than this man has done?”
John 7:41. Others said, “This is the Christ*.” But some said, “Is the Christ* to come from Galilee?
* P66: ο χς, ο χς δε, ο χς, ο χς, ο χς
* P75: [ο] χς, ο δ[ε] χς, ο χς, ο χς, ο χς
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς, ο χς, ο χς, ο χς, ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς, ο δε χς, ο χς, ο χς, ο χς
* Bezae (05): ο χρς, ο δε χρς, ο χρς, ο χρς, ο χρς

John 7:42. Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the offspring of David*, and comes from Bethlehem, the village where David was?”
* P66: οτι εκ σπερματος δαυειδ και απο βηθλεεμ της κωμης ο που δαυειδ ο χς ερχεται
* P75: οτι εκ του σπερματος δαυειδ και απο βηθλεεμ της κωμης οπου ην δαυειδ ερχεται ο χς
* Sinaiticus (01): οτι εκ του σπερματος δαδ και απο βηθλεεμ της κωμης οπου ην ο δαδ ο χς ερχεται
* Vaticanus (03): οτι εκ του σπερματος δαυειδ και απο βηθλεεμ της κωμης οπου ην δαυειδ ερχεται ο χς
* Bezae (05): οτι εκ σπερματος δαυειδ και απο βηθλεεμ της κωμης ο χρς ερχεται

John 9:16. Some of the Pharisees said, “This man is not from God, for he does not keep the Sabbath.” But others said, “How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?” And there was a division among them.
John 9:17 So they said again to the blind man, “What do you say about him, since he has opened your eyes?” He said, “He is a prophet.” ...
John 9:20. His parents answered, “We know that this is our son and that he was born blind.
John 9:21. But how he now sees we do not know, nor do we know who opened his eyes. Ask him; he is of age. He will speak for himself.”
John 9:22 (His parents said these things because they feared the Jews, for the Jews had already agreed that if anyone should confess Jesus to be Christ, he was to be put out of the synagogue*.)
* P66: ομολογηση αυτον χν αποσυναγωγος γενηται
* P75: ομολογηση αυτον χ̣ν αποσυναγωγος γενηται
* Sinaiticus (01): αυτον ομολογηση χν αποσυναγωγος γενηται
* Alexandrinus (02): ομολογηση χν αποσυναγωγος γενηται
* Vaticanus (03): αυτον ομολογηση χν αποσυναγωγος γενηται
* Bezae (05): ομολογηση̣ αυτον χρν ειναι αποσυναγωγος γ̣ενηται

John 10:24. So the Jews gathered around him and said to him, “How long will you keep us in suspense? If you are the Christ*, tell us plainly.”
* P66: ο χς
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς
* Bezae (05): ο χρς

John 12:23. And Jesus answered them, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. ...
John 12:32. And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.” ...
John 12:34. So the crowd answered him, “We have heard from the Law that the Christ* remains forever. How can you say that the Son of Man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man?” ...
John 12:42. Nevertheless, many even of the authorities believed in him, but for fear of the Pharisees they did not confess it, so that they would not be put out of the synagogue
* P66: εκ του νομου οτι ο χς
* P75: [εκ το]υ̣ νομου οτι ο χς
* Sinaiticus (01): εκ του νομου οτι ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): εκ του νομου οτι ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): εκ του νομου οτι ο χς
* Bezae (05): εκ του νομου οτι ο χρς

Acts 2:29 “Brothers, I may say to you with confidence about the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.
Acts 2:30 Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne,
Acts 2:31. he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ*, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption.”
* Sinaiticus (01): χυ
* Alexandrinus (02): χυ
* Vaticanus (03): χυ
* Ephraem (04): χυ
* Bezae (05): χρυ
* 08: χριστου
* 044: χυ

Acts 10:36. As for the word that he sent to Israel, preaching good news of peace through Jesus Christ* (he is Lord of all),
Acts 10:37 you yourselves know what happened throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee after the baptism that John proclaimed:
Acts 10:38 how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth* with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.
* P74: ιυ χυ, ιν τ̣ον απο̣ να̣ζαρετως εχρ̣ισεν αυτον ο θς
* Sinaiticus (01): ιυ χυ, ιν τον απο ναζαρεθ ως εχρισεν αυτον ο θς
* Alexandrinus (02): ιυ χυ, ιν τον απο ναζαρετ ως εχρεισεν αυτον ο θς
* Vaticanus (03): ιυ χυ, ιν τον απο ναζαρεθ ως εχρεισεν αυτον ο θς
* Ephraem (04): ιυ χυ, ιν τον απο ναζαρεθ ως εχρισεν αυτον ο θς
* Bezae (05): ιηυ χρυ, ιην τον απο ναζαρεθ ον εχρισεν ο θς
* 08: ιυ χυ, ιησουν τον απο ναζαρεθ ως εχρισεν αυτον ο θς
* 020: ιυ χυ, ιν τον απο ναζαρετ ως εχρισεν αυτον ο θς
* 044: ιυ χυ, ιν τον απο ναζαρεθ ως εχρισεν αυτον ο θς

Romans 1:1. Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus*, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,
Romans 1:2 which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures,
Romans 1:3 concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh*
Romans 1:4 and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord*
* P10: δουλος χρυ ιηυ, του γενομενου εκ σπερματος δαυδ κατα σαρκα, ι̣ηυ χρυ του κυ ημων
* P26: [δουλ]ο̣ς̣ ιυ χυ, του γ̣ε̣[νομενου εκ σ]π̣ερματος δαδ̣ κατ[α σαρκα], ι̣υ χυ τ̣ο̣υ̣ κ̣υ̣ [ημων]
* Sinaiticus (01): δουλος ιυ χυ, του γενομενου εκ σπερματος δαδ κατα σαρκα, ιυ χυ του κυ ημων
* Alexandrinus (02): δουλος ιυ χυ, του γενομενου εκ σπερματος δαδ κατα σαρκα, ιυ χυ του κυ ημων
* Vaticanus (03): δουλος χυ ιυ, του γενομενου εκ σπερματος δαυειδ κατα σαρκα, ιυ χυ του κυ ημων

Romans 9:3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ* for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen by race.
Romans 9:4. They are Israelites, and to them belong the sonship, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises;
Romans 9:5. to them belong the patriarchs, and of their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ*. God who is over all be blessed for ever. Amen. (RSV)
* P46: του χρυ, ο χρς
* Sinaiticus (01): του χυ, ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): του χυ, ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): του χυ, ο χς
* Ephraem (04): του χυ, ο χς

Romans 15:3 For Christ* did not please himself, but as it is written, “The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me.” [Psalm 69:9]
Romans 15:4 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope.
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς
* Ephraem (04): ο χς
* 048: ο χς

Romans 15:8. For I tell you that Christ* became a servant to the circumcised to show God's truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs,
Romans 15:9. and in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, “Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing to your name.” [Psalm 18:49]
Romans 15:10. And again it is said, “Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.” [Deuteronomy 32:43]
Romans 15:11. And again, “Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples extol him.” [Psalm 117:1]
Romans 15:12. And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.” [Isaiah 11:10]
* Sinaiticus (01): χν
* Alexandrinus (02): χν
* Vaticanus (03): χν
* Ephraem (04): χν
* 048: χν

1 Corinthians 15:23. But each in his own order: Christ* the firstfruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ*.
1 Corinthians 15:24. Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power. [cf. Daniel 7:27]
1 Corinthians 15:25. For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. [cf. Psalm 110:1]
1 Corinthians 15:26. The last enemy to be destroyed is death.
1 Corinthians 15:27a. For “God has put all things in subjection under his feet.” [Psalm 8:6]
* P46: χρς, του χρυ
* Sinaiticus (01): χς, του χυ
* Alexandrinus (02): χς, του χυ
* Vaticanus (03): χς, του χυ

2 Corinthians 1:21. And it is God who establishes us with you in Christ and has anointed us,*
* P46: εις χρν και χρισας ημας
* Sinaiticus (01): εις χν και χρεισας ημας
* Alexandrinus (02): εις χν και χρισας ημας
* Vaticanus (03): εις χν και χρεισας υμας
* Ephraem (04): εις χν και χρισας ημας

2 Corinthians 2:14. and to God [are] thanks, who at all times is leading us in triumph in the Christ, and the fragrance* of His knowledge He is manifesting through us in every place. (YLT)
* P46: εν τω χω ιηυ και την οσμην
* Sinaiticus (01): εν τω χω και την οσμην
* Alexandrinus (02): εν τω χω και την οσμην
* Vaticanus (03): εν τω χω και την οσμην
* Ephraem (04): εν τω χω και την οσμην

2 Corinthians 2:15 For we are the aroma of Christ* to God among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing,
2 Corinthians 2:16 to one a fragrance* from death to death, to the other a fragrance* from life to life. Who is sufficient for these things?
2 Corinthians 2:17 For we are not, like so many, peddlers of God’s word, but as men of sincerity, as commissioned by God, in the sight of God we speak in Christ*.
* P46: οτι χυ ευωδια εσμεν, οσμη, οσμη, εν χω
* Sinaiticus (01): οτι χυ ευωδια εσμεν, οσμη, οσμη, εν χω
* Alexandrinus (02): οτι χυ ευωδια εσμεν, οσμη, οσμη, εν χω
* Vaticanus (03): οτι χυ ευωδια εσμεν, οσμη, οσμη, εν χω
* Ephraem (04): οτι χυ ευωδια εσμεν, οσμη, οσμη, εν χω

Galatians 3:16. Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, “And to offsprings,” referring to many, but referring to one, “And to your offspring,” [Genesis 17:10] who is Christ*.
* P46: ος εστιν χρς
* Sinaiticus (01): ος εστιν χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ος εστιν̣ χς
* Vaticanus (03): ος εστιν χς
* Ephraem (04): ος εστι χς

Ephesians 2:7. so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus*.
* P46: [εν χρηστοτη]τ̣ι εφ ημας εν τω χω ιη[υ]
* Alexandrinus (02): εν χρηστοτητι εφ ημας εν χω ιυ
* Vaticanus (03): εν χρηστοτητι εφ ημας εν χω ιυ

Ephesians 2:10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works*, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.
* P46: κτισθεντες εν χρω ιηυ επι εργοις αγαθοις
* Sinaiticus (01): κτισθεντες εν χω ιυ επι εργοις αγαθοις
* Alexandrinus (02): κτισθεντες εν χω ιυ επι εργοις αγαθοις
* Vaticanus (03): κτισθεντες εν χω ιυ επι εργοις αγαθοις

Ephesians 4:32. Be kind* to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ* forgave you.
* P46: χρηστοι, χρω
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοι, χω
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοι, χω
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοι, χω

2 Timothy 2:8. Remember Jesus Christ*, risen from the dead, the offspring of David*, as preached in my gospel
* Sinaiticus (01): ιν χν, εκ σπερματος δαδ
* Alexandrinus (02): ιν χν, εκ σπερμ̣ατος δαδ
* Ephraem (04): ιν χν, εκ σπερματος δαυειδ

Hebrews 5:5. So also Christ* did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”; [Psalm 2:7]
Hebrews 5:6. as he says also in another place, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” [Psalm 110:4]
Hebrews 5:7. In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence.
Hebrews 5:8. Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered.
Hebrews 5:9. And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him,
Hebrews 5:10. being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.
* P46: ο χρς
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς
* Ephraem (04): ο χς

1 Peter 2:3. if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is good*.
* P72: ει εγευσασθαι επειστευσατε οτι χρς ο κς
* Sinaiticus (01): ει εγευσασθαι οτι χρηστος ο κς
* Alexandrinus (02): ει εγευσασθε οτι χρηστος ο κς
* Vaticanus (03): ει εγευσασθε οτι χρηστος ο κς
* Ephraem (04): ειπερ εγευσασθε οτι χρηστος ο κς

1 John 2:22. Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ*? This is the antichrist*, he who denies the Father and the Son.
* Sinaiticus (01): οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχριστος
* Alexandrinus (02): οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχριστος
* Vaticanus (03): οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχρειστος
* Ephraem (04): οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχριστος
* 018: οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχριστος
* 020: οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχριστος
* 044: οτι ις ουκ εστιν ο χς, αντιχριστος

1 John 5:1. Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ* has been born of God, and everyone who loves the Father loves whoever has been born of him.
* Sinaiticus (01): οτι ις εστιν ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): οτι ις εστιν ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): οτι ις εστιν ο χς
* 018: οτι ις εστιν ο χς
* 020: οτι ις εστιν ο χς
* 044: οτι ις εστιν ο χς

Revelation 11:15. Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ*, and he shall reign forever and ever.”
* P47: του κυ ημων και του χυ αυτου
* Sinaiticus (01): του κυ ημων και του χυ αυτου
* Alexandrinus (02): του κυ ημων και του χυ αυτου
* Ephraem (04): του κυ ημων και του χυ αυτου

Revelation 12:10. And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ* have come, for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them day and night before our God.
* P47: του χυ αυτου
* Sinaiticus (01): του χριστου αυτου
* Alexandrinus (02): του χυ αυτου
* Ephraem (04): του κυ αυτου

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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »

Greek - New Testament

In this section, transcriptions and images are limited to papyri and majuscules that are in NTVMR database.

Many of these links are as originally found in the Kindle version of Martijn's book, Gospels, Epistles, Old Testament: The order of books according to Jesus Chri st.


Matthew 24:24. For false christs* and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
* Sinaiticus (01): ψευδοχριστοι
* Vaticanus (03): ψευδοχρειστοι
* Bezae (05): ψευδοχρειστοι (Latin: pseudoxpi)

Mark 13:22. For false christs* and false prophets will arise and perform signs and wonders, to lead astray, if possible, the elect.
* Sinaiticus (01): ψευδοχριστοι
* Alexandrinus (02): φευδοχριστοι
* Vaticanus (03): ψευδοχρειστοι
* Ephraem (04): ψευδοχριστοι
* Bezae (05): omitted (For false prophets will arise...)
* 044: ψευδοχριστοι

Christian / Chrestian

Acts 11:26. and when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. For a whole year they met with the church and taught a great many people. And in Antioch the disciples were first called Christians*.
* P45: χνους
* P74: χρειστιανου[ς]
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστιανους
* Alexandrinus (02): χριστιανους
* Vaticanus (03): χρειστιανους
* Bezae (05): χρειστιανοι (Latin: christianos)

Acts 26:28. And Agrippa said to Paul, “In a short time would you persuade me to be a Christian*?”
* P74: χριστιανον
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστιανον
* Alexandrinus (02): χριστιανον
* Vaticanus (03): χρειστιανον
* 08: χριστιανον
* 020: χριστιανον
* 044: χριστιανον
* 048: χρισ[τιανον]

1 Peter 4:16. Yet if anyone suffers as a Christian*, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in that name.
* P72: χριστιανος
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστιανος
* Alexandrinus (02): χριστιανος
* Vaticanus (03): χρειστιανος


1 John 2:18. Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist* is coming, so now many antichrists* have come. Therefore we know that it is the last hour.
* Sinaiticus (01): αντιχριστος, αντιχριστοι
* Alexandrinus (02): αντιχριστος, αντιχριστοι
* Vaticanus (03): αντιχρειστος, αντιχρειστοι
* Ephraem (04): αντιχριστος, αντιχριστοι
* 018: αντιχριστος, αντιχριστοι
* 020: αντιχριστος, αντιχριστοι
* 044: αντιχριστος, αντιχριστοι

1 John 2:22. Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ*? This is the antichrist*, he who denies the Father and the Son.
* Sinaiticus (01): χς, αντιχριστος
* Alexandrinus (02): χς, αντιχριστος
* Vaticanus (03): χς, αντιχρειστος
* Ephraem (04): χς, αντιχριστος
* 044 (044): χς, αντιχριστος

1 John 4:3. and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist*, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already.
* Sinaiticus (01): αντιχριστου
* Alexandrinus (02): αντιχριστου
* Vaticanus (03): αντιχρειστου
* 020: αντιχριστου
* 0245: αντιχριστο[υ]
* 044: αντιχριστου

2 John 1:7. For many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not confess the coming of Jesus Christ* in the flesh. Such a one is the deceiver and the antichrist*.
* Sinaiticus (01): χν, αντιχριστος
* Alexandrinus (02): χν, αντιχριστος
* Vaticanus (03): χν, αντιχρειστος
* 018: χν, αντιχριστος
* 020: χν, αντιχριστος
* 044: χν, αντιχριστος

Χρειστος / Χριστος

Matthew 1:1. The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham*.
* P1: ιυ χυ, υυ δαυιδ, υιου αβρααμ
* Sinaiticus (01): ιυ χυ, υιου δαδ, υιου αβρααμ
* Vaticanus (03): ιυ χυ, υιου δαυειδ, υιου αβρααμ
* PSI 6.719: ιησου χριστου υιου δαυετ υιου αβρααμ

Mark 1:1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God*.
* P.Oxy. 76.5073: ιηυ του χρυ
* Sinaiticus (01): ιυ χυ
* Alexandrinus (02): ιυ χυ υυ του θυ
* Vaticanus (03): ιυ χυ υιου θυ
* Bezae (05): ιηυ χρυ υιου θυ
* PSI 6.719: ιησου χριστου υιου θεου

Acts 2:31. he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ*, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption.
* Sinaiticus (01): χυ
* Alexandrinus (02): χυ
* Vaticanus (03): χυ
* Ephraem (04): χυ
* Bezae (05): χρυ
* 08: χριστου
* 044: χυ

Acts 9:34. And Peter said to him, “Aeneas, Jesus Christ* heals you; rise and make your bed.” And immediately he rose.
* P74: χς
* Sinaiticus (01): χς
* Alexandrinus (02): χς
* Vaticanus (03): χς
* Ephraem (04): χς
* 08: χριστος
* 020: χς
* 044: χς

Acts 17:3. explaining and proving that it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead, and saying, “This Jesus, whom I proclaim to you, is the Christ*.”
* P74: χς
* Sinaiticus (01): χς
* Alexandrinus (02): χς
* Vaticanus (03): χς
* Bezae: χρς
* 08: χριστος
* 020: χς
* 044: χς

2 Corinthians 10:7. Look at what is before your eyes. If anyone is confident that he is Christ's*, let him remind himself that just as he is Christ's*, so also are we.
* P46: χρυ, χρς
* Sinaiticus (01): χυ, χυ
* Vaticanus (03): χρειστου, χυ
* Ephraem (04): χυ, χυ
* GA 33: χυ, χυ

Ephesians 5:14. Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ* will shine upon you.
* P46: ο χρς
* Sinaiticus (01): ο χς
* Alexandrinus (02): ο χς
* Vaticanus (03): ο χς
* MAMA III 242b: ο χριστος

1 Timothy 1:15. The saying is trustworthy and deserving of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus* came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am the foremost.
* Sinaiticus (01): χς ις
* Alexandrinus (02): χς ις
* 0262: χριστος ις

1 Peter 1:11. inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ* and the subsequent glories.
* P72: χρυ, χρν
* Sinaiticus (01): χυ, χν
* Alexandrinus (02): χυ, χν
* Vaticanus (03): [omitted: the Spirit in them...], χρειστον
* Ephraem (04): χυ, χν

Revelation 12:10. And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ* have come, for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them day and night before our God.
* P47: χυ
* Sinaiticus (01): χριστου
* Alexandrinus (02): χυ
* Ephraem (04): κυ


Matthew 11:30. “For my yoke is easy*, and my burden is light.”
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστος
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστος
* Ephraem (04): χρηστος
* Bezae (05): χρηστος

Luke 5:39. “And no one after drinking old wine desires new, for he says, ‘The old is good*.’”
* P4: χρηστος
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστος
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτερος
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστος
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτερος

Luke 6:35 But love your enemies, and do good*, and lend, expecting nothing in return, and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High, for he is kind to the ungrateful and the evil.
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστος
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστος
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστος
* Bezae (05): χρηστος

Romans 2:4. Or do you presume on the riches of his kindness* and forbearance and patience, not knowing that God's kindness* is meant to lead you to repentance?
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτητος, χρηστον
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτητος, χρηστον
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτητος, χρηστον
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτητος, χρηστον

Romans 3:12. All have turned aside; together they have become worthless; no one does good*, not even one.
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτητα
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτητα
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτητα

Romans 11:22. Note then the kindness* and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God's kindness* to you, provided you continue in his kindness*. Otherwise you too will be cut off.
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτητα, χρηστοτητος, χρηστοτητι
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστο[τη]τα, χρηστοτης, χρηστοτητι
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτητα, χρηστοτης, χρηστοτητι
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτητα, χρηστοτης, χρηστοτητι

Romans 16:18. For such persons do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by smooth talk* and flattery they deceive the hearts of the naive.
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστολογιας
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστολογιας
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστολογιας
* Ephraem (04): χρηστολογιας

1 Corinthians 13:4. Love is patient and kind*; love does not envy or boast; it is not arrogant
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστευεται
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστευ
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστευ
* Ephraem (04): χρηστευεται

1 Corinthians 15:33. Do not be deceived: “Bad company ruins good* morals.”
* P33: χρηστα
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστα
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστα
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστα

2 Corinthians 6:6. by purity, knowledge, patience, kindness*, the Holy Spirit, genuine love;
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτητι
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτητι
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτητι

Galatians 5:22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness*, goodness, faithfulness,
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτης
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτης
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτης
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτης

Ephesians 2:7. so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness* toward us in Christ Jesus.
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτητι
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτητι

Ephesians 4:32. Be kind* to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you.
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοι
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοι
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοι

Colossians 3:12. Put on then, as God's chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassionate hearts, kindness*, humility, meekness, and patience,
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτητα
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτητα
* Vaticanus (03): χρηστοτητα
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτητα

Titus 3:4. But when the goodness and loving kindness* of God our Savior appeared,
* Sinaiticus (01): χρηστοτης
* Alexandrinus (02): χρηστοτης
* Ephraem (04): χρηστοτης

Philemon 10. I appeal to you for my child, Onesimus, whose father I became in my imprisonment.
Philemon 11. Formerly he was useless* to you, but now he is indeed useful* to you and to me.
* Sinaiticus (01): αχρηστον, ευχρηστον
* Alexandrinus (02): αχρηστον, ευχρηστον
* Ephraem (04): αχρηστον, ευχρηστον

1 Peter 2:3. if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is good*.
* P72: ει εγευσασθαι επειστευσατε οτι χρς ο κς
* Sinaiticus (01): ει εγευσασθαι οτι χρηστος ο κς
* Alexandrinus (02): ει εγευσασθε οτι χρηστος ο κς
* Vaticanus (03): ει εγευσασθε οτι χρηστος ο κς
* Ephraem (04): ειπερ εγευσασθε οτι χρηστος ο κς

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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »

Greek - Literary

Some Greek words are marked with [?] because of the use of abbreviations and/or the late date of the manuscripts. Some would suggest that originally the word and its spelling were different or, perhaps, that it was abbreviated in the original text.

Alexander of Lycopolis, writing around 300 CE, offers this remark on the Manichaeans (An Alexandrian Platonist against dualism, pp. 91-92) in Critique of the Doctrines of Mani 24 (quoted in this post):

Christos, however -- whom they do not even know, but whom they call Chrestos, introducing a new meaning instead of the generally received one by changing the i into e -- they hold to be Intellect.

Τὸν δὲ χριστὸν οὐδὲ γιγνώσκοντες, ἀλλὰ χρηστὸν αὐτὸν προσαγορεύοντες τῇ πρὸς τὸ ἢ στοιχεῖον μεταλήψει ἕτερον σημαινόμενον ἀντὶ τοῦ κυρίως περὶ αὐτοῦ ὑπειλημμένου εἰσάγοντες νοῦν εἶναί φασιν. (source) (cf. a manuscript)

My translation:

Christos, though, they do not acknowledge,Τὸν δὲ χ(ριστὸ)ν οὐδὲ γιγνώσκοντες,
but addressing him as Chrēstos,ἀλλὰ χρηστὸν αὐτὸν προσαγορεύοντες,
with the vowel Etaτῇ πρὸς τὸ ἢ στοιχεῖον
indicating a different meaningμεταλήψει ἕτερον σημαινόμενον
instead of the one regularly supposed about him,ἀντὶ τοῦ κυρίως περὶ αὐτοῦ ὑπειλημμένου
which they have introduced,εἰσάγοντες,
they say that he is Mind.νοῦν εἶναί φασιν.

Theophilus of Antioch, writing around 180 CE, understands well both derogatory use of the term χριστιανόν and its punning allusions (from ad Autolycum 1.12, as translated by J. L. Moles):

As for your laughing at me and calling me ‘Christian’ [χριστιανόν], you know not what you are saying.περὶ δὲ τοῦ σε καταγελᾶν μου, καλούντα με χριστιανόν, οὐκ οἶδας ὅ λέγεις.
First, because that which is anointed [χριστόν] is sweet and useful [εὔχρηστον], and not subject to ridicule.πρῶτον μὲν ὅτι τὸ χριστόν ἡδύ καὶ εὔχρηστος καὶ ἀκαταγέλαστόν ἐστιν
For what ship can be useful and safe, if it is not first anointed [χρισθῇ, presumably here meaning ‘caulked’]?ποίον γὰρ πλοῖον δύναται εὔχρηστον εἶναι καὶ σώζεσθαι, ἐὰν μὴ πρῶτον χρισθῇ;
Or what tower or house is beautiful and useful when it has not been anointed?ἢ ποῖος πύργος ἢ οἰκία εὔμορφος καὶ εὔχρηστός ἐστιν, ἐπὰν οὐ κέχρισται;
And what man, when he enters into this life or is about to wrestle, is not anointed with oil?τίς δὲ ἄνθρωπος εἰσελθὼν εἰς τόνδε τὸν βίον ἢ ἀθλῶν οὐ χρίεται ἐλαίῳ;
What work of art, what ornament has beauty unless it is anointed and burnished?ποῖον δὲ ἔργον ἢ κόσμιον δύναται εὐμορφίαν ἔχειν, ἐὰν μὴ χρισθῇ καὶ στιλβωθῇ;
The air finally and all that is under heaven is so to say anointed by light and spirit.εἶτα ἀὴρ μὲν καὶ πᾶσα ἡ ὑπ’ οὐρανὸν τρόπῳ τινὶ χρίεται φωτὶ καὶ πνεύματι.
And do you not wish to be anointed with the oil of God?σὺ δὲ οὐ βούλει χρισθῆναι ἔλαιον θεοῦ;
So then it is for the sake of this that we are called Christians: because we are anointed with the oil of God.τοιγαροῦν ἡμεῖς τούτου εἵνεκεν καλούμεθα χριστιανοὶ ὅτι χρειόμεθα ἔλαιον θεοῦ.

Theophilus of Antioch began his work with similar punning (from ad Autolycum 1.1, in the ANF translation):

Since, then, my friend, you have assailed me with empty words (λόγοις κενοῖς), boasting of your gods of wood and stone, hammered and cast, carved and graven, which neither see nor hear, for they are idols, and the works of men's hands; and since, besides, you call me a Christian (χριστιανὸν), as if this were a damning name (κακὸν τοὔνομα) to bear, I, for my part, avow (ὁμολογῶ) that I am a Christian (χριστιανός), and bear this name beloved of God (τὸ θεοφιλὲς ὄνομα), hoping to be serviceable (εὔχρηστος) to God. For it is not the case, as you suppose, that the name of God (τοὔνομα τοῦ θεοῦ) is hard to bear; but possibly you entertain this opinion of God, because you are yourself yet unserviceable (ἄχρηστος) to Him.

Justin Martyr's Apology 1.4 (in Barnard's translation, with some Greek glosses, which are sometimes disputed):

By the mere statement of a name, nothing is decided, either good (ἀγαθὸν) or evil, apart from the actions associated with the name; indeed, as far as the name with which we are accused goes, we are most gentle people (χρηστότατοι). But we do not think it just to ask to be acquitted on account of the name, if we are convicted as evildoers, so, on the other hand, if we are found to have committed no wrong, either in the appellation of the name, or in our citizenship, you must be exceedingly anxious against incurring righteous judgment by unjustly punishing those who are not convicted. For from a name neither approval nor punishment could fairly come, unless something excellent or evil in action could be shown about it. For you do not punish the accused among yourselves before they are convicted; but in our case you take the name as proof against us, and this although, as far as the name goes, you ought rather to punish our accusers. For we are accused of being Christians (Χριστιανοὶ [?]), and to hate what is favorable (χρηστὸν) is unjust. Again if one of the accused deny the name, saying that he is not [a Christian], you acquit him, as having no proof that he is an evildoer; but if any one acknowledges that he is one, you punish him on account of this acknowledgement. You ought also to enquire into the life both of the confessor and the denier, that by his deeds it would appear what kind of person each is. For as some who have been taught by the Teacher, Christ (Χριστοῦ [?]), not to deny him encourage others when they are put to the test, so similarly do those who lead evil lives give some excuse to those who, without consideration, like to accuse all the Christians (Χριστιανῶν [?]) of impiety and wickedness. And this also is improper. For in philosophy, too, some assume the name and the dress who do nothing worthy of their profession; and as you are aware those among the ancients whose opinions and teachings were quite different are yet called by the one name of philosopher.

From Clement, Stromata 2.4 (with Greek glosses, which could be disputed):

ANF translation:

In The Statesman he [Plato] says expressly, “So that the knowledge of the true king is kingly; and he who possesses it, whether a prince or private person, shall by all means, in consequence of this act, be rightly styled royal.” Now those who have believed in Christ (Χριστὸν [?]) both are and are called good (χρηστοί), as those who are cared for by the true king are kingly (βασιλικοὶ). For as the wise are wise by their wisdom, and those observant of law are so by the law; so also those who belong to Christ the King (Χριστῷ [?] βασιλεῖ) are kings (βασιλεῖς), and those that are Christ’s Christians (καὶ οἱ Χριστοῦ [?] Χριστιανοί [?]). Then, in continuation, he adds clearly, “What is right will turn out to be lawful, law being in its nature right reason, and not found in writings or elsewhere.” And the stranger of Elea pronounces the kingly and statesmanlike man “a living law.” Such is he who fulfills the law, “doing the will of the Father,” inscribed on a lofty pillar, and set as an example of divine virtue to all who possess the power of seeing.

Alternative translation (unverified, see discussion):

Now those who have believed in Christ both are good and are called royal, just like those who are cared for by the king. (αὐτίκα οἱ εἰς τὸν Χριστὸν [?] πεπιστευκότες χρηστοί τε εἰσὶ καὶ λέγονται, ὡς τῷ ὄντι βασιλικοὶ οἱ βασιλεῖ μεμελημένοι.)

Alternative interpretation of the word χρηστοί (unverified, see discussion):

Now those who have believed in Christ both are nobility and are called, as truly being, royal, those cared for by the king. (αὐτίκα οἱ εἰς τὸν Χριστὸν [?] πεπιστευκότες χρηστοί τε εἰσὶ καὶ λέγονται, ὡς τῷ ὄντι βασιλικοὶ οἱ βασιλεῖ μεμελημένοι.)

Clement of Alexandria (Exhortation 12) in my translation:

So, it is fitting for us to say that only the godly Christian[?] is truly rich, prudent, noble, and with this, an image resembling God,Ὥρα οὖν ἡμῖν μόνον θεοσεβῆ τὸν Χριστιανὸν[?] εἰπεῖν πλούσιόν τε καὶ σώφρονα καὶ εὐγενῆ καὶ ταύτῃ εἰκόνα τοῦ θεοῦ μεθ' ὁμοιώσεως,
and to say and believe that he has become 'just and pious with understanding' under Christ[?] Jesus, and already to be similar to God to such an extent.καὶ λέγειν καὶ πιστεύειν «δίκαιον καὶ ὅσιον μετὰ φρονήσεως» γενόμενον ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ[?] Ἰησοῦ καὶ εἰς τοσοῦτον ὅμοιον ἤδη καὶ θεῷ.
For the prophet does not conceal this grace, saying, 'I proclaim that you are gods and sons of the Most High.'Οὐκ ἀποκρύπτεται γοῦν ὁ προφήτης τὴν χάριν λέγων, »ἐγὼ εἶπον ὅτι θεοί ἐστε καὶ υἱοὶ ὑψίστου πάντες.»
Us, because he has adopted us and wants to be called the Father of us alone, not of those who disobey.Ἡμᾶς γάρ, ἡμᾶς εἰσπεποίηται καὶ ἡμῶν ἐθέλει μόνων κεκλῆσθαι πατήρ, οὐ τῶν ἀπειθούντων.
Because, indeed, this is simply the way things are for followers of Christ[?].Καὶ γὰρ οὖν ὧδέ πως ἔχει τὰ ἡμέτερα τῶν Χριστοῦ[?] ὀπαδῶν
As intentions are, so are the words.οἷαι μὲν αἱ βουλαί, τοῖοι καὶ οἱ λόγοι
As words are, so are the actions.ὁποῖοι δὲ οἱ λόγοι, τοιαίδε καὶ αἱ πράξεις
And as one's deeds are, so is the life.καὶ ὁποῖα τὰ ἔργα, τοιοῦτος ὁ βίος
Excellent, the fullness of being human, is life for those who have known Christ[?].χρηστὸς ὁ σύμπας ἀνθρώπων βίος τῶν Χριστὸν[?] ἐγνωκότων

Irenaeus writes about the interpretation of Χρειστος, in eight letters, in Against Heresies 1.15.2. (Additional context.)

But Jesus, he affirms, has the following unspeakable origin. From the mother of all things, that is, the first Tetrad; there came forth the second Tetrad, after the manner of a daughter; and thus an Ogdoad was formed, from which, again, a Decad proceeded: thus was produced a Decad and an Ogdoad. The Decad, then, being joined with the Ogdoad, and multiplying it ten times, gave rise to the number eighty; and, again, multiplying eighty ten times, produced the number eight hundred. Thus, then, the whole number of the letters proceeding from the Ogdoad [multiplied] into the Decad, is eight hundred and eighty-eight. This is the name of Jesus; for this name, if you reckon up the numerical value of the letters, amounts to eight hundred and eighty-eight. Thus, then, you have a clear statement of their opinion as to the origin of the supercelestial Jesus. Wherefore, also, the alphabet of the Greeks contains eight Monads, eight Decads, and eight Hecatads, which present the number eight hundred and eighty-eight, that is, Jesus, who is formed of all numbers; and on this account He is called Alpha and Omega, indicating His origin from all. And, again, they put the matter thus: If the first Tetrad be added up according to the progression of number, the number ten appears. For one, and two, and three, and four, when added together, form ten; and this, as they will have it, is Jesus. Moreover, Chreistus, he says, being a word of eight letters, indicates the first Ogdoad, and this, when multiplied by ten, gives birth to Jesus (888). And Christ the Son, he says, is also spoken of, that is, the Duodecad. For the name Son, contains four letters, and Christ (Chreistus) eight, which, being combined, point out the greatness of the Duodecad. But, he alleges, before the Episemon of this name appeared, that is Jesus the Son, mankind were involved in great ignorance and error. But when this name of six letters was manifested (the person bearing it clothing Himself in flesh, that He might come under the apprehension of man's senses, and having in Himself these six and twenty-four letters), then, becoming acquainted with Him, they ceased from their ignorance, and passed from death unto life, this name serving as their guide to the Father of truth. For the Father of all had resolved to put an end to ignorance, and to destroy death. But this abolishing of ignorance was just the knowledge of Him. And therefore that man (Anthropos) was chosen according to His will, having been formed after the image of the [corresponding] power above.

Refutation of all Heresies 6.44, attributed to Hippolytus, also writes about the interpretation of Χρειστος, in eight letters.

Those names which with Him are pronounced in silence and with faith, are Arrhetus and Sige, Pater and Aletheia. And of this tetrad the entire number is (that) of twenty-four letters. For Arrhetus has seven elements, Sige five, and Pater five, and Aletheia seven. And in like manner also (is it with) the second tetrad; (for) Logos and Zoe. Anthropos and Ecclesia, exhibited the same number of elements. And (he says) that the expressed name-- (that is, Jesus) --of the Saviour consists of six letters, but that His ineffable name, according to the number of the letters, one by one, consists of twenty-four elements, but Christ a Son of twelve. And (he says) that the ineffable (name) in Christ consists of thirty letters, and this exists, according to the letters l which are in Him, the elements being counted one by one. For the (name) Christ consists of eight elements; for Chi consists of three, and R of two, and EI of two, and I [ota], of four, S [igma] of five, and T of three, and OU of two, and San of three. Thus the ineffable name in Christ consists, they allege, of thirty letters. And they assert that for this reason He utters the words, "I am Alpha and Omega," displaying the dove, which (symbolically) has this number, which is eight hundred and one.

Book 8 of the Sibylline Oracles (source) has the spelling Χρειστος in an acrostic.

Sibylline Oracles 8.217-250:


Ἱδρώσει δὲ χθών, κρίσεως σημεῖον ὅτ' ἔσται.
Ἥξει δ' οὐρανόθεν βασιλεὺς αἰῶσιν ὁ μέλλων,
Σάρκα παρὼν πᾶσαν κρῖναι καὶ κόσμον ἅπαντα.
Ὄψονται δὲ θεὸν μέροπες πιστοὶ καὶ ἄπιστοι
Ὕψιστον μετὰ τῶν ἁγίων ἐπὶ τέρμα χρόνοιο.
Σαρκοφόρων δ' ἀνδρῶν ψυχὰς ἐπὶ βήματι κρίνει,

Χέρσος ὅταν ποτὲ κόσμος ὅλος καὶ ἄκανθα γένηται.
Ῥίψουσιν δ' εἴδωλα βροτοὶ καὶ πλοῦτον ἅπαντα.
Ἐκκαύσει δὲ τὸ πῦρ γῆν οὐρανὸν ἠδὲ θάλασσαν
Ἰχνεῦον, ῥήξει τε πύλας εἱρκτῆς Ἀίδαο.
Σὰρξ τότε πᾶσα νεκρῶν ἐς ἐλευθέριον φάος ἥξει
Τῶν ἁγίων· ἀνόμους δὲ τὸ πῦρ αἰῶσιν ἐλέγξει.
Ὁππόσα τις πράξας ἔλαθεν, τότε πάντα λαλήσει·
Στήθεα γὰρ ζοφόεντα θεὸς φωστῆρσιν ἀνοίξει.

Θρῆνος δ' ἐκ πάντων ἔσται καὶ βρυγμὸς ὀδόντων.
Ἐκλείψει σέλας ἠελίου ἄστρων τε χορεῖαι.
Οὐρανὸν εἱλίξει· μήνης δέ τε φέγγος ὀλεῖται.
Ὑψώσει δὲ φάραγγας, ὀλεῖ δ' ὑψώματα βουνῶν,

Ὕψος δ' οὐκέτι λυγρὸν ἐν ἀνθρώποισι φανεῖται.
Ἶσα δ' ὄρη πεδίοις ἔσται καὶ πᾶσα θάλασσα
Οὐκέτι πλοῦν ἕξει. γῆ γὰρ φρυχθεῖσα τότ' ἔσται
Σὺν πηγαῖς, ποταμοί τε καχλάζοντες λείψουσιν.

Σάλπιγξ δ' οὐρανόθεν φωνὴν πολύθρηνον ἀφήσει
Ὠρύουσα μύσος μελέων καὶ πήματα κόσμου.
Ταρτάρεον δὲ χάος δείξει τότε γαῖα χανοῦσα.
Ἥξουσιν δ' ἐπὶ βῆμα θεοῦ βασιλῆος ἅπαντες.
Ῥεύσει δ' οὐρανόθεν ποταμὸς πυρὸς ἠδὲ θεείου.

Σῆμα δέ τοι τότε πᾶσι βροτοῖς, σφρηγὶς ἐπίσημος
Τὸ ξύλον ἐν πιστοῖς, τὸ κέρας τὸ ποθούμενον ἔσται,
Ἀνδρῶν εὐσεβέων ζωή, πρόσκομμα δὲ κόσμου,
Ὕδασι φωτίζον κλητοὺς ἐν δώδεκα πηγαῖς·
Ῥάβδος ποιμαίνουσα σιδηρείη γε κρατήσει.
Οὗτος ὁ νῦν προγραφεὶς ἐν ἀκροστιχίοις θεὸς ἡμῶν
Σωτὴρ ἀθάνατος βασιλεύς, ὁ παθὼν ἕνεχ' ἡμῶν.


And the earth shall perspire, when there shall be the sign of judgment. And from heaven shall come the King who for the ages is to be, present to judge all flesh and the whole world. Faithful and faithless mortals shall see God the Most High with the saints at the end of time. And of men bearing flesh he judges souls upon his throne, when sometime the whole world shall be a desert and a place of thorns. And mortals shall their idols cast away and all wealth. And the searching fire shall burn earth, heaven, and sea; and it shall burn the gates, of Hades' prison. Then shall come all flesh of the dead to the free light of the saints; but the lawless shall that fire whirl round and round, for ages. Howsoever much one did in secret, then shall he all things declare; for God shall open dark breasts to the light. And lamentation shall there be from all and gnashing of teeth. Brightness of the sun shall be eclipsed and dances of the stars. He shall roll up the heaven; and of the moon the light shall perish. And he shall exalt the valleys and destroy the heights of hills, and height no longer shall appear remaining among men. And the hills shall with the plains be level and no more on any sea shall there be sailing. For the earth shall then with heat be shriveled and the dashing streams shall with the fountains fall. The trump shall send from heaven a very lamentable sound, howling the loathsomeness of wretched men and the world's woes. And then the yawning earth shall show Tartarean chaos. And all kings shall come unto the judgement seat of God. And there shall out of heaven a stream of fire and brimstone flow. But for all mortals then shall there a sign be, a distinguished seal, the wood among believers, and the horn fondly desired, the life of pious men, but it shall be stumbling block of the world, giving illumination to the elect by water in twelve springs; and there shall rule a shepherding iron rod. This one who now is in acrostics which give signs of God thus written openly, the Savior is, Immortal King, who suffered for our sake.

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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »

Greek - Non-Literary

Geographical-Chronological Table of Epigraphic and Papyri Evidence

The regions called "Western" here are places other than Rome with Latin inscriptions. The regions called "Grecian" here are Attica, non-Phyrgian Asia Minor, and Cyprus. The regions called "Syrian" are Syria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia. "Egypt" includes an inscription in Ethiopia.

The "date" column is an approximate terminus ad quem for the row based on the latest assigned date. This includes papyri and Greek inscriptions with a terminus ad quem assigned of 400 or before, Latin inscriptions with a terminus ad quem assigned of 399 or before, and two additional references with an eta.

Date Rome Western Grecian Phrygia N. Greece Syrian Egypt Papyri
-80 c̣hristianos
-230 Χρει̣[σ]τιανὸν
-250 Χρι[σ]τὸς Χρισ τις χρηστο̣[...]
-250 Χρηστιανὸς̣
-260 χρησιανὸν
-260 Χρηστιανῶν
-280 Χρειστιανοι
-300 Cristo Χρειστιανὸς Χρειστιανοι χρισ[...]
-300 Crissto Χρηστιανοῦ Χρηστοῦ
-300 Crheto Χρηστια̣νοὶ χρησια[...]
-300 Crhistum
-310 Χρηστια̣νοὶ
-320 [C]hri[s]ti Χρηστου Χ[ρ]ήστου
-325 Christo Cristi
-330 Crissi[ani] Χρηστιανοὶ Χρειστ[όν]
-340 Χρειστιανῶν Χρηστέ Χρηστ̣ι̣α̣νικοῦ
-340 Χριστῷ Χριστοῦ
-345 Χρειστοῦ Χρηστιανοὶ
-350 Χριστοῦ Χριστέ Χριστοῦ Χρηστοῦ
-355 Χρηστιανῶν
-365 Cristus Χρ̣ιστέ
-365 Crisianam Cristus Χριστὸς
-370 Christus Χριστιανῷ Χρηστου
-375 Christo Χριστὸς Χριστου Χρι[στὸς]
-380 Cristianae Cristaeanus Χριστός Χρηστῷ
-390 Christi Cristiana Χριστὸς Χριστέ
-390 Christi Cristi Χριστῷ
-400 Christum Χρειστιανῶν Χρησιανοί Χρειστιανοὶ Χριστὸς Χριστοῦ Χρειστου
-400 Christi Χριστο̣[ῦ] χρηστιανῶ̣[ν] Χριστ̣ο̣ῦ̣ χρε[ιστ]ια\νι/κ̣ῶν
-400 Christi Χριστοῦ Χριστῷ Χριστοῦ Χρηστῷ
-400 Christo Χριστοῦ Χριστοφόρῳ
-400 Christus Χρηστοῦ ὁ χρηστός
-400 Christi Χρι\σ/τοῦ
-400 Cristi
-400 Cristi
-400 Christi
-400 Christus
-400 Χριστους
-400 χριστιανα
-500 Χρηστῷ Χρηστιανοῦ


TAM V,3 1840, Χρει̣[σ]τιανὸν (229-230), Asia Minor: Lydia
In the year 260, month of Pan[e]mos, on the 3rd day: Aur[elius] Bass[us], well-born, a Christian (Χρει̣[σ]τιανὸν), [— — —].

SEG 45:1461,1b, Χρι[σ]τὸς (ca. 200-250), Rome
Lady and beautiful soul, Chri[s]t (Χρι[σ]τὸς) be with you.

Dura-Europos VIII,2 95,17, τὸν Χρισ (ca. 225-250), Greater Syria and the East: Mesopotamia
... the Christ (τὸν Χρισ). Remember Siseon, the humble.

Tomb Inscription of Family from Temenothyrai, Χρειστιανοι (278-279), Asia Minor: Phyrgia
In the year 363, the tenth of the month Pereitios. Eutyches son of Eutyches, (prepared this tomb) for Tatia his wife and for his father, in memory; Christans (Χρειστιανοι); and for himself. Phellinas. From Temenothyrai.

Inscription from Aurelia Julia, Χρειστιανοι (296-297), Asia Minor: Phyrgia
Aurelia Julia for her father ... and her mother, Beroneikiane, and for my sweetest child Severus and my daughter-in-law Moundane, in memory. Christians (Χρειστιανοι).

TAM V,2 1299, Χρειστιανὸς (ca. 3rd century), Asia Minor: Lydia
[In the year ․․․], month of Lōios, the 10th. Aur[elius] Gaius, son of Apfianus, a Christian (Χρειστιανὸς), prepared [for himself and Au]re[lia]. His wife, Stratoneikia, being herself also [a Christian], with no one else having authority, has been laid [to rest]. If anyone places any f[oreign corpse], he shall pay a fine to the community of Chorians, the sum of one denarius.

MAMA IV 221, Χρηστιανοῦ (ca. 250-300 AD), Asia Minor: Phrygia
Aurelius Artemon, son of Auxanon, thrice for Demetrios, to his father Aurelius Auxanon, thrice for Demetrios, a counselor, and to his mother Aurelia Domna Euryne, daughter of Lycinios. His sons Zoticus, Auxanon, and Aurelius Artemon made [this]. And his wife, later, Aurelia Ammia Nannite, wife of Brado, to Aurelius Auxanon, to Zoulakios, twice counselor Demetrios, and to his wife, the first Aurelia Domna Doula, daughter of Diogenes. Chrestians/Christians (Χρηστιανοῦ) to the sweetest parents, in memory, grace.

MAMA X 245, Χρηστια̣νοὶ Χρηστιανοῖς (ca. 285/290-300), Asia Minor: Phrygia
[—] son-in-law and [—] Markellina, daughter of Cyri[llis], mother. Chrestians/Christians to Chrestians/Christians (Χρηστια̣νοὶ Χρηστιανοῖς).

MAMA X 104, Χρηστια̣νοὶ Χρηστιανοῖς (ca. 305-310), Asia Minor: Phrygia
Aurelia Kyrialla, to her husband Asclepiades, to herself while still alive, and to their children. Asclepiades, father, and Domna, now step-daughter, Chrestians/Christians to Chrestians/Christians (Χρηστια̣νοὶ Χρηστιανοῖς), in memory, grace.

Lebaba Inscription, Ιη Χρηστου (318-319), Syria: Deir Ali
The meeting-house of the Marcionists, in the village of Lebaba, of the Lord and Savior Jesus Chrest/Christ (Ιη Χρηστου). Erected by the forethought of Paul a presbyter -- In the year 630.

MAMA X 275, Χρηστιανοὶ Χρηστιανοῖς (ca. 250-early 4th century), Asia Minor: Phrygia
Hastily, most holy maiden, you lie, bearing the terrible frenzy of the mistress. You were not wedded to a bed, but the Furies, with howls, carried you to Acheron. Kyrilla, twice-named, daughter of Katylla and Menandros, and Onesimos and Alexandria, the bride. Both were ministers of inexhaustible Plouton. For her, whom the villages lament, this wreath adorns the tomb. Chrestians to Chrestians (Χρηστιανοὶ Χρηστιανοῖς).

IGLSyr 2 443, Χρηστέ (ca. 336/337), Greater Syria and the East: Syria and Phoenicia
Jesus(?) Chrest/Christ (Χρηστέ), help. One God alone. Thalassis created everything you say, my friend, and double blessings to you. Year 385*. Enter in joy.

IGLSyr 2 315, Χριστῷ (ca. 337), Greater Syria and the East: Syria and Phoenicia
Blessed be God with His Christ (Χριστῷ). In the year 648*, Xandikos, 10th. With the loving care of Basso, swiftly from the things of God. May Maronas, the stonecutter, be remembered.

Epitaph of Marcus Julius Eugenius, Χρ[ε]ιστιανοὺς, Χρειστιανῶν (ca. 340), Asia Minor: Lycaonia
Marcus Julius Eugenius, son of Cyrillus Celer of Kouessos, a member of the (Laodicean) senate, having served (as an officer) in the officium of the governor of Pisidia and having married Flavia Julia Flaviana, daughter of Gaius (Julius) Nestorianus, a man of (Roman) senatorial rank; and having served with distinction; and when a command had meanwhile gone forth in the time of Maximinus that Christians (Χρ[ε]ιστιανοὺς) should offer sacrifice and not quit the service, having endured very many tortures under Diogenes governor (of Pisidia) and having contrived to quit the service, maintaining the faith of the Christians (Χρειστιανῶν); and having spent a short time in the city of the Laodiceans; and having been made bishop by the will of Almighty God; and having administered the episcopate for 25 full years with great distinction ; and having rebuilt from its foundations the entire church and all the adornment around it, consisting of stoai and tetrastoa and paintings and mosaics and fountain and outer gateway; and having furnished it with all the construction in masonry and, in a word, with everything; and being about to leave the life of this world; I made for myself a plinth and a sarcophagus on which I caused the above to be engraved, for the distinction of the church and of my family.

IGLSyr 21,5.1 323, Χρειστοῦ [ca. 344/345], Greater Syria and the East: Arabia
This is the tomb of Julianos, laid to rest in a long sleep, to whom Agathos, a devoted father, with tears, made this inscription at the burial place, near the common cemetery of the people of Christ (λαοῦ Χρειστοῦ), so that the people might sing praises to him forever, on both sides, beside the elder Agathos, faithful and beloved, who lived for 12 years. In the year 239.

IGLSyr 2 542, Χριστέ (ca. 350), Greater Syria and the East: Syria and Phoenicia
One God, and Christ (Χριστέ), be a helper. Cyril, the son of Fl(avius) Eusebius, a merchant and builder, bought in the year 388*, constructed in the year 398 with God's help, (month of) Panemos, the 30th.

OGIS 200,Add(2) = SEG 26:1813, Χριστοῦ (ca. mid 4th century), Ethiopia
In the faith of God and the power of the Father, son and Holy Spirit who saved for me the kingdom, by the faith of his son Jesus Christ (Χριστοῦ), who has helped me and will always help me. I Azanas king of the Aksumites, and Himyarites, and Reeidan and of the Sabaeans and of Sileel and of Khaso and of the Beja and of Tiamo, Bisi Alene, son of Ella Amida servant of Christ (Χριστοῦ) thank the Lord my God, and I am unable to state fully his favours because my mouth and my mind cannot (embrace) all the favours which he has given me, for he has given me strength and power and favoured me with a great name through his son in whom I believed. And he made me the guide of all my kingdom because of my faith in Christ (Χριστοῦ) by his will and in the power of Christ (Χριστοῦ), for he has guided me. And I believe in him and he became to me a guide. I went out to fight the Noba because there cried out against them, the Mangartho and Khasa and Atiaditai and Bareotai saying that `the Noba have ground us down; help us because they have troubled us by killing'. And I left by the power of Christ (Χριστοῦ) the God in whom I have believed and he has guided me and I departed from Aksum on the eighth day, a Saturday, of the Aksumite month of Magabit having faith in God and arrived in Mambarya and there I fed my army.

SEG 18:425, Χριστοῦ (ca. mid 4th century), Rome
My name is Bassos, my homeland is the city of Babylon, and I am a defender of Christ (Χριστοῦ) both in word and in deed. Leaving my worn-out body to the earth and mortal life to men, I ascended to the heavenly path and the abodes of Christ (Χριστο[ῦ]). ☧ The remains of Basso lie beneath the earth, but his soul, purified, has reached the air, coming to Christ (Χριστοῦ) in the ethereal realm.

More inscriptions:
IGLSyr 2 575 (Χρ̣ιστέ, ca. 363 / 364, Syria)
IGLSyr 2 391 (Χριστὸς, ca. 363 or 563, Syria)
IGLSyr 2 598 (Χριστιανῷ, ca. 369, Syria)
IGLSyr 2 389 (Χριστὸς, ca. 372, Syria)
IGChrEg 64 (Χριστου, ca. 374, Egypt)
IGLSyr 2 595 (Χριστός, ca. 378, Syria)
IGLSyr 2 381 (Χριστέ, ca. 387, Syria)
SEG 20:375 (Χριστῷ, Χριστέ, ca. 388, Syria)
Anth.Gr. 1:92 (Χριστὸς, ca. 360-390, Asia Minor: Cappadocia)
AnIsl 7.1967.192,122 (Χριστὸς, ca. 392, Syria)
MAMA X App. I 182,22 (Χρησιανοί, ca. 3rd-4th century, Asia Minor: Phrygia)
Oasis d'Égypte 35,44 (Χριστοῦ, ca. 4th century, Egypt)
Oasis d'Égypte 36,46 (Χριστ̣ο̣ῦ̣, ca. 4th century, Egypt)
Oasis d'Égypte 42,62 (Χριστοῦ, ca. 4th century, Egypt)
Oasis d'Égypte 44,31a (Χριστοῦ, ca. 4th century, Egypt)
Oasis d'Égypte 36,49 (Χρηστοῦ, ca. 4th century, Egypt)
Perinthos-Herakleia 219 (Χρειστιανοὶ, ca. 4th century, Thrace)
SEG 19:719 (Χρειστιανῶν, ca. 4th century, Asia Minor: Lydia)
IG II² 13492 (Χριστο̣[ῦ], ca. 4th century, Attica)
SGLIBulg 36 (χρηστιανῶ̣[ν], ca. 4th century, Thrace)
EDCS-34300340 (Χριστους, ca. 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-33100543 (χριστιανα, ca. 351-400, Rome)
I.Kourion 202 (Χριστοῦ, ca. late 4th century, Cyprus)
SEG 33:491 (Χριστῷ, ca. 400 or 405, Northern Greece)
MAMA I 382 (Χριστῷ, ca. 375-450, Asia Minor: Galatia)
SEG 46:1341 (Χρηστῷ, ca. 3rd-5th century, Italy)
IG II² 13493 (Χριστιανὸς, ca. 4th / 5th century, Attica)
IG II² 13535 (Χριστιανοί, ca. 4th / 5th century, Attica)
IG X,2 1 397 (Χρηστιανοῦ, ca. 4th century or later, Macedonia)


All found in Egypt, these papyri are assigned a terminus ad quem of 350 or before. They are from, which does not include most papyri of literary texts (e.g., NT papyri or other literature), as it focuses on non-literary papyri. Another, very significant limitation is that not every text has a transcription on the website. An (incomplete) supplement has been made, both of some non-literary papyri and some fragments of literary texts. - Trismegistos 63820 = P.Gen. 3.125 (ca. 150-250)
τις χρηστο̣[...] ("a certain Chrestos" in a theological text regarding a matter of dispute) - Trismegistos 61627 = P66 (ca. 200-250)
τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς (Jn 1:41), οτι μεσσιας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς (Jn 4:25), etc. - Trismegistos 61826 = P45 (ca. 200-250)
εν αντιοχεια̣ χ̣ν̣ους (Acts 11:26), εν ονοματι ιη χρ (Acts 16:18) - Trismegistos 61855 = P46 (ca. 200-250)
ο χρς (Rom 9:5), χν (Rom 15:8), χρς (1 Cor 15:23), χρν (2 Cor 1:21), χω (2 Cor 2:14), χρς (Gal 3:16), ο χρς (Heb 5:5), etc.;16;12497 - Trismegistos 30279 (ca. 200-250)
ἔστ(ι) Διόσκορος Χρηστιανὸς̣ (part of "List of nominations to [Roman] liturgies");42;3035 - Trismegistos 16434 (ca. 256)
χρησιανὸν (part of an "Order to Arrest");43;3119 - Trismegistos 15998 (ca. 259 - 260)
Χρηστιανῶν, Χ[ρ]ηστιανῶν (part of "Official Correspondence") - Trismegistos 61783 = P4 (ca. 150-299)
"all questioning in their hearts concerning John, whether he might be the Christ[?] (ο̣ χς̣)" (Lk 3:15) - Trismegistos 112358 = P119 (ca. 200-299)
[ὁ Χ(ριστό)ς], [τὸν Μεσσία]ν̣ ὅ ἐστι[ν μεθερμηνευόμενον Χ(ριστό)ς] (Jn 1:21-28, 1:38-44)
"neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" and "the Messiah (which means Christ)" - Trismegistos 61631 = P106 (ca. 200-299)
τον μ[ε]σ̣[σ]ιαν ο εσ̣τ̣ι̣[ν] [με]θερμ̣ηνευ̣[ο]μ̣ε̣ν̣ο̣[ν] χ̣ρ̣ς (Jn 1:41) - Trismegistos 61787 = P1 (ca. 200 - 299)
βιβλος γενεσεως ιυ χυ υυ δαυιδ (Mt 1:1), του χυ̣ (Mt 1:17), ιυ̣ χυ (Mt 1:18) - Trismegistos 61628 = P47 (ca. 200-299)
του χυ αυτου (Rev 11:15), του χυ αυτου (Rev 12:10) - Trismegistos 64255 (ca. 200 - 299)
[εὐχσ]άμενος χρισ[...] ("praying to Christ"), χρηστ[ι]α̣ν̣[α], Ἰῦ Χῦ̣ - Trismegistos 63986 (ca. 200-299)
[Ἰ]ησοῦ Χρηστοῦ, [Ἰησοῦ Χρηστο]ῦ, Ἰῦ Χῦ (part of a "gnostic"[?] prayer) - Trismegistos 62336 (ca. 200-299)
εστ(αυ)ρ(ωμε)νος Χς ("one having been crucified Christ/Chrest");12;10772 - Trismegistos 26702 (ca. 225-299)
Σώτου τοῦ χρησια[...] ("Sotas the Chrestian/Christian" in the documentary letter of Sarapammon);;48 - Trismegistos 28120 (ca. 307 - 314)
Χ[ρ]ήστου (part of "End of a Renunciation of Claim (?)" and may not refer to Chrest/Christ) - Trismegistos 61743 = P75 (ca. 275-325)
ο χς (Lk 22:67), [χν] βασιλεα (Lk 23:2), ο χς ο υιος του θυ ο εκλεκτος (Lk 23:35), etc.
τον μεσσιαν ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον χς (Jn 1:41), μεσσειας ερχεται ο λεγομενος χς (Jn 4:25), etc.;49;279 - Trismegistos 33125 (ca. 330)
Χρειστ[όν];6;1913 - Trismegistos 16851 (ca. 334)
ἁ̣γ̣ίου Χρηστ̣ι̣α̣νικοῦ [π]λ̣ή̣θ̣ο̣υ̣ς̣;5;7872 - Trismegistos 18004 (ca. 306 - 337)
[τὴ]ν τοῦ Χῦ ἐντολή[ν] ("the commandment of the Christ/Chrest");6;1917 - Trismegistos 16855 (ca. 330 - 340)
[Ἰη]σοῦ Χριστοῦ;6;1919 - Trismegistos 16857 (ca. 330 - 340) - see discussion
Χρηστιανοὶ, συνχρηστοὶ, Χω, Χω, Χω, Χω - Trismegistos 140277 (ca. 275 - 350)
ἀνάγνωτι τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ εὐαγ’γελίου καὶ ἴδε ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγ’γελίου Ἰηῦ τοῦ Χρῦ. ὡς γέγραπται...
"Read the beginning of the Gospel and see: The beginning of the gospel of Jesus, the Christ/Chrest. It is written...";6;9605 - Trismegistos 33118 (ca. 300-350)
τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χρηστοῦ - Tresmigestos 61868 = P10 (ca. 300-350)
δουλος χρυ ιηυ (Rom 1:1), του γενομενου εκ σπερματος δαυδ κατα σαρκα (Rom 1:3), ι̣ηυ χρυ του κυ ημων (Rom 1:4)

More papyri:
TM 21611 (Χρηστιανῶν, dated 3. Sept. 355)
TM 20309 (χ[...]στιανότη̣τ̣ο̣ς̣, ca. 355)
TM 33564 (Χρηστου, ca. 350-370)
TM 32662 (Χρι[στὸς], ca. 325-375)
TM 32661 (χρηστο̣φ̣[ο]ρ[ί]α̣[ς], Χρηστῷ, Χρηστοῦ, ca. 325-375)
TM 32659 (χρηστοφόρῳ, Χριστῷ, Χριστῷ, ca. 325-375)
TM 64310 (Χρειστου, ca. 250-399)
TM 33702 (χρε[ιστ]ια\νι/κ̣ῶν, ca. 4th century)
TM 32410 (Χρηστῷ, ca. 4th century)
TM 33066 (Χριστοφόρῳ, ca. 4th century)
TM 64446 (ὁ χρηστός, ca. 4th century)
TM 129871 (Χρι\σ/τοῦ, ca. 375-399)
TM 33603 (Χρι̣σ̣τ̣ῷ̣, ca. 4th-5th century)
TM 129746 (Χρηστοῦ, ca. 4th-5th century)
TM 64534 (Χ̣ρ̣ιστοῦ, ca. 4th - 5th century)
TM 33500 (χρηστιανὴ, ca. 368 to 5th century)
TM 69065 (Χριστε, ca. 4th-5th century)
TM 61840 (Χρυστοῦ, ca. 350-499)

Notably: TM 21611 (Χρηστιανῶν), dated 355 CE, is plausibly among the outsider / non-Christian references in the papyri.
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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »


Tertullian, Ad Nationes 1.3 (in the translation by Howe, with Latin text):

Your verdicts, however, have condemned nothing but a Christian confession. There is no name of a charge against us, just the charge of a name. (Porro sententiae uestrae nihil nisi Christianum confessum notant; nullum criminis nomen extat, nisi nominis crimen est.) ...

But when it comes to the merit of a name -- if a name faces charges or a word comes under accusation -- I reject that a name or a word can give offense, unless of course the word sounds vulgar or implies bad luck or is degrading both for the speaker and the listener. Such words are to be condemned as crude, incorrect, or disgusting. (Itaque de nominis merito si qui reatus est nominum, si qua accusatio uoca bulorum, ego arbitror nullam esse uocabulo aut nomini querellam, nisi cum quid aut barbarum sonat aut infaustum sapit uel inpudicum uel aliter quam enuntiantem deceat aut audientem delectet. Haec uoca bulorum aut nominum crimina, sicuti uerborum atque sermonum barbarismus est uitium et soloecismus et insulsior figura.)

The literal meaning of the word Christian, however, is an anointing. (Christianum uero nomen, quantum significatio est, de unctione interpretatur.)

Even if you mispronounce the word as "chrestian" -- you are not entirely clear about our name -- your pronunciation suggests sweetness and goodness. (Etiam cum corrupte a uobis Chrestiani pronuntiamur -- nam ne no minis quidem ipsius liquido certi estis -- sic quoque de suauitate uel boni tate modulatum est.)

You withhold from innocent men their innocent name, a name that is neither challenging to the tongue no harsh to the ear, nor offensive to any man, nor provocative to our peers. (Detinetis igitur in hominibus innoxiis etiam nomen innoxium nostrum, non incommodum linguae, non auribus asperum, non homini malum, non pari infestum,)

Like many Greek words, it is appealing in both sound and significance. (sed et Graecum <cum> aliis, et sonorum et interpretatione iucundum)

Names were never meant to be punished by the sword, by the cross, or by ravenous beasts. (Et utique non gladio aut cruce aut bestiis punienda sunt nomina!)

Lactantius, Divine Institutes 4.7 (source, translation by Anthony Bowen and Peter Garnsey).

Amongst men he is called Jesus. For Christ is not a proper name but a title, expressing power and kingship; the Jews used to call their kings so. (Iesus quippe inter homines nominatur: nam Christus non proprium nomen est, sed nuncupatio potestatis et regni; sic enim Iudaei reges suos appellabant.)

The meaning of the title needs to be explained because of the error of ignorant people who tend to change one letter and call him Chrest. (Sed exponenda huius nominis ratio est propter ignorantium errorem, qui eum immutata littera Chrestum solent dicere.)

The Jews had been advised earlier to prepare a holy ointment with which to anoint those called to priesthood or kingship; for Romans today, putting on the purple is a sign that royal status has been assumed, and for the Jews the name and powers of kingship were conferred by an anointing with holy ointment. (Erat Iudaeis ante praeceptum, ut sacrum conficerent unguentum, quo perungi possent ii, qui vocabantur ad sacerdotium, vel ad regnum. Et sicut nunc Romanis indumentum purpurae insigne est regiae dignitatis assumptae: sic illis unctio sacri unguenti nomen ac potestatem regiam conferebat.)

The ancient Greeks used the word khríesthai for being anointed (nowadays they say aleíphesthai), as the following line of Homer indicates: ‘When the servant girls had washed them and anointed them with oil;’ so we call him Christ, that is, ‘the anointed’, which in Hebrew is ‘Messiah’. (Verum, quoniam Graeci veteres χρίεσθαι dicebant ungi, quod nunc ἀλείφεσθαι, sicut indicat Homericus versus ille: Αὐτοὺς δὲ δμωαί λοῦσαν, καὶ χρῖσαν ἐλαίω; ob hanc rationem nos eum Christum nuncupamus, id est, unctum, qui hebraice Messias dicitur.)

Hence in some Greek texts, where the Hebrew has been misinterpreted, eleimménos is found written, from aleíphesthai. (Unde in quibusdam graecis scripturis, quae male de Hebraicis interpretatae sunt, ἠλειμμένος scriptum invenitur, ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀλείφεσθαι.)

But the meaning is ‘king’, by whichever word, not because he has taken up this earthly kingship, for which the time has not yet come, but because of his celestial and eternal kingship, of which we shall speak in our final book. (Sed tamen utrolibet nomine rex significatur: non quod ille regnum hoc terrenum fuerit adeptus, cuius capiendi nondum tempus advenit; sed quod coeleste ac sempiternum, de quo disseremus in ultimo libro.)

Latin - Inscriptions
Peter Kirby wrote: Sun Feb 18, 2024 10:57 pm I have added two links to papers on the "Christianos Graffito" found at Pompeii (buried in 79 CE) in the 19th century. The discussion of the inscription has always been marred by association with far-fetched speculation that goes well beyond the evidence. It also took a firm step backwards early on by the publication of the inscription in the well-known reference, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum vol. 4, in a greatly obfuscated form (but without any new evidence to justify the many changes made, relative to the three eyewitness accounts).

A turning point in the discussion came from M. Guarducci, “La più antica iscrizione del nome dei Cristiani”, in: Romische Quartalschrift, 57 (1962), pp. 116-125. Guarducci identified the probable first word of the inscription, the name "Bovios." This led to the reconstruction of this line of the inscription as "Bovios is listening to the Christians." Like others, Guarducci also identified the fourth and fifth lines as coming from a different hand.

Guarducci, Wayment and Grey, and Tuccinardi differ in their reconstruction of the fifth line.

Jesus Followers in Pompeii: The Christianos Graffito and “Hotel of the Christians” Reconsidered ... ompeii.pdf

Christian Horrors in Pompeii: A New Proposal for the Christianos Graffito ... inardi.pdf

For the purpose of this thread, the most interesting part of the inscription would be the presence of the word Christianos (accusative plural).

There are three accounts here: Giuseppe Fiorelli (the archaeologist who found the inscription first), Giulio Minervini (another archaeologist who arrived soon after in order to make a sketch), and Alfred Kiessling (an archaeologist who saw it later that year, making another sketch).

The statement from Fiorelli was that he “read at the end of the first line . . . HRISTIANOS or . . . HRISTIANVS.” Fiorelli indicates, by this, that he was not able to make out clearly the letter before 'H' here. The statement from Fiorelli can be compared to the two sketches regarding this part of the inscription (the fourth and fifth lines):


All three witnesses are very clear about the letters 'RISTIAN' here. The first two witnesses clearly saw the end of the word here (which Fiorelli says was "OS" or "VS" and which Minervini sketched as "OS"). The first two witnesses also saw the "H" here as well, which Kiessling's sketch can show only in a deteriorated form. Of course, Kiessling was aware that the graffito was already on its way to fading, which is the best explanation of why the "H" is not clearly visible in Kiessling's sketch and why the last two letters now left only one line visible to Kiessling.

As a result, we can conclude that the graffito read 'HRISTIANOS' here. The first letter must have been hard to make out, based on Fiorelli's statement. Both Minervini and Kiessling attempt to draw the preceding letter: Minervini more clearly as a 'C', Kiessling as just a slightly curved line. All three witnesses may have been dealing with damage at this part of the graffito already.

Even with the difficulty of reading the first letter (which might be marked as a letter whose form is being reconstructed from context), a fairly cautious conclusion regarding the the inscription having the word 'Christianos' here can be reached.

Based on the discussion in Italian by Guarducci, a similar conclusion is reached by Alastair M. Small, "Urban, suburban and rural religion in the Roman period" (pp. 184-211) in The World of Pompeii (Routledge 2007), p. 194.

The evidence for Christianity in Pompeii and Herculaneum is of uneven value, and has been much debated, but when the more dubious arguments are discounted there remains a residue of archaeological documentation which should leave no doubt that there were Christians in Pompeii before the eruption. The clearest indication is a graffito scratched in charcoal on a wall of an inn situated on the via del Balcone Pensile (VII.11.11–14), which was recorded by several authorities at the time of the excavation in 1862 but had vanished within two years. The beginning and end are uncertain, but the word christianos clearly occurred on the fourth line.[68]

[68] M. Guarducci, “La più antica iscrizione col nome dei Cristiani”, Römische Quartalschrift, 1962, vol. 57, pp. 116–25. She transcribes the line as Bovios audi(t) christianos: Bovius listens to Christians, and interprets it as a malignant comment, suitable for the wall of a drinking house.

This list of Latin inscriptions includes non-abbreviated references with a terminus ad quem of 350 CE or before.

EDCS-40400781 = ICUR-07, 20366 = RAC-1933-231,1 (ca. 201-300. Rome)
To Aurelia Flavia, the spouse of Maximus, in peace and in Christ (Cristo).

EDCS-33000119 = ICUR-07, 20389 = RAC-1933-230 (ca. 201-300, Rome)
On the 5th day before the Kalends of October, Celerina, aged 25 years, 6 months, and 11 days, in Christ (Crissto).

EDCS-33101433 = ICUR-09, 24407 = ILCV 03375d (ca. 251-300, Rome)
Fortunata, you will live in Christ (Crheto).

EDCS-31900339 = ICUR-09, 25962 = CLE 00730 = ILCV 02392 (add) = ICaRoma 00090 = Carletti-2008, 00036 = AE 2007, +00205 (ca. 251-300, Rome)
The Almighty Father spoke this when He expelled Adam: 'Taken from the earth, you shall return to the earth, O mortal.' Thus, the daughter named Agape and faithful to Christ (Crhist[ique]), having lived seventeen and twice ten years, rests. In Christ (Crhistum), her old age was so full. Pius is the father, and Eucharis is the mother to me. I beseech you, O brothers, to pray here when you come, and with fervent prayers, beseech the Father and the Son. May your beloved minds remember Agape, so that Almighty God may preserve Agape forever.

EDCS-22500149 = CIL 10, 07975 (p 997) = CIL 10, 07976 = SRD 00444 = SRD 00656 = Porra 00649 = AE 1982, 00440 (ca. 316, Sardinia, Terranoa / Olbia / Terranova / Terranova-Pausania)
Desiring the welfare of the cities, Titus Septimius Januarius, Governor of the province of Sardinia, devoted To His divine Majesty, [...]. Victor, minister of the holy church, Enter the most blessed place, in [ruin?] or virtue. In the name of Christ ([C]hri[s]ti), Tiberius Julius A., citizen of the city.

EDCS-26100422 = CIL 08, 20302 = ILCV 03247 = MEFR-1964-155 = AE 1912, +00009 (ca. 324, Mauretania Caesariensis, Ain el Kebira / Perigotville / Satafis)
[Jan]uariae / servant of Christ (Cristi) / lived in God for nearly 60 years / and she dedicated for herself / a sacred table of the saints / on the 8th day before the Kalends / of July, with Avianus Crescentius overseeing / in the 285th year of the province.

EDCS-32801907 = ICUR-06, 16438 (ca. 291 to 325, Rome)
To Restuta, well-deserving, she departed in peace in Christ (Christo), who lived eighteen years.

EDCS-10000231 = ILJug-01, 00131 = IJO-01-Dal, 00003 = Salona-04-01, 00069 = AE 1959, 00251 = AE 2005, 01187 (ca. 271-330, Dalmatia, Solin / Salona)
If anyone wishes to violate this tomb, may the offended deities be against him, whether he be Roman, Jew, or Christian (Crissi[ani]). Each should worship the gods or the one God according to his own beliefs; he must not act contrary to what he does not wish to be done to himself.

EDCS-30700301 = ICUR-08, 20752 = ILCV 01768 = CLE 00301 (p 855) = CLENuovo p 102 = Carletti-2008, 00154 = AE 2015, +00003 (ca. 337-350 or 326-375, Rome)
Constantina, venerating God and dedicated to Christ (Christoq), with all her resources and a devoted mind prepared, with the divine will and much help from Christ (Christoq), consecrated the temple of the victorious virgin Agnes. The temple, which surpasses all earthly things, with its golden pinnacles shining, celebrates the name of Christ (Christi) in these abodes. For he alone could overcome death, having descended to hell and triumphing alone, bearing the name of Adam and his body and all his members, lifted from the darkness of death and the blind night. Therefore, a worthy gift is endowed for the devoted martyr to Christ (Christo) from our possessions, through the long ages of darkness. O blessed virgin Agnes, with a name worth remembering, Constantina to God.

More inscriptions:
EDCS-26200812 (Cristus, 359, Mauretania Caesariensis)
EDCS-70200001 (Cristus, 359, Mauretania Caesariensis)
EDCS-16800241 (Crisianam, 363, Rome)
EDCS-10600004 (Christus, 367-370, Belgica)
EDCS-39200101 (Christo, 326-375, Rome)
EDCS-22100880 (Cristaeanus, 343-376, Etruria)
EDCS-40300335 (Cristianae, 377, Rome)
EDCS-29601541 (Cristiana, 382, Dalmatia)
EDCS-31900333 (Christi, 382, Rome)
EDCS-33900271 (Christi, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-34200639 (Christum, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-24701329 (Christi, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-32900158 (Christi, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-30501252 (Christo, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-41500011 (Christus, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-30501256 (Christi, 366-384, Rome)
EDCS-27800180 (Cristi, 384, Mauretania Caesariensis)
EDCS-40300384 (Cristi, 366-385, Rome)
EDCS-01000473 (Cristi, 389, Rome)
EDCS-30700482 (Christi, 393, Rome)
EDCS-18100576 (Christus, 390-394, Rome)
EDCS-37400649 ([Chr]istus, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-09800467 (Cristo, 301-400, Africa proconsularis)
EDCS-26500021 (Crist[ị], 301-400, Africa proconsularis)
EDCS-08600464 (Chistianus, 301-400, Britannia)
EDCS-10900744 (Cristi, 301-400, Hispania citerior)
EDCS-03400501 (Crhistianae, 301-400, Hispania citerior)
EDCS-26600393 (hristo, 301-400, Pannonia superior)
EDCS-33800619 (Cresto, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-33900294 (Christus, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-33900295 (Christe, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-34800342 (rio, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35000992 (Cristum, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35900743 (Cristo, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-36100849 ([C]hristi, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35700881 (Cristum, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-37400649 ([Chr]istus, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-37400659 (Cre[sto(?)], 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-37400688 (Christi, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-33100970 (Christ[ines], 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-34300340 (Χριστους, Chr, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35801714 (Cristianus, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-40700071 (Christo, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-40700072 (Christo, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-40600330 ([Ch]risto, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-40500330 (Cris[to], 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-33400857 (Christi, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-33400269 (Cristo, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35300452 (Christv, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35300514 (Cristi, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-35300324 (Christum, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-30500357 (Cristi, 301-400, Rome)
EDCS-46600908 (Christo, 301-400, Venetia et Histria)
EDCS-23900224 (Cristi, 351-400, Lusitania)
EDCS-21900514 (Crestiana, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-39900416 (risti, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-40300420 (Cristo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-40300774 (Cristus, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-33700161 (Cristi, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-33900300 (Christo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-34100404 (Grissana, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-34201001 (Christi, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-34200778 (Cristus, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-35100208 (Christi, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-35700229 (Cristo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-24701334 (Christus, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-37600700 (Creesteanu(s?), 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-35800035 (Christi, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-32900159 (Christo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-32900304 (Cristo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-40301144 ([Chr]istianus, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-38801136 (Cristo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-39600067 (Christiana, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-40400140 (Christo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-30800407 (Chrestiano, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-35300481 (Cristo, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-30501254 (Christum, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-33100543 (χριστιανα, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-30900455 (Cristi, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-01600991 (Cristi[anu]s, 351-400, Rome)
EDCS-39900603 (Cristo, 376-400, Rome)
EDCS-32804834 (Christi, 376-400, Rome)
EDCS-30700178 (Christo, 376-400, Rome)
EDCS-33400243 (Cristi, 376-400, Rome)
EDCS-17300165 (Cristo, 391-400, Picenum / Regio V)

Third century inscriptions in Latin, including those with abbreviations, can be found here. More Latin inscriptions with a terminus a quo in the fourth century can be found here. Note that the quantity of Latin inscriptions listed cannot be easily compared to the quantity of Greek inscriptions because the database of Latin inscriptions attempts to assign a date range to every inscription but the database of Greek inscriptions doesn't.

When the word is spelled out, the Latin inscriptions (with a terminus a quo in the fourth century or earlier) are fairly consistent in using the letter i, at a ratio of 132 (with letter i) to 10 (with 'e' or 'ae').
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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

Post by Peter Kirby »


Martijn offered this material (follow the link) to be shared. This is edited, and it may be edited further to integrate it with the presentation overall.

The Treatise on the Resurrection
( 43:37 ) They seek rather their own rest, which we have received through our Savior, our Lord {the} Chrest/Christ (ϫⲁⲉⲓⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ).
( 48:19 ) Indeed, it is more fitting to say that the world is an illusion, rather than the resurrection which has come into being through our Lord the Savior, Jesus {the} Chrest/Christ (ⲓ̅ⲏ̅ⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ).
( 50:1 ) These things I have received from the generosity of my Lord, Jesus {the} Chrest/Christ (ϫⲁⲉⲓⲥ ⲓ̅ⲥ̅ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥ[...]).

The Tripartite Tractate
( 122:19 ) For, before every place, the Chrest/Christ (ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) came for her sake.
( 136:1 ) {the} Chrest/Christ (ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣ̅ⲏ̅ⲥ) is the one with her [and the] expectation of the Father [of] the Totality, since she will produce for them angels as guides and servants.

The Apocryphon of John (in multiple copies)
(Codex II 6:24 ) And he anointed him with his Christhood/goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲣ̅ⲥ̅)
(Codex II 6:26 ) until he became perfect, not lacking in any Christhood/goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧ[ⲭ]ⲣ̅[ⲥ])
(Codex II 6:28 ) because he had anointed him with the Christhood/goodness ([ⲙ]ⲛ̅[ⲧⲭⲣ]ⲥ̅) of the invisible Spirit
(Codex II 12:16 ) And he named each power beginning with the highest: the first is Goodness (ⲙⲛⲧⲭ̅ⲣ̅ⲥ̅) with the first (authority), Athoth;
(Codex II 15:14 ) And the powers began (to create): the first one, Goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ), created a soul
(Codex III 9:24 ) He anointed him with his own Christhood/goodness (ⲙ̅ⲛ̅ⲧ̅ⲭ̅ⲣ̅ⲥ̅)
(Codex III 10:2 ) so that he became perfect, and not lacking in anything Christ/good (ⲭ̅ⲣ̅ⲥ̅)
(Codex III 10:4 ) because he had been anointed with the goodness/Christhood ([ⲙⲛ]ⲧⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) of the invisible Spirit
(Codex III 22:23 ) the third is both Christhood/Goodness ([ⲙⲛⲧⲭⲣⲥ]) and Fire
(Codex IV 9:30 ) And he anointed him with his Christhood/goodness ([ⲙⲛⲧⲭⲣⲥ])
(Codex IV 9:32 ) until he became perfect, not lacking in any Christhood/goodness ([ⲙⲛⲧⲭⲣⲥ])
(Codex IV 10:1 ) because he had anointed him with the Christhood/goodness ([ⲙⲛⲧⲭⲣⲥ]) of the invisible Spirit
(Codex IV 19:16 ) And he named each power beginning with the highest: the first is Goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭ[ⲣ̅ⲥ]) with the first (authority), Athoth;
(Codex IV 24:3 ) And the powers began (to create): the first one, Goodness (ⲙ̅ⲛ̅ⲧ[ⲭⲣⲥ]), created a soul
(Codex BG 8502 30:15) And he anointed him with his Christhood/goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲥ̅)

The Berlin Gnostic Codex, BG 8502, is not part of the Claremont Colleges Digital Library Nag Hammadi Archive, and while located in BerlPap , the Berliner Papyrusdatenbank, it doesn’t seem to be online.
(Codex BG 8502 30:17) so that he became perfect, and not lacking in anything Christ/good (ⲭⲥ̅)
(Codex BG 8502 30:19) because he had anointed him with his Christhood/goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲥ̅) (that) of the invisible Spirit
(Codex BG 8502 43:16) the third is Christhood/Goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭ̅ⲥ) with the third one, Astaphaios;
(Codex BG 8502 49:13) the second is Christhood/Goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲥ); it is a soul

The Sophia of Jesus Christ (in multiple copies)
(Codex III 97:4 ) Because of his mercy (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) and his love he wished to bring forth fruit by himself.
(Codex BG 8502 88:2) Because of his mercy (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭ̅ⲥ̅) and his love he wished to bring forth fruit by himself.

The Second Treatise of the Great Seth
( 49:23 ) Since I brought forth a word to the glory of our Father through his kindness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲣ̅ⲥ̅) and imperishable thought.

The Teachings of Silvanus
( 89:6 ) Wisdom summons you in her goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭ̅ⲥ̅), saying.
( 111:14 ) O this great goodness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭ̅ⲥ̅) of God!

( 78:22 ) She stood looking at it and rejoicing because she was filled with its kindness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ),

( 1:1 ) Jesus {the} Christ (ⲓⲏⲥⲟⲩⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲭ̅ⲥ̅), the Son [of God].
( 1:10 ) and that I might put on friendship and goodness ([ⲙⲛⲧ]ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) as a garment, O brother.

The Interpretation of Knowledge
( 1:20 ) [Before they received] [the apprehension] of a vision [they fled] [without having] heard [that the Christ] ([ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ]) [had been crucified].
( 1:23 ) [But our] generation is fleeing since it does not yet [even believe that th]e Ch[rist] ([ⲡ]ⲉ ⲭ[ⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ]) [is alive].
( 15:17 ) And the Father […] Christ (ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) removed himself [from] all these, since he loves [his members] with all his heart.
( 17:36 ) For the Word is rich, generous, and {a} kind (ⲟⲩ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ).

A Valentinian Exposition
( 23:34 ) While these things are due to the Root of the All, let us for our part [enter] his revelation and his goodness (ⲙ̅ⲛ̅ⲧ̅ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) and his descent and the All, that is, the Son, the Father of the All, and the Mind of the Spirit;
( 26:23 ) And [he] encompassed the All, [he] who is higher [than the] All. These for their part [sent] {the} Christ ([ⲡ]ⲉ ⲭⲣⲏ[ⲥⲧ]ⲟⲥ) [forth to] [establish her] just as [they] were established [before] [her] descent.
( 28:23 ) say] that {the} Christ (ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣ[ⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ])
( 31:29 ) [goodness] (-ⲭ[ⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ]) (lacunose).
( 33:17-18 ) project the Christ (ⲡⲉ [ⲭ]ⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟ[ⲥ]) […] and the seeds.
( 39:30 ) Moreover whenever Sophia [receives] her consort (Syzygos) and Jesus receives the Christ (ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) and the seeds and the angels,

On the Anointing
( 40:13 ) It is fitting for [you at this time] to send thy Son [Jesus] {the} Christ ([ⲓⲏ̅]ⲥ̅ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ) and anoint us.

On Baptism A
( 40:34) our Lord Jesus {the} Christ (ⲓ̅ⲏ̅ⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ).
( 41:17 ) […] of the Christ (ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧ[ⲟⲥ]) [which]

On Baptism B
( 42:32 ) [Indeed] I entered by way of example [the remnant] for which the Christ (ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏ[ⲥⲧⲟⲥ]) [rescued] us in the [fellowship] of his Spirit.

On the Eucharist A
( 43:22 ) [for the sake of] thy Son [Jesus {the} Christ] ([ⲓⲏⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲟⲥ]).
( 43:32 ) [through the] name of Jesus {the} Christ (ⲓ̅ⲏ̅ⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲭ[ⲣⲏⲥ]ⲧⲟⲥ)
( 43:37 ) [and] thy Offspring Jesus {the} Christ (ⲓ̅ⲏ̅ⲥ ⲡ ⲭⲣⲏ[ⲥⲧⲟⲥ])

( 58:11 ) [When the] [completion of] the one hundred years [drew nigh], [it brought] me a blessedness of the eternal hope full of auspiciousness (ⲙⲛ̅ⲧⲭⲥ̅)

Trimorphic Protennoia
( 37:33 ) [It is he] alone who came to be, that [is, the Christ. And] as for me, I anointed him as the glory [of the] Invisible [Spirit] with [goodness] ([ⲙⲛⲧⲭⲥ])

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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

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Gary J. Johnson on "A Christian Business and Christian Self-Identity in Third/Fourth Century Phrygia," Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Dec. 1994), pp. 341-366.

This workshop (in a manner which was typical of similar enterprises) apparently pre-fabricated burial monuments (apart from epitaphs), and perhaps displayed the ready-made monuments for sale in a fashion similar to what one might find at a monument company today. ...

However, in the center of the wreath there do appear to be faint traces of a cross, which has been carefully removed. This does not appear to be a defacement, but a skilled erasure. Arguably, the stone may have been pre-fabricated for Christian use and altered subsequently for sale to a non-Christian customer, although we cannot know whether the initiative for the alteration lay with the customer or with the workshop. In any event, the stone may demonstrate that the workshop did not do business with Christians exclusively, but (given the pre-fabrication of Christian motifs) probably did anticipate more Christian business than not. Certainly, this conclusion is supported by the preponderance of Christian monuments in the surviving inventory.

The preceding data, by illustrating the standardized and often prefabricated nature of the monuments produced by this workshop, demonstrate that the stonecutter(s) tended to play a far more significant role in the design of the monuments than did the individual purchasers. This creative control seems to have extended also to the formulation of the epitaphs, which present as uniform an appearance as the decorative elements. ...

We have no information about the actual mechanisms of marble distribution in the Tembris Valley, but the ongoing procurement of stone from common sources presumably facilitated personal contacts between the various workshops and/or independent artisans who constituted the network. In some areas of Anatolia, at least, stonecutters organized themselves formally into collegia, which would have provided a context for increased, long-term social and professional fraternization. This sort of professional contact (however sponsored) also could have been a factor in the development of distinctive regional styles in stonework, and this is precisely the context within which one must view the regional distribution of the "Christians for Christians" formula.

The formula is, in fact, only one of a number of motifs which the monuments produced by our subject workshop have in common with monuments produced by other workshops both within the Tembris Valley and beyond during the half-century, 248-305. Some of these shared motifs no doubt spring coincidentally from the common realities of life and labor in central Anatolia. In this category belong representations of plow oxen, horses, agricultural tools, and spindles/distaffs, all of which are ubiquitous in the funerary imagery of central Anatolia. Other regional motifs reflect abstract cultural values, and are, therefore, more likely to stem (in some fashion) from a tangible artistic tradition than from the coincidental activities of independent artisans. The stylized doorways produced by the subject workshop may be pertinent in this regard, and related to a type of Phrygian tombstone which was extremely popular between the late-first and early-third centuries and which was carved in highly realistic fashion to resemble a closed wooden door-presumably the door to the next world.

Some shared, regional motifs are textual/epigraphical motifs ... Good examples of such texts are several funerary curse formulae, each of which is attested multiple times ...

Professional stoneworkers may not have authored all of these formulae, but the preservation and repeated use of certain formulae cannot reasonably be attributed to any other party. ...

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Re: The X-Files: Chrestos / Christos / Χρειστος

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Everybody knew what the nomina sacra were

Flexibility between ι, η, ει in the second century

we shall be called with-Chrēstoi and Chrēstians in X

Did Josephus say that Jesus was called Chrēstos?

Jesus is not the Christ: A Reading of Mark

The Chreestology of Ephesians

Acts of Thomas: the Chrestos and the Agathos

The Epistle to Diognetus and the Marcionite Nexus: Twin Visions of God's Kindness

Numenius "On the Good": (1) Agathos, (2) Nous, (3) Demiurge

Other Threads

Chrestus/Christos - Who is right? ... l?t=213994

The Mithras ~ Chrestos ~ Vatican connection ... l?t=247922

the disciples were called "Chrestians" first (Codex Sinaiticus; Acts 11:26) ... l?t=309839

the disciples were first called Chrestians (not Christians)

The Oldest Reference to Christians in Egypt = Chrestianoi

What Did Chrestos Mean to the Christians Who Used This Title

A New Interpretation of Irenaeus's on the Nomen Sacrum

My current and still developing view of the nomina sacra.

Nomina Sacra and Ordinary Abbreviations

who invented the name Jesus?

Is Romans 9:5 a late catholic interpolation?

Christus/Chrestus in the Original Texts

Justin Martyrs Writings Dates?

Why haven't Goodacre, Gathercole, and I accepted Martijn's claims?

How much probable is that the suetonian "impulsore Chresto" is a reference to the Jewish Messiah?

What is the earliest manuscript with χριστός written out?

Justin's Two Advents of Christ and the Title Christ

Reading the Paulines with Good instead of Messiah

Anointed as a verb with Jesus as its object in Luke and Acts in Codex Sinaiticus

Anointing in Paul: 2 Corinthians 1.21-22 and 2.14-16.

The Anti-Marcionite Prejudice of Scholars

The Marcionite Reading for Matthew 7:17

Is this Ultimate Proof that "Christian" Derives from Chrestos?

Marcionites thought Jesus wasn't 'Christos'?

The Deir Ali inscription proves that Chrestos was not a holy name

A "Messianic" Use of Chrestos in Against Celsus

The "Christianos Graffito" discovered in Pompeii


The Interchange of ι and η in Spelling χριστ- in Documentary Papyri ... 1/00000205

An invocation of Chrestos in Magic. The question of the orthographical spelling of Chrestos and interpretation issues in PGM XIII.288-95 ... _188_29_54

∏52 (P. Rylands Gk. 457) and the Nomina Sacra: Method and Probability ... ticle.pdf/

Greek Amulets and Formularies from Egypt Containing Christian Elements: A Checklist of Papyri, Parchments, Ostraka, and Tablets

Jesus Followers in Pompeii: The Christianos Graffito and “Hotel of the Christians” Reconsidered ... ompeii.pdf

Christian Horrors in Pompeii: A New Proposal for the Christianos Graffito ... inardi.pdf


Chrestos: a religious epithet; its import and influence

Gospels, Epistles, Old Testament: The order of books according to Jesus Chri st ... B0CKFD5J98
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